Solar on Landfills: Trash or Treasure?  Alan Benevides, PE, LSP - Woodard & Curran, Inc. Miles Walker, LEED AP – Woodard &...
Solar on Landfills <ul><li>How many of you have heard about this topic before today? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been to an...
Today’s Focus <ul><li>Municipal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Closed municipal landfill sites </li></ul><ul><li>Large ground...
Why All the Buzz?  Why Landfills? <ul><li>Large, open parcels typically 5-20 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Limited options for a...
Why All the Buzz?  Why Landfills? <ul><li>   Greenfield sites  = higher value, owners typically unwilling to tie-up site ...
Why All the Buzz?  Why Massachusetts to Date? <ul><li>SOLAR RENEWABLE ENERGY CREDITS (SRECS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA and ...
Basic Terms: Cell, Module, Panel, Array <ul><li>Cells  wired together to create module (or panel) </li></ul><ul><li>Module...
System Components <ul><li>Sunlight, array – together generate power </li></ul><ul><li>AC/DC inverter – power is converted ...
Typical Landfill System Components
Rules of Thumb for    Solar Landfill Projects <ul><li>5 acres </li></ul><ul><li>1 MW </li></ul><ul><li>For construction, $...
Two Options for Municipalities <ul><li>Option 1  – Develop and own project </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2  – Lease land to, an...
Option 1 – Develop/Own Project <ul><ul><li>Significant financial & technical undertaking! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High ...
Option 2 –  Lease Land/Purchase Power <ul><ul><li>Low upfront investment of time/resources with moderate long-term financi...
Key Players & Roles  Municipality   Lease Property Purchase Power Financial Backers   Provide Capital  Receive ROI  Realiz...
Key Players & Roles  Municipality   Lease Property Purchase Power PPA Lease Financial Backers   Provide Capital  Receive R...
Is my landfill a good candidate for a solar project?  <ul><li>Capped/certification approved by Regulatory Agency </li></ul...
Technical/Engineering Challenges  <ul><li>Cap Protection  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight (construction & long-term) </li></u...
State Post Closure Permitting  <ul><li>Landfill Post Closure Use Permit </li></ul><ul><li>MassDEP Guidance Documents </li>...
MassDEP Post Closure Permit Application Components <ul><li>Site plan (500’R) </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage plan </li></ul><ul...
RI & CT Components <ul><li>Nothing formal </li></ul><ul><li>Look to Massachusetts for guidance </li></ul>
Other Potential Permits/Approvals <ul><li>Federal  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPDES Construction General Permit  </li></ul></ul...
Solar – Broader Perspective
Solar Programs  <ul><li>Renewable Energy Credit with “Solar Carve Out”  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers required to have a...
Massachusetts Programs  <ul><li>State has supported SREC Market </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted program to support development ...
Rhode Island Programs  <ul><li>Rhode Island enacted legislation (H.B. 6104) in June 2011  </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Ge...
Rhode Island Programs  <ul><li>Sized for feed in tariffs  </li></ul><ul><li>Lease payment for sites  </li></ul><ul><li>Low...
Connecticut Programs  <ul><li>Zero Emission Renewable Energy Credit </li></ul><ul><li>ZREC up to 1 MW </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Summary  <ul><li>Landfills can be good sites for solar </li></ul><ul><li>CT, MA and RI support solar installation </li></u...
Where Do I Start? <ul><li>Conduct basic preliminary feasibility analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling a team of experts t...
Final Thoughts <ul><li>Programs and pricing are evolving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar construction costs decreasing </li></...
Alan Benevides, PE, LSP Woodard & Curran 866.702.6371 [email_address] Questions & Answers Miles Walker, LEED AP Woodard & ...
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Solar on Landfills - Trash or Treasure

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  • Solar farm on a landfill… closed municipal sites….
  • Get MA… maybe a map of the state?
