Innovative Zoning Strategies Workshop - Intro to form based codes - Part 1

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by George Proakis, AICP

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Innovative Zoning Strategies Workshop - Intro to form based codes - Part 1

  1. 1. An Introduction to Form Based Codes Presented by:George J. Proakis, AICP December 3, 2010
  2. 2. Zoning Tools: Regulation of Allowed Uses 19. Baths, Turkish 25. Boxing arena 28. Chinchillas, retail sales 41. Eleemosynary institutions 42. Embalming business 95. Physical culture institution 109. Potato chip manufacturing 127. Tombstones, retail sales 135. Turkish BathsPaul Crawford, AICP
  3. 3. Zoning Tools:Regulation of Allowed Uses
  4. 4. The Appliance and The Grid“If we know what the appliance is . . . . - Christopher Alexander
  5. 5. The Appliance and The Grid“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  6. 6. The Appliance and The Grid • Town Meetings • Zoning Boards of Appeals Sustainable • Planning Boards New England Communities • Conservation Commissions • Town Engineers • Fire Departments • State Regulators • Etc.“If we know what the appliance is . . . . We need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
  7. 7. The Form Based Code: What Does It Do Differently?Ferrell Madden Associates
  8. 8. The Form Based Code What Does It Do Differently? 1. Prescriptive not proscriptive 2. Public can see ‘what happens where’ 3. Regulate development on a lot by lot basis 4. Reflect a diversity of architecture within a community vision and legal framework 5. Define and codify a neighborhood ‘DNA’ 6. Concise, organized, and written for non- planners to understand 7. Reduce the need for ‘design guidelines’ and replace them with more enforceable regulation 8. Less oversight of individual projects by review bodiesBy Peter Katz: Form Based Codes Institute
  9. 9. The Form Based Code: How is It Documented?Tools of Traditional Zoning: Tools of the Form-Based Code:• Regulation of uses • Regulating plan• Setbacks • Open Space Standards• Open space • Thoroughfare Standards• Parking requirements • Public Open Space Standards• Subdivision standards • Private Open Space Standards• Density • Functional Design Standards• Site plan review • Building Form Standards• Special permits • Site Configuration• Design guidelines • Building Configuration • Building Elements • Uses • Administrative Process • Architectural standards (optional)
  10. 10. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Regulating Plan: Frontage BasedFarmer’s Branch, TX
  11. 11. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Regulating Plan: Transect BasedFort Worth, TX
  12. 12. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Public Spaces: Thoroughfare StandardsBenicia, CA
  13. 13. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Public Spaces: Open Space StandardsBenicia, CA
  14. 14. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Functional Design StandardsCity of Fort Worth
  15. 15. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Building Form StandardsBenicia, CA, Opticos Design
  16. 16. The Form Based Code: How Is It Documented? Building Form StandardsBenicia, CA, Opticos Design
  17. 17. The Form Based Code Where Is It Used?• New towns: Kentlands, Seaside, South Main• California towns: Benicia, Petaluma, Azusa, Ventura• Arlington, VA, on Columbia Pike• Peoria, IL, downtown• Fort Worth, TX, near south side district• Farmers Branch, TX, transit station area• Woodford, Kentucky• St. Lucie County, Florida• New England Examples . . .
  18. 18. The Form Based Code Types of Districts• Downtown and village centers• Neighborhood or town-wide applications• Special development districts
  19. 19. Form Based Codes in New England• Southfield, Weymouth / Abington / Rockland, MA• Hamilton Canal District, Lowell, MA• I-93 Tri-town Development Area Andover / Tewksbury / Wilmington, MA• Jamestown RI• Hamden, CT• Newport, VT
  20. 20. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield
  21. 21. Form Based Codes in New England SouthfieldSite: Brownfield, on Commuter Rail Former navy air stationSize: 1000+ acresProject: Mixed use center / biotechDeveloped by: Towns, consultants, developerType of code: Floating but Mandatory Transect BasedApproval body: Tri-town Development CorporationAdopted: June / July 2005Build-out to date: None
  22. 22. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District
  23. 23. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal DistrictSite: Brownfield, TOD adjacent to downtownSize: Community of 100K, 16 sq milesProject: New district developmentDeveloped by: Master Developer & CityType of code: Mandatory – Street BasedProject approval body: HCD Review Group for FBC Historic Board for Arch. ReviewAdopted: February 24, 2009Build-out to date: First building under construction
  24. 24. Form Based Codes in New England I-93 Interchange Area
  25. 25. Form Based Codes in New England I-93 Interchange AreaSite: Mainly undeveloped near highwaySize: 700 acres across three townsProject: New developmentDeveloped by: Consultants with town plannersType of code: Floating Frontage Based CodeProject approval body: Local Planning BoardsAdopted: not yet adopted
  26. 26. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown
  27. 27. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown
  28. 28. Form Based Codes in New England JamestownSite: Small downtownSize: Island Community of 5,600 9 sq miles of land areaProject: Protection / infill downtownDeveloped by: Town planner w/ consultantsType of code: Mandatory / Modified Smartcode Modified Transect Based CodeProject approval body: Planner / Plan Review CommitteeAdopted: October 22, 2009
  29. 29. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden
  30. 30. Form Based Codes in New England HamdenSite: Small downtownSize: Suburban town 58,000 32 sq miles of land areaProject: Protection / infill downtownDeveloped by: Town planner w/ consultantsType of code: Mandatory / Integrated / Smartcode Modified TransectProject approval body: Planning CommissionAdopted: December 7, 2009
  31. 31. Form Based Codes in New England Newport
  32. 32. Form Based Codes in New England NewportSite: Small downtownSize: Town of 5,000 near Canada 7.6 sq miles of land areaProject: Protection / infill downtownDeveloped by: Town planner w/ volunteersType of code: Mandatory / Integrated Frontage and Transect BasedProject approval body: <40,000 sf: Zoning Administrator >40,000 sf: Design Review BoardAdopted: Vote scheduled 12/6/10
  33. 33. The Form Based Code What Do People Say About It? “We can’t tell if the (form-based code) is a radical, green left-wing document or a developer- friendly, market based right-wing one” Jose Sanchez, Santa Rosa Press-DemocratFrom: Form Based Codes Institute

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