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Rolling Climate Change, Transportation & Land Use Planning into One Innovative Process


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Rolling Climate Change, Transportation & Land Use Planning into One Innovative Process

  1. 1. Rolling Climate Change, Transportation & Land Use Planning into One Innovative Process Lindsey Morse, AICP, Community Planner, US DOT Volpe Center Clay Schofield, P.E., Transportation Engineer, Cape Cod Commission Lauren McKean, AICP, National Park Service Planner, Cape Cod National Seashore Nan Johnson, Community Planner, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region 1
  2. 2. Outline • Part 1: What was the project? (USDOT, Lindsey Morse) • Part 2: How is the project being followed up locally? – Cape Cod Commission (Clay Schofield) – Cape Cod National Seashore (Lauren McKean) • Part 3: How can others benefit from this project? (USDOT, Lindsey Morse / FEMA, Nan Johnson)2
  3. 3. Part I – What was the project? Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Pilot Project3
  4. 4. Purpose • Initiative of the Federal Interagency Working Group on Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change – Integrated regional planning and development – Intermodal gateway mobility planning • Project goals – Climate change planning at local level • GHG mitigation • Adaptation to SLR – Scenario planning – Interagency coordination – Replicability4
  5. 5. Tasks • Project definition and site selection • Partnerships, resources, and data collection • Identification of strategies to reduce transportation related GHG emissions • Identification of areas vulnerable to climate change impacts to inform land use and transit planning decisions • Scenario development and assessment • Outputs and next steps5
  6. 6. Partnerships • Participants – Federal funding sponsors and supporting federal agencies – State agencies – Regional and local agencies / governments • Barnstable County and 15 towns – Private and academic entities6
  7. 7. Focus: GHG Mitigation • Research – Moving Cooler: An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Policy strategies – Pricing strategies – Land use and smart growth strategies – Non-motorized transportation strategies – Public transportation strategies – Regional ride-sharing, car-sharing, and commuting strategies – Operational and intelligent transportation system (ITS) strategies – Vehicle efficiency and alternative fuel strategies7
  8. 8. Adaptation: Expert Elicitation • Expert elicitation identified “Areas of Concern” – Elevation – Exposure to storm surge – Erosion – Flooding history – Lack of redundant transportation access – Potential SLR impacts • Areas of concern incorporated into scenario development8
  9. 9. 2030 Scenario Development Enhanced • Pre-run scenarios • Workshop • Refined scenario Dispersed Transportation Trend Standard ? Development Standard Transportation Targeted Enhanced9
  10. 10. Workshop Technology • Scenario development and evaluation software – Interactive, GIS-based decision-support technology – Placement of chips for housing and employment – Real-time updating of indicators Source: Volpe Center (November 2010)10
  11. 11. Workshop Technology PlaceMatters video11
  12. 12. Workshop Technology • Keypad polling – Real-time, anonymous input – Make-up of audience – Prioritization of key issues Source: Volpe Center (November 2010)12
  13. 13. Scenario Assessment • Assessment indicators – Greenhouse gas emissions – Vehicle miles traveled – Percent of new population in vulnerable areas – Percent of population in priority habitats, undeveloped lands, conservation areas – Percent of population in historic preservation areas, water resource/wellhead protection areas – Percent of new population and employees served by transit13
  14. 14. Outcomes • “Guidebook” – documentation, evaluation, recommendations • Technical Report – methodology, results • “Action Plans” – National Park Service – Cape Cod Commission – Commonwealth of Massachusetts Visit
  15. 15. Part II – How is the project being followed up locally?15
  16. 16. Top Regional Planning Issues • Traffic – Congestion – Bridges and roads lack capacity • Water Quality – Sole source aquifer – Most homes and business are on individual Septic Systems • Wastewater – Very little sewer (see above) – Nitrogen loading and algae in water bodies 60000 50,136 58,526 • Emergency Management 50000 30,725 40,902 – Two functionally obsolete bridges and a 40000 30000 history of hurricanes and nor’easters 20000 10000 • Aging Population 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 – 24% of the year round population is over 65 Projection16
  17. 17. Planning efforts • The tools created by this project support the following planning efforts: – Regional Wastewater Management Plan – Regional Policy Plan and Local Comprehensive Plans – Town Land Use Vision Maps and Local Comprehensive Plans – 5-year and Long Range Transit Plan – Regional and Local Hazard Mitigation Plans – Regional Transportation Plan – Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy – Upper Cape Land Use/Transportation Study17
