Introduction to Genetic Algorithms

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Introduction to Genetic Algorithms

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  • Hi dear Ahmed
    I am from Iran. I am looking for a pdf file of a book titled
    Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning by David Goldberg.
    would you kindly help me?
    Regards
       Reply 
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  • The only indisputably intelligent systems on this planet are biological. Biological intelligences share several characteristics: they were all designed by natural evolutionary processes, they are typically controlled by nervous systems, and they often work together in groups, swarms, or flocks. In contrast to human beings (and to many of the artificial intelligences designed by human beings) the vast majority of these biological intelligences are simple creatures: they don't appear to use logic, mathematics, complex planning, complicated modeling of their environment, or even memory in some cases. Nevertheless, even the simplest of these natural intelligences can achieve complex information processing and computational tasks that current artificial intelligences find very challenging indeed.
  • Biological organisms cope with the demands of their environments using solutions quite unlike the traditional human-engineered approaches to problem solving. Bio-inspired computing is a field devoted to tackling complex problems using computational methods modeled after design principles encountered in nature.
  • Biological organisms cope with the demands of their environments using solutions quite unlike the traditional human-engineered approaches to problem solving. Bio-inspired computing is a field devoted to tackling complex problems using computational methods modeled after design principles encountered in nature.
  • The way in which bio-inspired computing differs from traditional artificial intelligence (AI) is in how it takes a more evolutionary approach to learning, as opposed to the what could be described as 'creationist' methods used in traditional AI. In traditional AI, intelligence is often programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, and makes something and imbues it with its intelligence. Bio-inspired computing, on the other hand, takes a more bottom-up, decentralized approach; bio-inspired techniques often involve the method of specifying a set of simple rules, a set of simple organisms which adhere to those rules, and a method of iteratively applying those rules. After several generations of rule application it is usually the case that some forms of complex behavior arise.
  • Genetic programming - Here the solutions are in the form of computer programs, and their fitness is determined by their ability to solve a computational problem.Evolutionary programming - Similar to genetic programming, but the structure of the program is fixed and its numerical parameters are allowed to evolve.Swarm intelligence is a sub-field of evolutionary computing.Ant colony optimization (ACO) uses many ants (or agents) to traverse the solution space and find locally productive areas. While usually inferior to genetic algorithms and other forms of local search, it is able to produce results in problems where no global or up-to-date perspective can be obtained, and thus the other methods cannot be applied.Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a computational method for multi-parameter optimization which also uses population-based approach. A population (swarm) of candidate solutions (particles) moves in the search space, and the movement of the particles is influenced both by their own best known position and swarm's global best known position. Like genetic algorithms, the PSO method depends on information sharing among population members. In some problems the PSO is often more computationally efficient than the GAs, especially in unconstrained problems with continuous variablesIntelligent Water Drops or the IWD algorithm [35] is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm inspired from natural water drops which change their environment to find the near optimal or optimal path to their destination. The memory is the river's bed and what is modified by the water drops is the amount of soil on the river's bed.Neuroevolution - Similar to genetic programming but the genomes represent artificial neural networks by describing structure and connection weights. The genome encoding can be direct or indirect.
