Splash Screen
Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Transforming the Roman   World Section 2 Feudalism Section 3 The Growth of Europea...
Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Intro 2 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of early Europe and the Byzantine Empire.   Click ...
Intro 3 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of early Europe and the Byzantine Empire. <ul><li>W...
Intro 4 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.   Click the mouse...
Intro 5 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:    Click the mouse button or press the Spa...
Intro 6 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>describe the Byzantine Empire and t...
End of Intro
Section 1-1 <ul><li>The new European civilization was formed by the Germanic peoples, the legacy of the Romans, and the Ch...
Section 1-2 <ul><li>Clovis   </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Pepin   </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne   </li></ul><ul...
Section 1-3 <ul><li>How did the Germanic peoples impact the new European civilization?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Clic...
Section 1-4 Preview of Events  Transforming the Roman World
Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 1-6 Although Christians generally rejected the ancient Egyptian practice of embalming, considering it to be a paga...
Section 1-7 The New Germanic Kingdoms   <ul><li>Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by the third century.  ...
Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The New Germanic Kingdoms  (cont.)  ...
Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The only German kingdom to l...
Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His conversion won Clovis t...
Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Germans and Romans intermar...
Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The German concept of the f...
Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A system using a fine calle...
Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The  ordeal  was one German...
Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why do you think the Frankish custom was...
Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Role of the Church   <ul><li>Ch...
Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Role of the Church  (cont.)   <...
Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Western Christians came to ...
Section 1-19 <ul><li>He extended papal authority over the Church in the west and actively converted non-Christians through...
Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A  monk  is a man who separ...
Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Benedict’s rules divided th...
Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>An abbot (“father”) ruled e...
Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The monks worked to spread ...
Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women, called  nuns,  also ...
Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What did Benedict mean when he said, “Id...
Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 289–290) Charlemagne and the...
Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Charlemagne and the Carolingians  (...
Section 1-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He expanded the Frankish ki...
Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To keep the counts in line,...
Section 1-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 800, Charlemagne was cro...
Section 1-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>There was renewed interest ...
Section 1-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Benedictine monks copied Ch...
Section 1-33 Compare and contrast Charlemagne’s attempts to create European unity with those of European leaders today and...
Section 1-34 __ 1. a person sent out to carry  a religious message   __ 2. “money for a man,” the  value of a person in mo...
Section 1-35 __ 4.  the head of a convent   __ 5.  a group of Christian  communities, or parishes,  under the authority of...
Section 1-36 Summarize  the crucial social bond among the Germanic peoples and one area of its application. Checking for U...
Section 1-37 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the da...
Section 1-38 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   What signif...
Section 1-39 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine  the painting...
Section 1-40 Close  Discuss the cooperation between religious and political leaders during this period and the spread of C...
End of Section 1
Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vikings, Magyars, and Muslim...
Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Magyars   </li></ul>People ...
Section 2-3 <ul><li>What led to the development of the system of feudalism?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse...
Section 2-4 Preview of Events Feudalism
Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 2-6 Feudal relationships were like a pyramid, with the king at the top, the lords in the middle–each of whom serve...
Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 291–292) The Invaders  <ul><l...
Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Invaders  (cont.)   <ul><li>Musl...
Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Vikings were superb warr...
Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Franks had a policy of ...
Section 2-11 What did the Vikings do long before 1492? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer...
Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 292–294) <ul><li>Invaders po...
Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Feudalism  <ul><...
Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Frankish army initially...
Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In the Early Middle Ages (5...
Section 2-16 <ul><li>By the ninth century the land the lord granted to a vassal was known as a  fief.    </li></ul>Click ...
Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Feudalism became complicate...
Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vassals also were summoned ...
Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The growing number of castl...
Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The keep included a great h...
Section 2-21 What changes made it possible for heavily armored knights to use lances as they did? Click the mouse button o...
Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 295–296) <ul><li>In the Midd...
Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Nobility of the Middle Ages and...
Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>It was called  chivalry.  ...
Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The lady of the castle comm...
Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>One of the most famous was ...
Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They also had a stormy rela...
Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why in the male-dominated society of feu...
Section 2-29 __ 1. under feudalism, a man  who served a lord in a  military capacity   __ 2. in the Middle Ages, the  idea...
Section 2-30 __ 5. political and social system  that developed during the  Middle Ages, when royal  governments were no  l...
Section 2-31 Describe  the benefits granted a vassal under feudalism. What was a vassal’s primary obligation to his lord? ...
Section 2-32 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the in...
Section 2-33 Critical Thinking  Summarize   What factors helped feudalism develop in western Europe during the ninth and t...
Section 2-34 Examine  the image shown on page 291 of your textbook. How does this image visually represent the medieval sy...
Section 2-35 Close  Discuss feudalism.
End of Section 2
Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>During the High Middle Ages,...
Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>William of Normandy   </li>...
Section 3-3 <ul><li>How did centralized monarchies develop in Europe?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse butto...
Section 3-4 Preview of Events The Growth of European Kingdoms
Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 3-6 Eleanor of Aquitaine helped turn the court of Poitiers, frequented by the most famous troubadours of her time,...
Section 3-7 (pages 297–299) <ul><li>Since King Alfred the Great had united various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the late ninth ...
Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. England in the High Middle Ages  (co...
Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He also developed the system...
Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He expanded the royal court...
Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Thomas à Becket,  archbisho...
Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 1215 at Runnymede, John ...
Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Parliament was an important...
Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>These two houses still make...
Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What later political movements did the M...
Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 299) <ul><li>The west Frankis...
Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The French Kingdom   (cont.)   <ul>...
Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Capetian rulers after Phili...
Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What group is now sometimes called the F...
Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 300) <ul><li>In the tenth cen...
Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Holy Roman Empire  (cont.)   <u...
Section 3-22 <ul><li>Frederick II was also unsuccessful in establishing rule over a strong, centralized Italian state. </l...
Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The struggle between popes ...
Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Unlike England and France, ...
Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The French philosopher Voltaire observed...
Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 300–301) <ul><li>The Slavic ...
Section 3-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Central and Eastern Europe and The ...
Section 3-28 Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia  (cont.)   <ul><li>Accepting Eastern Orthodoxy meant...
Section 3-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They encountered Swedish Vi...
Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Successors expanded Kiev un...
Section 3-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Rus ruler Vladimir acce...
Section 3-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They occupied Russia and re...
Section 3-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Should religions and churches send missi...
Section 3-34 __ 1. one of the three classes  into which French society  was divided before the  revolution: the clergy  (f...
Section 3-35 Explain  what Henry II accomplished when he expanded the power of the royal courts in England. Checking for U...
Section 3-36 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  the th...
Section 3-37 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   Unified nat...
Section 3-38 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine  the photogra...
Section 3-39 Close  Discuss the major figures of this section, such as William of Normandy, Henry II, King John, Philip II...
End of Section 3
Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire created...
Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Justinian   </li></ul>Peopl...
Section 4-3 <ul><li>What were the major characteristics of the Byzantine Empire?   </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the ...
Section 4-4 Preview of Events The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades
Section 4-5 Click the Speaker button to  listen to the audio again.
Section 4-6 In the Middle Ages churches generally took a very long time to construct, but Hagia Sophia was built in the am...
Section 4-7 (pages 303–304) <ul><li>In the fifth century, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman Empi...
Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Reign of Justinian   (cont.)   <...
Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Justinian’s most important c...
Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why is having a consistent, basic body o...
Section 4-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 304–305) <ul><li>Justinian’s...
Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. From Eastern Roman Empire  to Byzan...
Section 4-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Historians call this smalle...
Section 4-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Greek became the empire’s o...
Section 4-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He exercised political cont...
Section 4-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the origin of the name  Byzantin...
Section 4-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 305) <ul><li>Justinian rebuil...
Section 4-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Life in   Constantinople  (cont.)  ...
Section 4-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Constantinople’s appearance...
Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His greatest building was t...
Section 4-21 Consider your state capital or Washington, D.C. What building or buildings dominate the city? What are the ef...
Section 4-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 305–306) <ul><li>The Byzanti...
Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Heights and New Problems  (cont...
Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire was al...
Section 4-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The empire was threatened f...
Section 4-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why was silk so highly prized? Possible ...
Section 4-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 306–308) <ul><li>From the el...
Section 4-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Crusades   (cont.)   <ul><li>At...
Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The First Crusade had an ar...
Section 4-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The victors formed four Lat...
Section 4-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By the 1140s, the Muslims b...
Section 4-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 1187, Jerusalem fell to ...
Section 4-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>About six years after Salad...
Section 4-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A Byzantine army recaptured...
Section 4-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>As a final gasp of the Crus...
Section 4-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Historians disagree on the ...
Section 4-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the Crusades help break down feu...
Section 4-38 __ 1. the separation between the  two great branches of  Christianity that occurred when  the Roman Pope Leo ...