  • Different graphic
  • Fix RFQ one… should be PPA, Lease with the orange box
  • Fix RFQ one… should be PPA, Lease with the orange box
  • Solar on Landfills - Trash or Treasure

    1. 1. Solar on Landfills: Trash or Treasure? Alan Benevides, PE, LSP - Woodard & Curran, Inc. Miles Walker, LEED AP – Woodard & Curran, Inc.
    2. 2. Solar on Landfills <ul><li>How many of you have heard about this topic before today? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been to another presentation about SOL? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you put out an RFP for a SOL project? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you signed an agreement for a SOL project? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Today’s Focus <ul><li>Municipal officials </li></ul><ul><li>Closed municipal landfill sites </li></ul><ul><li>Large ground-mounted solar projects (> 5 acres) </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts most active to date </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why All the Buzz? Why Landfills? <ul><li>Large, open parcels typically 5-20 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Limited options for alternate use </li></ul><ul><li>Typically in buffered locations with greater likelihood of public acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Owners likely willing to tie-up site use for 15+ year period </li></ul><ul><li>Low long-term value of landfill property </li></ul><ul><li>For municipal sites, you are the land owner AND power purchaser (especially MA)! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why All the Buzz? Why Landfills? <ul><li> Greenfield sites = higher value, owners typically unwilling to tie-up site for 15+ years for solar project </li></ul><ul><li> Rooftops typically small = not as financially attractive when not grant funded (>0.5 MW) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Why All the Buzz? Why Massachusetts to Date? <ul><li>SOLAR RENEWABLE ENERGY CREDITS (SRECS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MA and NJ have high value provided by SRECs…makes MA projects financially attractive to solar developers and financers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL NET METERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows power generated at one site (landfill) to be purchased at any other site within a large geographic region </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Basic Terms: Cell, Module, Panel, Array <ul><li>Cells wired together to create module (or panel) </li></ul><ul><li>Modules wired together to create string </li></ul><ul><li>Several strings form an array </li></ul>Photo: Florida Solar Energy Center
    8. 8. System Components <ul><li>Sunlight, array – together generate power </li></ul><ul><li>AC/DC inverter – power is converted to a wave </li></ul><ul><li>Power fed through breaker on property electrical panel </li></ul><ul><li>Net metering – more power created than demanded </li></ul>
    9. 9. Typical Landfill System Components
    10. 10. Rules of Thumb for Solar Landfill Projects <ul><li>5 acres </li></ul><ul><li>1 MW </li></ul><ul><li>For construction, $1,000,000 per acre </li></ul><ul><li>$100,000 Power Generation </li></ul>
    11. 11. Two Options for Municipalities <ul><li>Option 1 – Develop and own project </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 – Lease land to, and purchase power at reduced cost from, a third party </li></ul>
    12. 12. Option 1 – Develop/Own Project <ul><ul><li>Significant financial & technical undertaking! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High upfront costs (>$4M) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t take advantage of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tax incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Risk </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Option 2 – Lease Land/Purchase Power <ul><ul><li>Low upfront investment of time/resources with moderate long-term financial gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is “moderate long-term financial gain?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term  15 to 20 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Lease  $0 - $20,000 per MW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Savings from reduced cost power  $50K to $200K per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can vary significantly based on site, power cost, project size, future cost of power </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Key Players & Roles Municipality Lease Property Purchase Power Financial Backers Provide Capital Receive ROI Realize Tax Advantage/Secs **** Very Important **** Solar Developer Contracting Entity Engineering & Permitting Construction Operations & Maintenance RFQ
    15. 15. Key Players & Roles Municipality Lease Property Purchase Power PPA Lease Financial Backers Provide Capital Receive ROI Realize Tax Advantage/Secs **** Very Important **** Solar Developer Contracting Entity Engineering & Permitting Construction Operations & Maintenance RFQ Regulators Permits Utility Provider Interconnection Agreement Engineers/Lawyers
    16. 16. Is my landfill a good candidate for a solar project? <ul><li>Capped/certification approved by Regulatory Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Large area with low slope (>5 acres 5% - 10% slope) </li></ul><ul><li>South/west facing slopes (oriented east-west) </li></ul><ul><li>Low amount of shading </li></ul><ul><li>Long time since landfilling occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Existing Site Security </li></ul><ul><li>Close to power connection to the grid </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Abutters </li></ul><ul><li>No Sensitive Environmental Areas (wetlands, endangered species, ACEC, etc.) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Technical/Engineering Challenges <ul><li>Cap Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight (construction & long-term) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puncture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Landfill Differential Settlement (Cap and Array) </li></ul><ul><li>Slope Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Wind/Snow impact to panels </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Site Maintenance/Mowing </li></ul>