  18. 18. Integration of Climate Change Adaptation The preferred scenario is a starting place for refining our land use vision. • The land use vision will be further refined by the other planning efforts and updates. The scenario planning tool allows quantifying a number of greenhouse gas implications as well as potential areas at risk from sea level rise in the development of these other plans. This refined land use vision will be supported by the Regional Policy Plan, which provides guidance for the updates to the local comprehensive plans and other ongoing planning such as the Regional Transportation Plan.18
  19. 19. Regional Wastewater Management Plan Cape Cod is facing a nitrogen loading problem in the sole-source aquifer and our ponds, lakes, estuaries and embayments a regional effort to upgrade from individual septic systems to sewers is being explored. Planning for this effort includes looking forward to areas of expected development as well as prioritizing areas where residential development exists within wellhead protection areas and future water sources. The development of the wastewater planning will be guided by the preferred scenario which was also developed with water resource areas as a consideration for growth.19
  20. 20. Regional Policy Plan and Local Comprehensive Plans Cape Cod’s Regional Policy Plan (RPP) provides guidance for development on the Cape and is coordinated with the Local Comprehensive Plans developed by each of the 15 towns. The current RPP included Land Use Vision Maps (LUVMs) that were developed with the towns to help define growth incentive zones. Most towns developed LUVMs and they were the starting point for the development of the preferred scenario. The LUVMs were developed primarily town by town and the regional exercise allowed a more coordinated pattern of development. We see this as a tool to develop and optimize planning for infrastructure, especially, wastewater and transportation.20
  21. 21. Town Land Use Vision Maps and Local Comprehensive Plans Several towns did not develop LUVMs and the Preferred Scenario will provide guidance for them as the next Regional Policy Plan update gets underway.21
  22. 22. Transportation Plans • 5-year and Long Range Transit Plan These plans were developed in 2002 and 2003 and an update is underway. The work to define the Preferred Scenario included public transportation options. The public transportation options will be refined and evaluated using the CommunityVIZ tool. • Regional Transportation Plan This document was recently updated however the CommunityVIZ tool and the Preferred Scenario will be used to evaluate and prioritize projects with respect to goals defined for the plan and infrastructure threatened by sea level rise. The development of the Preferred Scenario included the roadway network and the MassDOT assumptions used to evaluate air quality conformity.22
  23. 23. Transportation and Mitigation Plans • Regional and Local Hazard Mitigation Plans The Preferred Scenario included identification of areas vulnerable to flooding and sea level rise. This was used as guidance for the location of future growth however 20% of the new growth identified was in these areas. Development of Hazard Mitigation Plans will benefit from the identification of the “at risk” areas and planning restrictions may evolve to minimize potential impacts. • Upper Cape Land Use/Transportation Study A study that has been proposed is evaluating canal crossing strategies for the future. The two existing highway bridges are functionally obsolete and future accommodations will be a major investment. Aligning the new infrastructure to serve expected development and respect vulnerable areas in the siting is key to this study.23
  24. 24. Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy This is where a lot of the related plans come together, defining activity centers and infrastructure provides a tool for identifying appropriate locations for different types of development. The Preferred Scenario will also help define the jobs needed to support future growth. The CommunityVIZ tool will be used to measure the quality of economic development activities with respect to meeting specific priorities and the overall CEDS vision and goals.24
  25. 25. National Park Service - Cape Cod National Seashore Context • Created in 1961 as a new model of federal, state, town and private ownership. • 43,560 acres in six established towns (27,000 acres federally owned). • 4-5 million visits per year. • Complex, multi-jurisdictional management challenges present both conflict and collaborative opportunities, • e.g. local and regional resource and land use planning, FLEX bus. • Park scientists study dynamic SLR and climate change topics: • weather, surface water quality, hydrology, shoreline erosion, habitat and species changes, and salt marsh elevations.25