Section 4-39 Explain  how church and state were linked in the Byzantine Empire. Checking for Understanding  The emperor wa...
Section 4-40 Checking for Understanding  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List  Justin...
Section 4-41 Critical Thinking  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   Why did cit...
Section 4-42 Analyzing Visuals  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine  the medieval...
Section 4-43 Close  Discuss the positive and negative effects of the Crusades on Western civilization.
End of Section 4
Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary  Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed and developed in many ways during the Middle Ag...
End of Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment 1 1. The _______________ determined the relationship between a lord and his vassals. 2. _______________...
Chapter Assessment 2 Citizenship   How did the bond of extended family affect the way Germanic law treated the problem of ...
Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. History   Wh...
Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government  ...
Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government  ...
Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture   Wh...
Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing   Wh...
Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Cause and Effe...
Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Examine the map below showing the expansion of Moscow from 1300 to 1462 and...
Chapter Assessment 10 By what year had the Volga River been added to Russia’s holdings? By 1425 the Volga River had been a...
Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts What ...
Chapter Assessment 12 Analyzing Maps and Charts By 1493 Moscow’s ruler claimed to be “Sovereign of All Russia.” About how ...
Chapter Assessment 13 Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, both England and France A defeated Frankish rulers and...
End of Chapter Assessment
World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button t...
CC 2 Economics   Although advancements in weaponry made the knights of Europe more powerful, the cost of supplying these s...
CC 1 Government   Explain why a government based on the administrative ability of the leader’s household staff, as was Cha...
CC 4 contents Economics Literature Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
CC 4a Economics   Explain why Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was particularly well located to become...
CC 4b Literature   Read Sir Walter Scott’s  Ivanhoe,  whose main character is a Crusader. Report to the class on the Chris...
WWWW 1 Missionaries   Pope Gregory I was so impressed with the Benedictine Rule that he adopted it to spread Christianity ...
WWWW 2 Armor   Early medieval armor, called chain mail, consisted of small metal rings linked closely together. With the d...
WWWW 3 Louis IX Trade Routes  Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
WWWW 3a Louis IX  advised his son: “[Have] a tender pitiful heart for the poor . . . [and] hold yourself loyal toward your...
WWWW 3b Trade Routes   Among the most famous of the ancient trade routes was the one that went from Scandinavia to the Byz...
TP 3 Unlike the United States, the United Kingdom has no single written constitution. Instead, it is governed according to...
Skill Builder 1 Imagine that you are watching two candidates for president debate the merits of the college loan program. ...
Skill Builder 2 A fact is a statement that can be proved to be true or false. In the example above, the statement “Sixty p...
Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion Opinions often include qualifying words and phr...
Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill For each pair of statements below, determine which is fact and which is opinion. Give...
Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or pre...
Skill Builder 7 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or pre...
A Story That Matters 1 Read  The Crowning of Charlemagne  on page  284 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the ...
A Story That Matters 2 Why would a strong king like Charlemagne  agree to be crowned by the leader of a religion that appe...
A Story That Matters 3 Why would the pope agree to crown a king of Rome? The pope wanted to show his gratitude for Charlem...
A Story That Matters 4 Why did the Byzantine Empire provide western Europe with some safety from invasions from the East? ...
Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 302 of your textbook. Read the information on ...
Eyewitness 2 How did Ibn Fadlan’s impression of the physical attributes of the Swedish Rus differ from his impression of t...
Eyewitness 3 This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to dis...
Eyewitness 4 This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to dis...
The Way It Was 1 The Castles of the Aristocrats The growth of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300)...
The Way It Was 2 Explaining   What architectural and design features supported the two basic functions of castles? The kee...
The Way It Was 3 Describing   What was the lifestyle of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages? Growing wealth made...
The Way It Was 4 Writing about History   Does a nobility exist today? Where? Yes, several countries in Europe and elsewher...
Video 1 Charlemagne and His World After viewing “Charlemagne and His World,” you should:   Objectives <ul><li>Understand ...
Video 2 Charlemagne and His World According to Professor Hodges, what experience may have shaped Charlemagne's desire to r...
Video 3 Charlemagne and His World Click the mouse button or press the  Space Bar to display the answer. What accomplishmen...
Maps and Charts 1
Maps and Charts 2
Maps and Charts 3
Maps and Charts 4
Maps and Charts 5 Europe, 1160 Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe Maps Click on a hyperlink to view the correspo...
Maps and Charts 5a
Maps and Charts 5b
Maps and Charts 6
Maps and Charts 2a Carolingian Empire, 768–814 Map Chart Charlemagne, King of the Franks Click on a hyperlink to view the ...
Maps and Charts 2b
Maps and Charts 2c
Maps and Charts 4a Crusades, 1096–1204 Children’s Crusade 1212 Third Crusade, 1189–1192 Maps Click on a hyperlink to view ...
Maps and Charts 4b
Maps and Charts 4c
Maps and Charts 4d
Chapter Transparency
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Pepin the Short Ch...
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. the Bosporus strai...
End of Custom Shows End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advanc...
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GWH Chapter 09

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GWH Chapter 09

  1. 1. Splash Screen
  2. 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 Transforming the Roman World Section 2 Feudalism Section 3 The Growth of European Exchange Section 4 The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  3. 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  4. 4. Intro 2 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of early Europe and the Byzantine Empire.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The new European civilization was formed by the coming together of three major elements: the Germanic tribes, the Roman legacy, and the Christian church.  </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of a central authority in the Carolingian Empire led to feudalism.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1100s, European monarchs began to build strong states. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intro 3 Key Events As you read, look for the key events in the history of early Europe and the Byzantine Empire. <ul><li>While a new civilization arose in Europe, the Byzantine Empire created its own unique civilization in the eastern Mediterranean. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intro 4 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Ancient Roman literary works exist today because they were copied by monks.  </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of English common law is seen in our American legal system.  </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine architecture inspired building styles in eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intro 5 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>describe the rise of the Germanic and Frankish kingdoms, the influence of Christianity, and of Charlemagne.  </li></ul><ul><li>explain invasions and the forces contributing to growth of feudalism.  </li></ul><ul><li>explain the Norman Conquest, Magna Carta, French kingdoms, and the growth of Slavic states. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intro 6 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>describe the Byzantine Empire and the effects of the Crusades. </li></ul>
  9. 9. End of Intro
  10. 10. Section 1-1 <ul><li>The new European civilization was formed by the Germanic peoples, the legacy of the Romans, and the Church.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Transforming the Roman World Key Terms <ul><li>wergild  </li></ul><ul><li>monasticism  </li></ul><ul><li>missionary  </li></ul><ul><li>nun  </li></ul><ul><li>abbess </li></ul><ul><li>ordeal  </li></ul><ul><li>bishopric  </li></ul><ul><li>pope  </li></ul><ul><li>monk  </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne expanded the Frankish kingdom and created the Carolingian Empire.  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 1-2 <ul><li>Clovis  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Pepin  </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne  </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrenees  </li></ul>Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Transforming the Roman World <ul><li>Carolingian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory I  </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Benedict  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1-3 <ul><li>How did the Germanic peoples impact the new European civilization?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Transforming the Roman World <ul><li>What was the role of the Church in the growth of European civilization? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 1-4 Preview of Events Transforming the Roman World
  14. 14. Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  15. 15. Section 1-6 Although Christians generally rejected the ancient Egyptian practice of embalming, considering it to be a pagan custom that mutilated the corpse, Charlemagne’s embalmed and well-dressed corpse was placed in a sitting position in his tomb at Aachen, in present-day Germany.