    18. 18. State Post Closure Permitting <ul><li>Landfill Post Closure Use Permit </li></ul><ul><li>MassDEP Guidance Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Renewable Energy Facilities on Closed Landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MassDEP Solid Waste Facility Post-Closure Use Permits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Website: www.mass.gov/dep/energy/landfill.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RI and CT – currently, nothing specific for guidance </li></ul>
    19. 19. MassDEP Post Closure Permit Application Components <ul><li>Site plan (500’R) </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage plan </li></ul><ul><li>Landfill gas plan </li></ul><ul><li>Capping system interface </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>System OM&M Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Design drawings/specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control plan </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement and stability evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Utility interconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Assurance Mechanism </li></ul>
    20. 20. RI & CT Components <ul><li>Nothing formal </li></ul><ul><li>Look to Massachusetts for guidance </li></ul>
    21. 21. Other Potential Permits/Approvals <ul><li>Federal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPDES Construction General Permit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Permit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Plan Approval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnection Agreement </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Solar – Broader Perspective
    23. 23. Solar Programs <ul><li>Renewable Energy Credit with “Solar Carve Out” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers required to have a portion Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power generated with Solar receive SREC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High value with high volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed In Tariff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract with utility for power and attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://dsireusa.org/ </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Massachusetts Programs <ul><li>State has supported SREC Market </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted program to support development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set floor price to support market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Net Metering </li></ul><ul><li>60 MW developed of 400 MW target </li></ul><ul><li>PPA Typical </li></ul>
    25. 25. Rhode Island Programs <ul><li>Rhode Island enacted legislation (H.B. 6104) in June 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed Generation Standard Offer Contracts (DG Contracts) for new distributed renewable energy generators up to five megawatts (MW) in capacity </li></ul><ul><li>40 MW by the end of 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard contracts include a fixed payment rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15-year term </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Rhode Island Programs <ul><li>Sized for feed in tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Lease payment for sites </li></ul><ul><li>Lower lease payment due to “smaller incentive” for developer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$0-20K per year per MW </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Connecticut Programs <ul><li>Zero Emission Renewable Energy Credit </li></ul><ul><li>ZREC up to 1 MW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Underdevelopment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anticipated systems will be similar to MA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 5 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower lease payments than MA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher than RI? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Landfills can be good sites for solar </li></ul><ul><li>CT, MA and RI support solar installation </li></ul><ul><li>Different programs in each state </li></ul><ul><li>Process similar for each state </li></ul><ul><li>Potential revenue for community </li></ul>
    29. 29. Where Do I Start? <ul><li>Conduct basic preliminary feasibility analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling a team of experts to analyze the technical, legal and financial considerations of the potential site </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to Developers </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and Issue RFQ </li></ul><ul><li>Select Solar Developer with a strong financial partner </li></ul>
    30. 30. Final Thoughts <ul><li>Programs and pricing are evolving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar construction costs decreasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives increasing in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SREC market volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical, Financial and Legal Partnership Can create value!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Stay tuned for SNEAPA 2012… </li></ul>
    31. 31. Alan Benevides, PE, LSP Woodard & Curran 866.702.6371 [email_address] Questions & Answers Miles Walker, LEED AP Woodard & Curran 866.702.6371 [email_address]

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