  • Introduction to Genetic Algorithms

    1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ALGORITHMS BY AHMED MEDHAT OTHMAN @amedhat3
    2. 2. AGENDA 1. Introduction 2. Natural Inspired Computing 3. Classical Computation vs. bio-inspired computing 4. Evolution in the real world 5. Collaborative discussion 6. Problem solving 7. Genetic Algorithms (GA) 8. Anatomy of a GA 9. Advantages of GA 10. Limitations of GA 11. Related techniques 12. Summary 2
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3
    4. 4. INTRODUCTION 4
    5. 5. INTRODUCTION 5
    6. 6. INTRODUCTION 6
    7. 7. INTRODUCTION 7
    8. 8. INTRODUCTION 8
    9. 9. INTRODUCTION • The only intelligent systems on this planet are biological. • Biological intelligences are designed by natural evolutionary processes. • They often work together in groups, swarms, or flocks. • They don't appear to use logic, mathematics, complex planning, complicated modeling of their environment. • They can achieve complex information processing and computational tasks that current artificial intelligences find very challenging indeed. 9
    10. 10. NATURAL INSPIRED COMPUTING 10
    11. 11. NATURAL INSPIRED COMPUTING • In other words Biologically Inspired Computing. • Biological organisms cope with the demands of their environments. • They uses solutions quite unlike the traditional human- engineered approaches to problem solving. • They exchange information about what they’ve discovered in the places they have visited. • Bio-inspired computing is a field devoted to tackling complex problems using computational methods modeled after design principles encountered in nature. 11
    12. 12. CLASSICAL COMPUTATION VS. BIO-INSPIRED COMPUTING 12
    13. 13. CLASSICAL COMPUTATION VS. BIO-INSPIRED COMPUTING • Classical computing is good at: • Number-crunching • Thought-support (glorified pen-and-paper) • Rule-based reasoning • Constant repetition of well-defined actions. • Classical computing is bad at: • Pattern recognition • Robustness to damage • Dealing with vague and incomplete information; • Adapting and improving based on experience 13
    14. 14. CLASSICAL COMPUTATION VS. BIO-INSPIRED COMPUTING • Bio-inspired computing takes a more evolutionary approach to learning. • In traditional AI, intelligence is often programmed from above. The Programmer create the program and imbues it with its intelligence. • Bio-inspired computing, on the other hand, takes a more bottom-up, decentralized approach. • Bio-inspired computing often involve the method of specifying a set of simple rules, a set of simple organisms which adhere to those rules. 14
    15. 15. EVOLUTION IN THE REAL WORLD • Each cell of a living thing contains chromosomes - strings of DNA. • Each chromosome contains a set of genes - blocks of DNA. • Each gene determines some aspect of the organism (like eye colour). • A collection of genes is sometimes called a genotype. • A collection of aspects (like eye characteristics) is sometimes called a phenotype. 15
    16. 16. EVOLUTION IN THE REAL WORLD • Reproduction involves recombination of genes from parents and then small amounts of mutation (errors) in copying. • The fitness of an organism is how much it can reproduce before it dies. • Evolution based on “survival of the fittest”. 16
    17. 17. COLLABORATIVE DISCUSSION • What we can learn from nature? • Applications of nature in the engineering field. 17
    18. 18. PROBLEM SOLVING • Suppose you have a problem. • You don’t know how to solve it. • What can you do? • Can you use a computer to somehow find a solution? • This would be nice! Can it be done? 18
    19. 19. PROBLEM SOLVING Brute-Force Solution A “blind generate and test” algorithm: Repeat Generate a random possible solution Test the solution and see how good it is Until solution is good enough 19
    20. 20. PROBLEM SOLVING Can we use this Brute-Force idea? • Sometimes - YES: • if there are only a few possible solutions • and you have enough time • then such a method could be used • For most problems - NO: • many possible solutions • with no time to try them all • so this method cannot be used 20
    21. 21. PROBLEM SOLVING Search Techniques Calculus Base Techniques Guided random search techniques Enumerative Techniques BFSDFS Dynamic Programming Tabu Search Hill Climbing Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Algorithms Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms Fibonacci Sort 21
    22. 22. GENETIC ALGORITHMS 22 Initialize Population satisfy constraints ? Evaluate Fitness Select Survivors Output Results Randomly Vary Individuals Yes No
    23. 23. GENETIC ALGORITHMS How do you encode a solution? • Obviously this depends on the problem! • GA’s often encode solutions as fixed length “bitstrings” (e.g. 101110, 111111, 000101) • Each bit represents some aspect of the proposed solution to the problem • For GA’s to work, we need to be able to “test” any string and get a “score” indicating how “good” that solution is. 23
    24. 24. GENETIC ALGORITHMS • The set of all possible solutions [0..1000] is called the search space or state space. • In this case it’s just one number but it could be many numbers. • Often GA’s code numbers in binary producing a bitstring representing a solution. • We choose 1,0 bits which is enough to represent 0..1000 24