  16. 16. Section 1-7 The New Germanic Kingdoms <ul><li>Germanic peoples began moving into Roman territory by the third century.  </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Visigoths occupied Spain and Italy until the Ostrogoths took control of Italy in the fifth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 500 the Western Roman Empire had become a number of states ruled by German kings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Although these kingdoms kept the Roman governmental structure, Germanic warriors dominated the native populations and eventually excluded Romans from holding power. </li></ul>(pages 285–287)
  17. 17. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) <ul><li>The Germanic Angles and Saxons moved into Britain in the fifth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually these people became the Anglo-Saxons. </li></ul>(pages 285–287)
  18. 18. Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The only German kingdom to last long was the Franks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis, who converted to Christianity around 500, established the Frankish kingdom.  </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis had resisted the pleas of his wife to convert, but during a battle that was going badly he called on Jesus, promising to believe and be baptized if Jesus came to his aid.  </li></ul><ul><li>After his plea, the enemy fled and Clovis converted. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  19. 19. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His conversion won Clovis the support of the Roman Catholic Church, as the Christian church in Rome had become known.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 510 Clovis had established a Frankish kingdom from the Pyrenees to present-day western Germany.  </li></ul><ul><li>Following Frankish custom, after Clovis’s death his sons divided the kingdom among themselves. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  20. 20. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Germans and Romans intermarried and created a new society in which German customs had an important role.  </li></ul><ul><li>The extended family was the center of German society.  </li></ul><ul><li>They worked the land together and protected each other in violent times. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  21. 21. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The German concept of the family affected crime and punishment, say for murder.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the Roman system, as in ours, most crimes are considered offenses against the state, not the person.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, a court hears evidence and makes a judgment.  </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic law, however, was personal.  </li></ul><ul><li>One person injuring another often led to a savage blood feud. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  22. 22. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A system using a fine called a wergild (“money for a man”) developed to avoid bloodshed after crimes such as murder.  </li></ul><ul><li>The wrongdoer paid the injured party’s family a set amount of money, which varied by social status. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  23. 23. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The ordeal was one Germanic way of determining guilt.  </li></ul><ul><li>The practice was based on the belief that the gods would not let an innocent person be punished.  </li></ul><ul><li>If the accused was unharmed after a physical trial (ordeal), he or she was presumed innocent. </li></ul>The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  24. 24. Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why do you think the Frankish custom was for a kingdom to be divided among the king’s sons after his death? This practice helped to avoid conflicts over who would rule. All the sons got a piece of the pie. The New Germanic Kingdoms (cont.) (pages 285–287)
  25. 25. Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Role of the Church <ul><li>Christianity had become the supreme religion of the Roman Empire by the end of the fourth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>By this time the church had developed a system of organization.  </li></ul><ul><li>Priests headed local communities called parishes.  </li></ul><ul><li>A group of parishes was headed by a bishop, whose area of authority was called a bishopric, or diocese.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bishoprics were joined under the direction of an archbishop. </li></ul>(pages 287–288)
  26. 26. Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Role of the Church (cont.) <ul><li>The bishop of Rome came to claim he was the leader of what was now called the Roman Catholic Church.  </li></ul><ul><li>The claim was based on the belief that Jesus gave Peter the keys to Heaven.  </li></ul><ul><li>Peter was considered the chief apostle and the first bishop of Rome.  </li></ul><ul><li>The bishops that succeeded him in Rome came to be called popes, from the Latin word papa, “father.” </li></ul>(pages 287–288)
  27. 27. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Western Christians came to accept the pope as the Church’s leader, but they could not agree on the extent of the pope’s power.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory I strengthened the power of the papacy.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was pope from 590 to 604.  </li></ul><ul><li>He took political control of Rome and its surrounding territories, later known as the Papal States. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  28. 28. Section 1-19 <ul><li>He extended papal authority over the Church in the west and actively converted non-Christians through the monastic movement. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  29. 29. Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A monk is a man who separates himself from worldly, everyday life to dedicate himself entirely to God.  </li></ul><ul><li>Monasticism is the practice of living the life of a monk.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the sixth century, Saint Benedict founded an order of monks and wrote rules for their practice. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  30. 30. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Benedict’s rules divided the day into activities, emphasizing prayer and much physical labor to keep the monks busy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Idleness was “the enemy of the soul.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer was the proper “Work of God.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Monks meditated and read privately.  </li></ul><ul><li>They prayed together seven times a day.  </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of Benedictine life were communal. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  31. 31. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>An abbot (“father”) ruled each Benedictine monastery.  </li></ul><ul><li>Monks were to obey the will of the abbot. Monks took a vow of poverty.  </li></ul><ul><li>The monks’ dedication made them the new heroes of Christian civilization.  </li></ul><ul><li>They also were the social workers of the community, and monasteries became centers of learning. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  32. 32. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The monks worked to spread Christianity throughout Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>English and Irish monks were especially enthusiastic missionaries –people sent out to carry a religious message. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  33. 33. Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women, called nuns, also began to withdraw from the world to dedicate themselves to God.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nuns lived in convents headed by abbesses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Many of them belonged to royal houses.  </li></ul><ul><li>The abbess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657, where she was responsible for giving learning an important role in the monastery.  </li></ul><ul><li>Five future bishops were educated under her direction. </li></ul>The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  34. 34. Section 1-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What did Benedict mean when he said, “Idleness is the enemy of the soul”? Possible answer: Idleness might allow the mind, heart, and desires to wander, making the person more vulnerable to temptation. The Role of the Church (cont.) (pages 287–288)
  35. 35. Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 289–290) Charlemagne and the Carolingians <ul><li>In the 600s and 700s, the Frankish kings lost their power to the chief officers of the king’s household, called mayors of the palace.  </li></ul><ul><li>One of these mayors, Pepin, assumed the kingship.  </li></ul><ul><li>His son became king after Pepin’s death in 768. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) <ul><li>Pepin’s son was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, one of history’s greatest kings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne was curious, driven, and intelligent.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was a strong warrior and statesman, and a devout Christian.  </li></ul><ul><li>Although possibly unable to write, he strongly supported learning. </li></ul>(pages 289–290)
  37. 37. Section 1-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He expanded the Frankish kingdom into what became known as the Carolingian Empire, which covered much of western and central Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled from 768 to 814.  </li></ul>Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  38. 38. Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To keep the counts in line, Charlemagne established the missi dominici (“messengers of the lord king”), two men sent to make sure the king’s wishes were followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s household staff and counts (German nobles) administered the empire locally.  </li></ul>Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  39. 39. Section 1-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 800, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans.  </li></ul><ul><li>This testifies to the enduring nature of the idea of the Roman Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>The coronation also symbolized the coming together of the Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements that forged European civilization.  </li></ul><ul><li>The spiritual leader of western Christendom –the pope–had crowned a Germanic king Roman emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s power and prestige grew.  </li></ul>Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  40. 40. Section 1-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>There was renewed interest in Latin culture and classical works–works of the Greeks and Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s desire to promote learning led to what has been called the Carolingian Renaissance (rebirth).  </li></ul>Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  41. 41. Section 1-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Benedictine monks copied Christian and classical Latin manuscripts in scriptoria, or writing rooms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Roman works we have today exist because Carolingian monks copied them. </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries played an important role in this revival of learning.  </li></ul>Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  42. 42. Section 1-33 Compare and contrast Charlemagne’s attempts to create European unity with those of European leaders today and the European Union. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Possible answer: Probably the largest point of contrast is that unity now is more economic than in Charlemagne’s day. Also, religious differences are respected or tolerated, and no European state sponsors missionaries. A similarity is the importance of knowledge, now more the exchange and sharing of information rather than classical or religious learning. Also, in Aachen, Germany, the Charlemagne Prize is awarded each year in May for contributions to European unity. Charlemagne and the Carolingians (cont.) (pages 289–290)
  43. 43. Section 1-34 __ 1. a person sent out to carry a religious message __ 2. “money for a man,” the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed __ 3. a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God; monks live in monasteries headed by abbots A. wergild B. bishopric C. monk D. missionary E. abbess Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D A C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  44. 44. Section 1-35 __ 4. the head of a convent __ 5. a group of Christian communities, or parishes, under the authority of a bishop Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. E B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A. wergild B. bishopric C. monk D. missionary E. abbess
  45. 45. Section 1-36 Summarize the crucial social bond among the Germanic peoples and one area of its application. Checking for Understanding Family was a crucial social bond that affected the concept of crime and punishment. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  46. 46. Section 1-37 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the daily activities of the Benedictine monks. Prayer and manual labor were the daily activities of the Benedictine monks.
  47. 47. Section 1-38 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   What significance did Charlemagne’s coronation as Roman emperor have to the development of European civilization? Charlemagne’s coronation as Roman emperor symbolized the union of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements.
  48. 48. Section 1-39 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the painting of Charlemagne shown on page 289 of your textbook. How does this representation reflect Charlemagne’s dual role as emperor and as Christian leader? Charlemagne holds a sword (military leader) and an orb with a cross (spiritual leader).
  49. 49. Section 1-40 Close Discuss the cooperation between religious and political leaders during this period and the spread of Christianity through monastic life.
  50. 50. End of Section 1
  51. 51. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims invaded Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Feudalism Key Terms <ul><li>feudalism  </li></ul><ul><li>feudal contract  </li></ul><ul><li>tournament  </li></ul><ul><li>chivalry </li></ul><ul><li>vassal  </li></ul><ul><li>knight  </li></ul><ul><li>fief  </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of central authority in the European world led to a new political system known as feudalism.  </li></ul>
  52. 52. Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Magyars  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Hungary  </li></ul>Places to Locate Feudalism <ul><li>Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings  </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor of Aquitaine  </li></ul>
  53. 53. Section 2-3 <ul><li>What led to the development of the system of feudalism?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Feudalism <ul><li>What was the role of aristocratic women in the Middle Ages? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Section 2-4 Preview of Events Feudalism
  55. 55. Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  56. 56. Section 2-6 Feudal relationships were like a pyramid, with the king at the top, the lords in the middle–each of whom served a lord of the next higher rank–and peasants at the bottom. A lady, or noblewoman, had few rights even though she often had extensive responsibilities running the household and estates.
