Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar.
Prepared by:- Pandey Anurag S.
What is Politics ?
Politics:- The activities associated with the government of a country
or area especially the debate between parties having power.
- Activities aimed at improving someone’s status or increasing power
within an organization.
• What is political science ?
• Political science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state , Government
• Political science is the study of politics.
• According to “Greek Philosopher Aristotle” , “ Political science is I master of all science.
• To know about political science first it is important to know about politics, as both political
science and politic are often used interchangeably.
• What is the scope of political science ?
• Political theory:- entire body of doctrines relating to origin, form,
behaviour, and purposes of a state.
• Public law:- covers constitutional law, administrative law, and
• Public Administration:- method and techniques used in actual
management of state affairs by the 3 branches of government.
What is power? What are the different types of power ?
• Power basically emanates from position or autherity which can influence people both positively
• For simplicity and understanding purpose power is usually classified into following categories.
1. Coercive powe:- This kind of power involves the usage of threat to make people do what one
desires. In the organisational set up, it translates into threatening someone with transfer,
firing, demotions etc.
2. Reward power:- As the name suggests, this type of power uses rewards, perks, new projects
or training opportunities, better role and monetary benefits to influence people.
3. Legitimate power:- This power emanates from an official position held by someone, be it in
an organization, beurocracy or government etc.
4. Expert power:- This is a personal kind of power which owes its genesis to the skills and
expertise possessed by an individual, which is of higher quality and not easily available.
5. Referent power:- This is a power wielded by celebrities and film stars as they have huge
following amongst masses who like them, identify with them and follow them.
Subfields of Political science:-
• Comparative politics examines politics within other nations trying to establish generalizations
about institutions and political culture and theories of democracy, stability, and policy.
• International relations studies politics among nations, including conflict, diplomacy, international
law and organisations, and international Political economy.
• Political theory, both classic and modern, attempts to define the good polity, often focused on
• Public Administration studies how bureaucracies work and how they can be improved.
• Constitutional Law studies the applications and evolution of the constitution within the legal
• Public policy studies the interface of politics and economics with an eye to developing effective
• Democratic:- An ideology that puts emphasis on the rule of the majority.
• Socialism:- Takes a socio-economic system of the distribution of properties and income is under the
control of the society and not by the exercise of discretion of every member of the community.
• Communism:- This is where every member of the community owns all the wealth, shall take part to
attain this wealth, and shall be given on the share according to his needs.
• Conservatism:- Ideology of keeping systems largely unchanged.
• Liberalism:- This belief recognizes the role of the community in promoting, protecting, and controlling
the value of right and liberty of every citizen in the development and improvement of the community.
• Anarchism:- A belief that government rules and policies are against the exercise of liberty and interest
of the society and thus aptly become a community without a rule of law.
• Islamism:- Muslim religion turned into a political Ideology.
• Fascism:- Extreme form of nationalism with elements of racism , socialism and militarism.
• Political philosophy is the reasoning for an absolute normative government, laws and similar
questions and their distinctive characteristics.
• What is the most fitting political arrangement for a given society? is there a best form of
Government towards which every human society should tend and, if there is, what is it? what
principles should inspire a political leader?
• These and related questions have been at the hearth of the the reflection on political
philosophy. according to the ancient Greek perspective, the quest for the most appropriate
structure of the state is the ultimate philosophical goal.