  26. 26. Cape Cod National Seashore Park Realities regarding Shoreline and Climate Change • 100-year storm events have occurred 10 times since 1978 • Ongoing loss of beachfront homes • Relocation of historic lighthouses • Vulnerability of park buildings, utilities, parking lots, beach facilities and cultural sites Source: Cape Cod National Seashore • Keep staff and visiting public safe during storm, high wind and wave action, and extreme heat events26
  27. 27. Cape Cod National Seashore Climate Change Planning in 2010-2011 • Interagency Pilot Project – Funding and participation by NPS staff – Key partnerships were strengthened or developed through the interagency efforts and as a result, relationships and information sharing are bound to grow • Climate Friendly Parks Action Plan – Collaboration of the NPS and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions inventory – Action Plan implementation – Ongoing monitoring GHG reduction progress and reporting • NPS Long Range Transportation Planning27
  28. 28. Cape Cod National Seashore Climate Friendly Parks Action Plan Findings • In 2007, park operation emissions approx. 1,340 metric ton carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2E). • Cape Cod National Seashore aims to identify reduction targets for 2020 to reduce: – Energy GHG emissions from park operations by 25 % – Transportation GHG emissions from park operations by 20 % – Waste GHG emissions from park operations by 10 % – Total park GHG emissions, including from visitors and concessioners, by 20% • Identified numerous strategies for behavioral, systems, and educational efforts28
  29. 29. Cape Cod National Seashore Climate Friendly Parks Action Plan Results to Date 900 800 767 691 700 GHG Emissions (MTCO2E) 600 500 397 393 2007 400 2010 300 200 107 112 100 13 17 0 Energy Transportation Waste Other % Change -10% -1% 5% 31%29
  30. 30. Cape Cod National Seashore Climate Friendly Parks Action Plan: Transportation • Some Completed Actions – Flex and Breeze shuttle buses purchased by the NPS and operated by the CC Regional Transit Authority run on biodiesel. – Promote car-free travel options via the SMARTGuide website. – Switched from diesel to B-20 biodiesel for park vehicles. • Some Planned Actions – Continue to reduce meeting travel. – Implement town beach shuttles and jitneys in cooperation with local communities. – Improve bicycle infrastructure as recommended in the 2010 Bicycle Feasibility Study.30
  31. 31. Part III – How can others benefit from this project?31
  32. 32. Resources and future projects • Federal and technology resources (see handout) • Application of tools/guidelines to existing grants and ongoing planning activities, such as Sustainable Communities Regional Planning grants • Replicating the project; interested in communities that are: 1) adjacent to or contiguous public lands 2) able to bring data and - if need be - funding, to the table, and 3) have a similar or different geographical context (interested to apply the project’s framework to a different type of area, perhaps even inland) • Coordination with public land agencies – NPS interested in additional expert elicitations for coastal units – FWS interested in similar planning efforts for refuges throughout U.S. • Role of partnerships32
  33. 33. Discovery … New England Municipal Groton, CT & Sustainability Network ICLEI Interagency Cape Cod Pilot Project New FEMA Mitigation HUD/DOT/EPA England Planning & Sustainable Federal RiskMAP Communities Partners Partnership33
  34. 34. New England Federal Collaboration34
  35. 35. Climate change & federal role What is the Federal role in adapting to and mitigating climate change? • Provide climate science & services to help communities make better decisions that reduce risks to people & property • Strengthen planning capabilities to help communities develop and implement strategies • Incorporate & integrate into existing planning • Support partnerships that foster coordination, communication, and collaboration35
  36. 36. Awareness …36
  37. 37. Partnerships Value and Importance of Partnerships: • Awareness and alignment of planning programs and initiatives • Leveraging resources (aligning grants and funding guidelines, new opportunities in times of significant fiscal reductions) • Different perspectives with shared goals and multi-objectives • Creative problem solving (e.g. red tape cutting, new tools) • More capacity to support local, state, and tribal planning efforts37
  38. 38. Q&A • Contact information – Lindsey Morse, Community Planner, USDOT Volpe Center,, 617-494-2435 – Clay Schofield, P.E., Transportation Engineer, Cape Cod Commission,, 508-744-1231 – Lauren McKean, AICP, Planner, Cape Cod National Park Service,, 508-957-0731 – Marie-Annette “Nan” Johnson, Community Planner, FEMA Region 1,, 617-378-8024 • Visit for the latest updates on the project, including final products.38