  57. 57. Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 291–292) The Invaders <ul><li>The Carolingian Empire began to fall apart soon after Charlemagne’s death in 814.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 844, the empire had been divided into three kingdoms by Charlemagne’s grandsons.  </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions also added to the disintegration. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Invaders (cont.) <ul><li>Muslims invaded southern France, and the Magyars from western Asia settled on the plains of Hungary and invaded western Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>The most far-reaching attacks were from the Norsemen (Northmen) of Scandinavia, also called the Vikings.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Germanic people’s love of adventure and the spoils of war probably led them to invade areas of Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>They sacked towns, destroyed churches, and defeated armies. </li></ul>(pages 291–292)
  59. 59. Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Vikings were superb warriors, sailors, and shipbuilders.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their famous ships were long and narrow with carved, arched prows.  </li></ul><ul><li>These dragon ships carried about 50 men.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their construction allowed sailing up shallow rivers to attack inland.  </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-ninth century, Vikings began to settle areas of Europe. </li></ul>The Invaders (cont.) (pages 291–292)
  60. 60. Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Franks had a policy of settling and Christianizing the Vikings.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 911, a Frankish ruler gave a band of Vikings the land that became known as Normandy. </li></ul>The Invaders (cont.) (pages 291–292)
  61. 61. Section 2-11 What did the Vikings do long before 1492? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evidence in Canada shows that Vikings were the first Europeans to sail to the Americas, landing about 500 years earlier than Christopher Columbus. The Vikings did not colonize where they landed, however. The Invaders (cont.) (pages 291–292)
  62. 62. Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 292–294) <ul><li>Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people, especially in the absence of a strong central government.  </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism <ul><li>People began to turn to local landed aristocrats or nobles to protect them.  </li></ul><ul><li>This change led to the new political and social system called feudalism.  </li></ul><ul><li>It arose between 800 and 900 and thrived for four hundred years.  </li></ul><ul><li>Similar systems were found in Japan and among the Aztec. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Feudalism <ul><li>At the heart of this system was the idea of vassalage.  </li></ul><ul><li>It came from Germanic society, where warriors swore an oath to their leader.  </li></ul><ul><li>By the eighth century, a man who served a lord militarily was known as a vassal. </li></ul>(pages 292–294) (cont.)
  64. 64. Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Frankish army initially was made up of foot soldiers in mail (armor made of metal links or plates) armed with swords and horsemen who threw spears.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the eighth century, larger horses and the stirrup were introduced.  </li></ul><ul><li>Horsemen now wore mail and used long lances as battering rams.  </li></ul><ul><li>For the next five hundred years, heavily armored cavalry called knights dominated warfare.  </li></ul><ul><li>They had great prestige and formed the backbone of the European aristocracy. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  65. 65. Section 2-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In the Early Middle Ages (500–1000), wealth was based on owning land.  </li></ul><ul><li>There was little trade.  </li></ul><ul><li>When nobles wanted men to fight for them, the nobles granted the vassal a piece of land that supported the vassal and his family.  </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between lord and vassal was made official by a public act of homage of vassal to the lord.  </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to one’s lord was feudalism’s chief virtue. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  66. 66. Section 2-16 <ul><li>By the ninth century the land the lord granted to a vassal was known as a fief.  </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vassals had political authority in their fiefs.  </li></ul><ul><li>The number of separate powerful lords and vassals increased; many different people were now responsible for keeping order. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  67. 67. Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Feudalism became complicated.  </li></ul><ul><li>Kings had vassals who themselves had vassals.  </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism came to be characterized by a set of unwritten rules known as the feudal contract.  </li></ul><ul><li>These rules determined the relationship between lord and vassal.  </li></ul><ul><li>The major obligation of a vassal was military service, about 40 days a year. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  68. 68. Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vassals also were summoned to advise the lord and had financial obligations to the lord on such occasions as the marriage of the lord’s eldest daughter, knighting of his eldest son, or ransoming the lord.  </li></ul><ul><li>The lord had responsibilities to the vassal.  </li></ul><ul><li>He supported the vassal with a land grant and protected him militarily and in court. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  69. 69. Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The growing number of castles made visible the growth of the nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300).  </li></ul><ul><li>They were permanent residences and fortresses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Castles had two parts, the motte –a natural or artificially created hill–and the bailey –an open space.  </li></ul><ul><li>The castle’s central building, the keep, was built on the motte.  </li></ul><ul><li>All were encircled by large stone walls. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  70. 70. Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The keep included a great hall where the lord held court and received visitors, and people ate and even slept.  </li></ul><ul><li>As lords got wealthier, the castles became more complex and ornate. </li></ul>The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  71. 71. Section 2-21 What changes made it possible for heavily armored knights to use lances as they did? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The larger horses could carry the weight of armored horsemen and stirrups kept the knights on their horses when they fought with large lances and used them as battering rams. The Development of Feudalism (pages 292–294) (cont.)
  72. 72. Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 295–296) <ul><li>In the Middle Ages, nobles dominated European society.  </li></ul>The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women <ul><li>The main concern of many was warfare.  </li></ul><ul><li>The nobles were kings, dukes, counts, barons, and even bishops and archbishops.  </li></ul><ul><li>They formed a wealthy aristocracy, or nobility, with political, economic and social power.  </li></ul><ul><li>The institution of knighthood united lords and knights in the aristocracy. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) <ul><li>Trained as warriors but with no adult responsibilities, young knights began to hold tournaments in the twelfth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>These were contests for knights to show their skills.  </li></ul><ul><li>The joust became the main attraction. </li></ul>(pages 295–296)
  74. 74. Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>It was called chivalry.  </li></ul><ul><li>Knights were to defend the Church and defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests, and fight for glory and not material rewards. </li></ul>The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) <ul><li>In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, under the influence of the Church, an ideal of civilized behavior among the nobility evolved.  </li></ul>(pages 295–296)
  75. 75. Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The lady of the castle commonly had to manage the often large household, the estate, and the financial accounts. </li></ul>The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) <ul><li>Women could legally hold property, but most women still remained under the control of men–first their fathers, then their husbands.  </li></ul>(pages 295–296)
  76. 76. Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>One of the most famous was Eleanor of Aquitaine.  </li></ul><ul><li>An heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France, at 15 she married King Louis VII of France. </li></ul>The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) <ul><li>Feudalism saw many strong women who advised, and sometimes dominated, their husbands.  </li></ul>(pages 295–296)
  77. 77. Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They also had a stormy relationship.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor spent most of her time in Aquitaine, where she created a brilliant court.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two of her eight children became kings of England. </li></ul>The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) <ul><li>The unhappy marriage was annulled, and only eight weeks later Eleanor married the duke who became Henry II of England.  </li></ul>(pages 295–296)
  78. 78. Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why in the male-dominated society of feudal Europe did noble women often have to manage the households, estates, and financial accounts of their families? The lords were often away at court or at war. The Nobility of the Middle Ages and Aristocratic Women (cont.) (pages 295–296)
  79. 79. Section 2-29 __ 1. under feudalism, a man who served a lord in a military capacity __ 2. in the Middle Ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold __ 3. under feudalism, a member of the heavily armored cavalry __ 4. under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal, who held political authority within it A. feudalism B. vassal C. knight D. fief E. chivalry Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B E C D Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  80. 80. Section 2-30 __ 5. political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages, when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service A. feudalism B. vassal C. knight D. fief E. chivalry Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  81. 81. Section 2-31 Describe the benefits granted a vassal under feudalism. What was a vassal’s primary obligation to his lord? Checking for Understanding Land and protection were granted to a vassal under feudalism. The vassal’s primary obligation to his lord was military service. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  82. 82. Section 2-32 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the invasions that besieged the Carolingian Empire in the ninth and tenth centuries. Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings invaded the Carolingian Empire.
  83. 83. Section 2-33 Critical Thinking Summarize   What factors helped feudalism develop in western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries? The collapse of central authority and invasions by Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings helped feudalism develop. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  84. 84. Section 2-34 Examine the image shown on page 291 of your textbook. How does this image visually represent the medieval system of feudalism? Analyzing Visuals The lesser lord (kneeling) is paying homage to the greater lord (elevated). The presence of people shows that feudalism was a communal contract. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  85. 85. Section 2-35 Close Discuss feudalism.