    25. 25. GENETIC ALGORITHMS • Example: encoding 4 parameters • Param1 value = 1000 = 8 • Param2 value = 1011 = 11 • Etc., 25 Binary Representation
    26. 26. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Search Space • For a simple function f(x) the search space is one dimensional. • But by encoding several values into the chromosome many dimensions can be searched e.g. two dimensions f(x,y). • Search space can be visualised as a surface or fitness landscape in which fitness dictates height. • Each possible genotype is a point in the space. • A GA tries to move the points to better places (higher fitness) in the the space. 26
    27. 27. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Fitness landscapes 27
    28. 28. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Implicit fitness functions • Most GA’s use explicit and static fitness function • Some GA’s (such as in Artificial Life or Evolutionary Robotics) use dynamic and implicit fitness functions - like “how many obstacles did I avoid” Individual’s fitness Average fitness of population 28
    29. 29. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Example - Drilling for Oil • Imagine you have to drill for oil somewhere along a single 1 km desert road. • Problem: choose the best place on the road that produces the most oil per day. • We could represent each solution as a position on the road. • Say, a whole number between [0..1000] 29
    30. 30. GENETIC ALGORITHMS Where to drill for oil? 30 0 500 1000 Road Solution2 = 900Solution1 = 300
    31. 31. GENETIC ALGORITHMS In GA’s these encoded strings are sometimes called “genotypes” or “chromosomes” and the individual bits are sometimes called “genes” 31 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 900 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 300 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 102 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Convert to binary string
    32. 32. GENETIC ALGORITHMS 32 0 1000 Road Solution2 = 900 (1110000100) Solution1 = 300 (0100101100) OIL Location 30 5
    33. 33. ANATOMY OF GA Selecting Parents • Many schemes are possible so long as better scoring chromosomes more likely selected • Score is often termed the fitness • “Roulette Wheel” selection can be used: • Add up the fitness's of all chromosomes • Generate a random number R in that range • Select the first chromosome in the population that - when all previous fitness’s are added - gives you at least the value R 33
    34. 34. ANATOMY OF GA 34 Example population No. Chromosome Fitness 1 1010011010 1 2 1111100001 2 3 1011001100 3 4 1010000000 1 5 0000010000 3 6 1001011111 5 7 0101010101 1 8 1011100111 2
    35. 35. ANATOMY OF GA 35 Roulette Wheel Selection 1 2 3 1 3 5 1 2 0 18 21 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rnd[0..18] = 7 Chromosome4 Parent1 Rnd[0..18] = 12 Chromosome6 Parent2
    36. 36. ANATOMY OF GA 36 Crossover - Recombination 0100101100 1110000100 Crossover single point - random 0100000100 1110101100 Parent1 Parent2 Offspring1 Offspring2 With some high probability (crossover rate) apply crossover to the parents. (typical values are 0.8 to 0.95)
    37. 37. Why does crossover work? • A lot of theory about this and some controversy • The idea is that crossover preserves “good bits” from different parents, combining them to produce better solutions • A good encoding scheme would therefore try to preserve “good bits” during crossover and mutation 37 ANATOMY OF GA
    38. 38. ANATOMY OF GA 38 Mutation 1011011111 1010000000 Offspring1 Offspring2 1011001111 1000000000 Offspring1 Offspring2 mutate Original offspring Mutated offspring With some small probability (the mutation rate) flip each bit in the offspring (typical values between 0.1 and 0.001)
    39. 39. ANATOMY OF GA 39 Many Variants of GA • Different kinds of selection (not roulette) • Tournament • Elitism, etc. • Different recombination • Multi-point crossover • 3 way crossover etc. • Different kinds of encoding other than bitstring • Integer values • Ordered set of symbols • Different kinds of mutation
    40. 40. ADVANTAGES OF GA • Concepts are easy to understand • Genetic Algorithms are intrinsically parallel. • Always an answer; answer gets better with time • Inherently parallel; easily distributed • Less time required for some special applications • Chances of getting optimal solution are more 40
    41. 41. LIMITATIONS OF GA • The population considered for the evolution should be moderate or suitable one for the problem (normally 20-30 or 50- 100) • Crossover rate should be 80%-95% • Mutation rate should be low i.e. 0.5%-1% assumed as best • The method of selection should be appropriate • Writing of fitness function must be accurate 41
    42. 42. RELATED TECHNIQUES • Genetic programming • Evolutionary programming • Swarm intelligence • Ant colony optimization • Particle swarm optimization • Intelligent Water Drops • Bees algorithm • Neural Networks 42
    43. 43. SUMMARY 43 Representation Binary strings Recombination N-point or uniform Mutation Bitwise bit-flipping with fixed probability Parent selection Fitness-Proportionate Survivor selection All children replace parents Speciality Emphasis on crossover
    44. 44. 44
    45. 45. THANKS • Contact information • Email: amedhat3@gmail.com • Website: http://amedhat.info • Twitter: @amedhat3 • Linkedin: linkedin.com/in/amedhat 45

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