  86. 86. End of Section 2
  87. 87. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>During the High Middle Ages, European monarchs began to extend their power and build strong states.  </li></ul>Main Ideas The Growth of European Kingdoms Key Terms <ul><li>common law  </li></ul><ul><li>Magna Carta  </li></ul><ul><li>estate </li></ul><ul><li>The Slavic peoples formed three distinct groups, and they settled in different parts of eastern Europe.  </li></ul>
  88. 88. Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>William of Normandy  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Philip II Augustus  </li></ul><ul><li>Otto I  </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Nevsky  </li></ul><ul><li>Paris  </li></ul>Places to Locate The Growth of European Kingdoms <ul><li>Hungary  </li></ul><ul><li>Kiev </li></ul><ul><li>Henry II  </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas à Becket  </li></ul>
  89. 89. Section 3-3 <ul><li>How did centralized monarchies develop in Europe?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Growth of European Kingdoms <ul><li>What caused conflicts between popes and monarchs? </li></ul>
  90. 90. Section 3-4 Preview of Events The Growth of European Kingdoms
  91. 91. Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  92. 92. Section 3-6 Eleanor of Aquitaine helped turn the court of Poitiers, frequented by the most famous troubadours of her time, into a center of poetry. She was a patron of the two dominant poetic movements of the time: the courtly love tradition and the historical “legends of Brittany.”
  93. 93. Section 3-7 (pages 297–299) <ul><li>Since King Alfred the Great had united various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the late ninth century, Anglo-Saxon kings had ruled England. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages
  94. 94. Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>William was crowned king of England.  </li></ul><ul><li>He gave fiefs to Norman knights, and all nobles had to swear loyalty to him as the ruler of England.  </li></ul><ul><li>The French-speaking Normans and the Anglo-Saxon nobility gradually merged into a new English culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1066, an army commanded by William of Normandy defeated King Harold of England at the Battle of Hastings.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  95. 95. Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He also developed the system of taxation and royal courts earlier Anglo-Saxon kings had begun. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>William took the first census in western Europe since Roman times, known as the Domesday Book.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  96. 96. Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He expanded the royal courts’ powers to cover more criminal and property cases.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because royal courts were all over the land, a body of common law –law common to the whole kingdom–began to replace varying local codes. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Henry II, who ruled from 1154 to 1189, enlarged the power of the English monarchy.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  97. 97. Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Thomas à Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, disagreed.  </li></ul><ul><li>The angry king expressed his desire to be rid of Becket.  </li></ul><ul><li>Four knights took the challenge and killed the archbishop in the cathedral.  </li></ul><ul><li>An outraged public caused Henry to back off his struggle with the Church. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Henry claimed he had the right to punish the clergy in royal courts.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  98. 98. Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 1215 at Runnymede, John was forced to agree to a document of rights called the Magna Carta, or Great Charter.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Magna Carta recognized the longstanding feudal idea of mutual rights and obligations between lord and vassal. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Resenting the monarchy’s expanding power, many nobles rebelled against King John.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  99. 99. Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Parliament was an important step in developing a representative government.  </li></ul><ul><li>Under Edward I it granted taxes and passed laws.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was composed of two knights from each county, two people from each town, and all of England’s nobles and bishops. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>In the thirteenth century, during the reign of Edward I, the English Parliament emerged.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  100. 100. Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>These two houses still make up the British Parliament. </li></ul>England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) <ul><li>Later, nobles and church lords formed the House of Lords, and knights and townspeople formed the House of Commons.  </li></ul>(pages 297–299)
  101. 101. Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What later political movements did the Magna Carta affect? The Magna Carta was used against the idea that a monarch’s power was absolute. Therefore, it affected all movements that tried to restrict the power of the king, including the American democratic movement for independence from Britain. England in the High Middle Ages (cont.) (pages 297–299)
  102. 102. Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 299) <ul><li>The west Frankish lands formed the core of the eventual kingdom of France.  </li></ul>The French Kingdom <ul><li>After the death of the last Carolingian king in 987, the west Frankish nobles chose Hugh Capet as king, establishing the Capetian dynasty of French kings.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Capetians had little power.  </li></ul><ul><li>Their domain included only the area around Paris.  </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the French dukes were more powerful than the Capetian kings. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The French Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>The French monarchy’s power grew under King Philip II Augustus, who ruled from 1180 to 1223.  </li></ul><ul><li>Through making war, Philip took back the French territories of Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine from the English.  </li></ul><ul><li>He thereby greatly increased the income and power of the French monarchy. </li></ul>(page 299)
  104. 104. Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Capetian rulers after Philip continued to add lands to the royal domain.  </li></ul><ul><li>Philip IV, also known as Philip the Fair, greatly expanded the royal bureaucracy.  </li></ul><ul><li>He also began the first French parliament, the Estates-General, by meeting with representatives of the three estates (classes): clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), and townspeople (third estate). </li></ul>The French Kingdom (cont.) (page 299)
  105. 105. Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What group is now sometimes called the Fourth Estate? The group is journalists. The French Kingdom (cont.) (page 299)
  106. 106. Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 300) <ul><li>In the tenth century, powerful Saxon dukes became kings of the eastern Frankish kingdom.  </li></ul>The Holy Roman Empire <ul><li>The best-known was Otto I, who was crowned emperor of the Romans by the pope in return for protecting him. </li></ul>
  107. 107. Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) <ul><li>As leaders of a new Roman Empire, the German kings tried to rule both German and Italian lands.  </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick I considered Italy the center of a “holy empire,” hence the name Holy Roman Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>An alliance of northern Italian cities and the pope defeated Frederick’s army in 1176.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were afraid he wanted to rule all of Italy. </li></ul>(page 300)
  108. 108. Section 3-22 <ul><li>Frederick II was also unsuccessful in establishing rule over a strong, centralized Italian state. </li></ul>The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) (page 300)
  109. 109. Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The struggle between popes and emperors had profound effects on the Holy Roman Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>With the emperor gone to war, the German nobles created many independent states.  </li></ul><ul><li>The German monarch could not maintain a strong monarchy. </li></ul>The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) (page 300)
  110. 110. Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Unlike England and France, neither Italy nor Germany created a national monarchy in the Middle Ages.  </li></ul><ul><li>They both consisted of small states and did not unify until the nineteenth century. </li></ul>The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) (page 300)
  111. 111. Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The French philosopher Voltaire observed ironically that the Holy Roman Empire was not holy, Roman, or an empire. What do you think he meant? He meant that its origin and actions were not holy; it was not Roman because eastern Frankish Saxons headed it; and it was not an empire because the “emperors” never were able to conquer Italy and other former parts of the Roman Empire, as they wished. They did not have the power or lands associated with empire. The Holy Roman Empire (cont.) (page 300)
  112. 112. Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 300–301) <ul><li>The Slavic peoples of central Europe gradually divided into three groups: western, southern, and eastern Slavs.  </li></ul>Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia <ul><li>Western Slavs formed the Polish and Bohemian kingdoms.  </li></ul><ul><li>German monks had converted the Czechs in Bohemia and the Slavs in Poland to Christianity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Slavic Hungary was also converted.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Poles, Czechs, and Hungarians accepted western Christianity–the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul>
  113. 113. Section 3-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>The southern and eastern Slavs took a different route.  </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in 863 two Byzantine missionary brothers, Cyril and Methodius, converted the eastern Slavs to Eastern Orthodox Christianity.  </li></ul><ul><li>The southern Slavs included the Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Croats accepted the Roman Catholic Church, but the other two groups accepted Eastern Orthodoxy. </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  114. 114. Section 3-28 Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>Accepting Eastern Orthodoxy meant that those people’s cultural life was linked to the Byzantine state. </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  115. 115. Section 3-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They encountered Swedish Vikings, who came for plunder and trade.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Vikings came to dominate the native peoples, who called the Viking rulers the Rus.  </li></ul><ul><li>The name Russia is derived from this term. </li></ul>Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>Eastern Slavs had also settled in present-day Ukraine and Russia.  </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  116. 116. Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Successors expanded Kiev until it included territory between the Baltic and Black Seas and the Danube and Volga Rivers.  </li></ul><ul><li>Through intermarriage, the Vikings were assimilated into the Slavic population. </li></ul>Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>The Viking leader Oleg created the Rus principality of Kiev in the tenth century.  </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  117. 117. Section 3-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Rus ruler Vladimir accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity for himself and his people in 988.  </li></ul><ul><li>It became the state religion.  </li></ul><ul><li>Civil wars and invasions brought an end to the first Russian state of Kiev in 1169. </li></ul>Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>The growth of Kiev attracted Byzantine missionaries.  </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  118. 118. Section 3-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They occupied Russia and required Russian princes to pay them tribute.  </li></ul><ul><li>One powerful prince, Alexander Nevsky, defeated an invading German army in 1242.  </li></ul><ul><li>The khan, leader of the western Mongols, rewarded Nevsky with the title of grand-prince.  </li></ul><ul><li>His descendants became princes of Moscow and then leaders of all Russia. </li></ul>Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) <ul><li>In the thirteenth century, Mongols conquered Russia.  </li></ul>(pages 300–301)
  119. 119. Section 3-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Should religions and churches send missionaries to areas with different faiths, or is doing so a violation of those the missionaries are there to convert? Possible answer: People do not have to accept what the missionaries teach; missionaries can also be part of eradicating an indigenous culture. Central and Eastern Europe and The Development of Russia (cont.) (pages 300–301)
  120. 120. Section 3-34 __ 1. one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first), the nobles (second), and the townspeople (third) __ 2. a uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place __ 3. the “Great Charter” of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymeade in 1215 A. common law B. Magna Carta C. estate Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C A B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  121. 121. Section 3-35 Explain what Henry II accomplished when he expanded the power of the royal courts in England. Checking for Understanding Henry II expanded the king’s power and helped create common law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  122. 122. Section 3-36 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the three estates in France. The clergy, the nobles, and the townspeople and peasants were the three estates in France.
  123. 123. Section 3-37 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   Unified national monarchies did not develop in Germany and Italy as they did in France and England in the High Middle Ages. Why not? While the German kings were in Italy, powerful nobles back home established independent kingdoms.
  124. 124. Section 3-38 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the photograph of the medieval castle shown on page 294 of your textbook. Identify the major architectural elements that helped inhabitants of the castle to defend themselves against attack. Turrets, moat, and gated windows helped castle inhabitants defend themselves against attack.
  125. 125. Section 3-39 Close Discuss the major figures of this section, such as William of Normandy, Henry II, King John, Philip II Augustus, Louis IX, Frederick I and II, and Alexander Nevsky.
  126. 126. End of Section 3
  127. 127. Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire created its own unique civilization in the eastern Mediterranean.  </li></ul>Main Ideas The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades Key Terms <ul><li>patriarch  </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades  </li></ul><ul><li>infidel </li></ul><ul><li>schism  </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusades impacted medieval society in both the East and the West.  </li></ul>
  128. 128. Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Justinian  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Saladin  </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Innocent III  </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Palestine  </li></ul><ul><li>Balkans </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades <ul><li>Syria  </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Bernard of Clairvaux  </li></ul>
  129. 129. Section 4-3 <ul><li>What were the major characteristics of the Byzantine Empire?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades <ul><li>What was the impact of the Crusades? </li></ul>
  130. 130. Section 4-4 Preview of Events The Byzantine Empire and the Crusades
  131. 131. Section 4-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  132. 132. Section 4-6 In the Middle Ages churches generally took a very long time to construct, but Hagia Sophia was built in the amazingly short period of five years, 10 months, and four days.
  133. 133. Section 4-7 (pages 303–304) <ul><li>In the fifth century, as Germanic tribes moved into the western part of the Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire continued to exist. </li></ul>The Reign of Justinian
  134. 134. Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Reign of Justinian (cont.) <ul><li>Justinian became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527.  </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to restore the full Roman Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 552 he almost had, but only three years after his death in 565, the Lombards had conquered much of Italy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Other areas were soon lost. </li></ul>(pages 303–304)
  135. 135. Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Justinian’s most important contribution was his codification of Roman law in The Body of Civil Law.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was the basis of imperial law until the Eastern Roman Empire ended in 1453.  </li></ul><ul><li>It also became the basis for much of the legal system of Europe. </li></ul>The Reign of Justinian (cont.) (pages 303–304)
  136. 136. Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why is having a consistent, basic body of law important to a civilization? Possible answer: Such a body of law provides a basis for the stability and peace necessary for a culture and civilization to flourish. The Reign of Justinian (cont.) (pages 303–304)
  137. 137. Section 4-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 304–305) <ul><li>Justinian’s conquests left the Eastern Roman Empire in serious trouble: too much territory far from Constantinople to protect, an empty treasury, a population decline due to plague, and renewed threats along its frontiers.  </li></ul>From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire <ul><li>The most serious challenge was Islam, which created a powerful new unified Arab force that invaded the Eastern Roman Empire. </li></ul>
  138. 138. Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire (cont.) <ul><li>In the north, Bulgars defeated the empire’s forces and created a kingdom in the lower Danube Valley. </li></ul>(pages 304–305) <ul><li>The empire lost Syria and Palestine after a defeat at Yarmuk in 636.  </li></ul>
  139. 139. Section 4-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Historians call this smaller Eastern Roman empire the Byzantine Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was its own distinctive civilization and lasted until 1453. </li></ul>From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire (cont.) (pages 304–305) <ul><li>By the beginning of the eighth century, the much-reduced Eastern Roman Empire consisted only of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor.  </li></ul>
  140. 140. Section 4-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Greek became the empire’s official language, but the empire was built on the Eastern Orthodox Church.  </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of artistic talent went into church building, church ceremonies, and church decoration to honor this Christian faith. </li></ul>From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire (cont.) (pages 304–305) <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire was both Christian and Greek.  </li></ul>
  141. 141. Section 4-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>He exercised political control over the Eastern Orthodox Church because he appointed the head of the Church, called the patriarch.  </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantines believed that God had commanded their state to preserve the true Christian faith. </li></ul>From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire (cont.) (pages 304–305) <ul><li>The emperor’s power was absolute because he was seen as chosen by God and crowned in sacred ceremonies.  </li></ul>
  142. 142. Section 4-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the origin of the name Byzantine in Byzantine Empire? The word means an inhabitant of Byzantium, which was the name of the ancient Greek colony that became Constantinople. From Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantine Empire (cont.) (pages 304–305)
  143. 143. Section 4-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 305) <ul><li>Justinian rebuilt Constantinople in 532 after riots had destroyed much of the city.  </li></ul>Life in Constantinople <ul><li>Constantinople was the largest city in Europe during the Middle Ages, with a population estimated in the hundreds of thousands. </li></ul>
  144. 144. Section 4-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Life in Constantinople (cont.) <ul><li>Up to the twelfth century Constantinople was Europe’s chief center for trading goods between West and East.  </li></ul><ul><li>Europe prized Chinese silk, spices from Southeast Asia, spices, ivory and jewelry from India, wheat and furs from Russia, and honey and flax from the Balkans.  </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian smuggled in silkworms from China.  </li></ul><ul><li>Silk cloth became the city’s most lucrative product. </li></ul>(page 305)
  145. 145. Section 4-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Constantinople’s appearance in the Middle Ages is due largely to Justinian’s sixth-century rebuilding program.  </li></ul><ul><li>He built an immense palace, hundreds of churches, a Hippodrome, and extensive public works, including immense underground reservoirs for the city’s water supply. </li></ul>Life in Constantinople (cont.) (page 305)
  146. 146. Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His greatest building was the Hagia Sophia–Church of the Holy Wisdom–completed in 537.  </li></ul><ul><li>An enormous dome crowns four large piers.  </li></ul><ul><li>The dome seems to float in space. Forty-two windows ring the base, which creates an incredible play of light in the church.  </li></ul><ul><li>The light symbolizes the presence of God in the world. </li></ul>Life in Constantinople (cont.) (page 305)
  147. 147. Section 4-21 Consider your state capital or Washington, D.C. What building or buildings dominate the city? What are the effects of the architecture, or what does the architecture symbolize? Life in Constantinople (cont.) (page 305)
  148. 148. Section 4-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 305–306) <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire expanded under a new dynasty of emperors, the Macedonians.  </li></ul>New Heights and New Problems <ul><li>They ruled from 867 to 1081.  </li></ul><ul><li>They expanded the empire to include Bulgaria, Cyprus, Crete, and Syria.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Macedonians helped the economy by expanding trade with the West, especially of silks and metalworks.  </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople continued to prosper. </li></ul>
  149. 149. Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. New Heights and New Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Incompetent successors to the Macedonian dynasty undid most of its gains.  </li></ul><ul><li>Internal struggles for power by military leaders and aristocratic families led to the late eleventh-century political and social disorder in the empire. </li></ul>(pages 305–306)
  150. 150. Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Byzantine Empire was also troubled by a growing split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Church would not accept the pope as the head of the Christian faith.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1054 Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other.  </li></ul><ul><li>This created a schism, or separation, between these two branches of Christianity.  </li></ul><ul><li>The schism has not completely healed even today. </li></ul>New Heights and New Problems (cont.) (pages 305–306)
  151. 151. Section 4-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The empire was threatened from abroad as well.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Seljuk Turks, who moved into Asia Minor, were the greatest threat.  </li></ul><ul><li>Asia Minor was the empire’s chief source of food and workers.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1071 a Turkish army defeated Byzantine forces at Manzikert.  </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Alexius I turned to Europe for help. </li></ul>New Heights and New Problems (cont.) (pages 305–306)
  152. 152. Section 4-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why was silk so highly prized? Possible answers: Silk came from the East, which was exciting and exotic to the European imagination. Silk has a wonderful texture, and owning and wearing silk signified status. New Heights and New Problems (cont.) (pages 305–306)
  153. 153. Section 4-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 306–308) <ul><li>From the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, European Christians went on a series of military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims, regarded as infidels (nonbelievers).  </li></ul>The Crusades <ul><li>These expeditions are known as the Crusades.  </li></ul><ul><li>They started when Pope Urban II agreed to Alexius I’s request.  </li></ul><ul><li>Among other reasons, the pope wanted to provide papal leadership for a great cause. </li></ul>
  154. 154. Section 4-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Crusades (cont.) <ul><li>At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II urged Christians to take up arms in a holy war.  </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors from western Europe, especially France, joined up.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some were moved by the cause; others were moved by adventure, the prospect of fighting, and an opportunity to gain territory, riches, or even a title. </li></ul>(pages 306–308)
  155. 155. Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The First Crusade had an army of several thousand cavalry and ten thousand infantry.  </li></ul><ul><li>The crusaders went down the Palestinian coast and reached Jerusalem in 1099.  </li></ul><ul><li>They took the city and massacred thousand of inhabitants. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  156. 156. Section 4-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The victors formed four Latin crusader states, which were surrounded by Muslims.  </li></ul><ul><li>These kingdoms depended on supplies from Europe coming through Italian cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Genoa, Pisa, and especially Venice grew rich and powerful. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  157. 157. Section 4-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By the 1140s, the Muslims began to strike back.  </li></ul><ul><li>When one of the Latin states fell, the monastic leader Saint Bernard of Clairvaux attained the help of King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany in a Second Crusade.  </li></ul><ul><li>It failed entirely. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  158. 158. Section 4-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 1187, Jerusalem fell to the Muslims under Saladin.  </li></ul><ul><li>Three Christian rulers then agreed to lead a Third Crusade: Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany; Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England; and Philip II Augustus of France.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusade was not successful.  </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick drowned in a local river, Philip went home, and Richard negotiated an agreement with Saladin allowing Christian pilgrims access to Jerusalem. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  159. 159. Section 4-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>About six years after Saladin’s death in 1193, Pope Innocent III started a Fourth Crusade.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Venetian leaders of the Fourth Crusade, however, used this situation to weaken their largest commercial competitor, the Byzantine Empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>The crusaders sacked Constantinople in 1204. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  160. 160. Section 4-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>A Byzantine army recaptured the city in 1261, but the empire was never again a great power.  </li></ul><ul><li>The shrunken empire continued for another 190 years until the Ottoman Turks conquered it in 1453. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  161. 161. Section 4-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>As a final gasp of the Crusades, there were two “children’s crusades.”  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1212, a German youth named Nicholas of Cologne brought thousands of children to the pope, saying that God had inspired him to lead the children to the Holy Land.  </li></ul><ul><li>The pope sent them home.  </li></ul><ul><li>At about the same time, a group of twenty thousand French children sailed for the Holy Land.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two ships went down at sea, and the remainder of the children were sold into slavery on reaching North Africa. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  162. 162. Section 4-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Historians disagree on the effects of the Crusades.  </li></ul><ul><li>Certainly they benefited some Italian cities economically, but the states probably would have grown economically anyway.  </li></ul><ul><li>One unhappy effect was that the first widespread European attacks on the Jews began during the Crusades.  </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the greatest impact of the Crusades was political.  </li></ul><ul><li>The eventually helped to break down feudalism, which led to strong nation-states. </li></ul>The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  163. 163. Section 4-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How did the Crusades help break down feudalism? As kings lowered taxes and raised armies, the nobles lost power. Taxing trade with the East also provided kings with new wealth, and they no longer depended on their feudal relationship with vassals for protection. The Crusades (cont.) (pages 306–308)
  164. 164. Section 4-38 __ 1. the separation between the two great branches of Christianity that occurred when the Roman Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other in 1054 __ 2. an unbeliever, a term applied to the Muslims during the Crusades __ 3. the head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, originally appointed by the Byzantine emperor __ 4. military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims A. patriarch B. schism C. Crusades D. infidel Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B D A C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  165. 165. Section 4-39 Explain how church and state were linked in the Byzantine Empire. Checking for Understanding The emperor was widely believed to be chosen by God, and he appointed the patriarch. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  166. 166. Section 4-40 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List Justinian’s accomplishments. Justinian restored the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean and codified Roman law.
  167. 167. Section 4-41 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   Why did cities such as Venice flourish as a result of the Crusades? Trade increased, since supplies from Europe went through the city.
  168. 168. Section 4-42 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the medieval illustration of one of the battles of the Crusades shown on page 306 of your textbook. How does this visual portrayal of a battle compare to the idealistic goals of the Crusades themselves? The Crusades were conducted in God’s name, but many people died violently.
  169. 169. Section 4-43 Close Discuss the positive and negative effects of the Crusades on Western civilization.
  170. 170. End of Section 4
  171. 171. Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed and developed in many ways during the Middle Ages.
  172. 172. End of Chapter Summary
  173. 173. Chapter Assessment 1 1. The _______________ determined the relationship between a lord and his vassals. 2. _______________ was the amount paid by a wrongdoer to the family of an injured person. 3. A series of Christian military expeditions were called the _______________. 4. The _______________ is the Byzantine counterpart to the pope in Rome. 5. A _______________ was the grant of land from the lord to a vassal in return for military service. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. feudal contract Wergild Crusades patriarch fief
  174. 174. Chapter Assessment 2 Citizenship   How did the bond of extended family affect the way Germanic law treated the problem of crime and punishment? Reviewing Key Facts Germanic law was personal; crimes were considered family feuds and were handled by a system of determination of guilt and payment for injury. Payment was based on rank in society. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  175. 175. Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. History   What two important functions did monks perform? They were Christian missionaries, and they spread learning.
  176. 176. Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government   Name one basic difference between the Roman and Germanic legal systems. In the Roman system, a crime such as murder was considered an offense against society or the state; in Germanic law, such a crime was considered personal, calling for the wrongdoer to pay wergild to the family of the wronged party.
  177. 177. Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government   How did Henry II enlarge the power of the English monarchy? Henry II enlarged the power of the English monarch by expanding the power of the royal courts.
  178. 178. Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture  What was the historical context in which the code of chivalry emerged? It was a code of civilized behavior for the nobility that evolved under the influence of the Catholic Church.
  179. 179. Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing   What factors helped feudalism to develop in western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries? Describe the major characteristics of the political system of feudalism. The disintegration of authority in the Carolingian world and invasions of Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings helped feudalism develop. Invaders posed a threat to inhabitants, who sought protection from local nobles. Lords created private armies to provide protection and gave land to vassals in return for an oath of loyalty and military service as knights. Vassals in turn protected the serfs, who worked the land they received from the lords.
  180. 180. Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Cause and Effect   What caused the schism in Christianity in the eleventh century? Could the split have been prevented? The unwillingness of the Eastern Orthodox Church to accept the pope’s claim that he was the sole head of the Christian faith caused the schism in Christianity. The split probably could not have been prevented, since it was essentially an attempt of the popes to assert their power over all of Christendom, and there was no room for compromise.
  181. 181. Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Examine the map below showing the expansion of Moscow from 1300 to 1462 and answer the following questions.
  182. 182. Chapter Assessment 10 By what year had the Volga River been added to Russia’s holdings? By 1425 the Volga River had been added to Russia’s holdings. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts
  183. 183. Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts What geographic features enabled the princes of Russia to expand their holdings? Rivers enabled Russian princes to expand their holdings.
  184. 184. Chapter Assessment 12 Analyzing Maps and Charts By 1493 Moscow’s ruler claimed to be “Sovereign of All Russia.” About how far did Moscow’s territory stretch from north to south in 1462? Moscow’s territory stretched approximately 550 miles south. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  185. 185. Chapter Assessment 13 Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, both England and France A defeated Frankish rulers and established autonomous kingdoms. B were rebuilt by Emperor Justinian. C established parliaments to help royal authorities rule. D were accomplished shipbuilders and sailors. Test-Taking Tip Questions that ask about a specific fact can be difficult if you do not know the answer. Increase your chances of choosing the correct answer by looking at each answer choice and thinking about the context in which it was discussed in class and in the textbook. Then, eliminate choices you know are wrong. Finally, ask yourself which remaining choice makes the most sense and select that as your answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Standardized Test Practice
  186. 186. End of Chapter Assessment
  187. 187. World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://wh.glencoe.com
  188. 188. CC 2 Economics Although advancements in weaponry made the knights of Europe more powerful, the cost of supplying these soldiers also increased. Explain how this practice and the taxes placed on peasants who supported the knights affected the feudal economy.
  189. 189. CC 1 Government Explain why a government based on the administrative ability of the leader’s household staff, as was Charlemagne’s, is likely to decline after his or her death. Compare this personal method of choosing government officials with the civil service examinations that were used in China.
  190. 190. CC 4 contents Economics Literature Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  191. 191. CC 4a Economics Explain why Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was particularly well located to become a wealthy and powerful city. Do you think the Byzantine Empire could have been an important force in history without the wealth generated in Constantinople?
  192. 192. CC 4b Literature Read Sir Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe, whose main character is a Crusader. Report to the class on the Christian-Jewish interactions described in the novel.
  193. 193. WWWW 1 Missionaries Pope Gregory I was so impressed with the Benedictine Rule that he adopted it to spread Christianity in Europe. In 597, he sent monks to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons. From England, missionaries carried Christianity to northern Germany. Irish missionaries traveled widely during the 600s. By the mid 1000s, most western Europeans had become Catholics.
  194. 194. WWWW 2 Armor Early medieval armor, called chain mail, consisted of small metal rings linked closely together. With the development of more deadly weaponry–crossbows, maces, and axes–heavier protection was needed. By the 1400s, most knights wore suits of plate armor.
  195. 195. WWWW 3 Louis IX Trade Routes Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  196. 196. WWWW 3a Louis IX advised his son: “[Have] a tender pitiful heart for the poor . . . [and] hold yourself loyal toward your subjects and your vassals. . . . If a poor man have a quarrel with a rich man, sustain the poor until the truth is made clear, and when you know the truth, do justice to them.”
  197. 197. WWWW 3b Trade Routes Among the most famous of the ancient trade routes was the one that went from Scandinavia to the Byzantine Empire. To a large extent, Kiev and Novgorod, the principal cities of ancient Rus, flourished because they were located along the waterways of this important route.
  198. 198. TP 3 Unlike the United States, the United Kingdom has no single written constitution. Instead, it is governed according to a series of laws and charters. Among the oldest of them is the Magna Carta. How has the Magna Carta changed the balance of power in government?
  199. 199. Skill Builder 1 Imagine that you are watching two candidates for president debate the merits of the college loan program. One says, “In my view, the college loan program must be reformed. Sixty percent of students do not repay their loans on time.” The other replies, “College costs are skyrocketing, but only 30 percent of students default on their loans for more than one year. I believe we should spend more on this worthy program.” How can you tell who or what to believe? You must learn to distinguish fact from opinion in order to effectively evaluate and analyze information acquired from a variety of sources such as books, television, and the Internet. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion Why Learn This Skill? This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook.
  200. 200. Skill Builder 2 A fact is a statement that can be proved to be true or false. In the example above, the statement “Sixty percent of students do not repay their loans on time” is a fact. By reviewing statistics on the number of student loan recipients who repay their loans, we can determine whether it is true or false. To identify facts, look for words and phrases indicating specific people, places, events, dates, and times.  Learning the Skill An opinion, on the other hand, expresses a personal belief, viewpoint, or emotion. Because opinions are subjective, we cannot prove or disprove them. In the opening example, most statements by the candidates are opinions. This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion
  201. 201. Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion Opinions often include qualifying words and phrases such as I think, I believe, probably, seems to be, may, might, could, ought, in my judgment, or in my view. Also, look for expressions of approval or disapproval such as good, bad, poor, and satisfactory. Be aware of superlatives such as greatest, worst, finest, and best. Notice words with negative meanings and implications such as squander, contemptible, and disgrace. Also, identify generalizations such as none, every, always, and never. This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook.
  202. 202. Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill For each pair of statements below, determine which is fact and which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion a The Byzantine Empire came to a pitiful end at the hands of the savage Turks. b The Byzantine Empire ended when Constantine XI died while defending Constantinople in 1453. a opinion; contains words with negative implications (pitiful, savage) b fact; contains facts (specific name, date, and event) This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  203. 203. Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion For each pair of statements below, determine which is fact and which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. a The alliance with the Byzantine Empire made Kiev a major trading link between Europe and Asia and between Scandinavia and Southwest Asia. b In the 900s, Kiev was the most isolated, uncivilized place and it possessed little in the way of culture. a fact; includes specific names b opinion; contains superlatives (most isolated, uncivilized) and a phrase with negative implications (little in the way of culture)
  204. 204. Skill Builder 7 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 309 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion For each pair of statements below, determine which is fact and which is opinion. Give a reason for each choice. a The Byzantine culture was more advanced than any other of its day. b Vladimir’s conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy brought Byzantine culture to Kievan Rus. a opinion; includes an expression of personal viewpoint (more advanced than any other) that is not backed up by any specifics b fact; includes specific names
  205. 205. A Story That Matters 1 Read The Crowning of Charlemagne on page 284 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook.
  206. 206. A Story That Matters 2 Why would a strong king like Charlemagne agree to be crowned by the leader of a religion that appeared to be in decline? He welcomed his new title and stature. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  207. 207. A Story That Matters 3 Why would the pope agree to crown a king of Rome? The pope wanted to show his gratitude for Charlemagne’s help. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  208. 208. A Story That Matters 4 Why did the Byzantine Empire provide western Europe with some safety from invasions from the East? The Byzantine empire served as a buffer between Europe and eastern peoples. This feature can be found on page 284 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  209. 209. Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 302 of your textbook. Read the information on page 302 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  210. 210. Eyewitness 2 How did Ibn Fadlan’s impression of the physical attributes of the Swedish Rus differ from his impression of their hygiene? Ibn Fadlan considered the Rus to be perfect physical specimens, but he also found them to be “the filthiest of God’s creatures.” This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  211. 211. Eyewitness 3 This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What does the way in which the Rus handled sickness and death tell you about their culture? The Rus, as described in this excerpt, do not seem to be very compassionate. On the other hand, the isolation of those who were sick may demonstrate an understanding of the communicable nature of disease in a time when there were few cures available.
  212. 212. Eyewitness 4 This feature can be found on page 302 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why would the Rus way of dealing with hygiene and death be especially repulsive to a Muslim? Because the Muslims were concerned with cleanliness, the habits of the Rus would have been particularly repulsive.
  213. 213. The Way It Was 1 The Castles of the Aristocrats The growth of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages (1000 to 1300) was made visible by a growing number of castles scattered across the landscape. Castles varied considerably but possessed two common features: they were permanent residences for the noble family, its retainers, and servants, and they were defensible fortifications. Read the excerpt on pages 294–295 of your textbook and answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook.
  214. 214. The Way It Was 2 Explaining What architectural and design features supported the two basic functions of castles? The keep provided a residence for the noble family, retainers, and servants; the moat, walls, gatehouse, and towers provided for defense. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  215. 215. The Way It Was 3 Describing What was the lifestyle of the European nobility in the High Middle Ages? Growing wealth made it possible for them to buy luxury goods such as jewelry and exotic spices, as well as to build elaborate castles with rooms that were well furnished and elaborately decorated. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  216. 216. The Way It Was 4 Writing about History Does a nobility exist today? Where? Yes, several countries in Europe and elsewhere still have nobility. Probably the best-known example is the United Kingdom. This feature can be found on pages 294–295 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  217. 217. Video 1 Charlemagne and His World After viewing “Charlemagne and His World,” you should:  Objectives <ul><li>Understand that Charlemagne brought Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the medieval period.  </li></ul><ul><li>Know that the Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three important renaissance periods in Europe.  </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of Charlemagne's contributions to the Europe that exists today. </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
  218. 218. Video 2 Charlemagne and His World According to Professor Hodges, what experience may have shaped Charlemagne's desire to reinvent himself as a latter-day Roman emperor? Traveling the old Roman roads in Italy, Charlemagne may have conceived of an empire based on the Roman model. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  219. 219. Video 3 Charlemagne and His World Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What accomplishments does the Charlemagne Prize honor? The Charlemagne Prize honors accomplishments in fostering a Europe based on shared economic and social values.
  220. 220. Maps and Charts 1
  221. 221. Maps and Charts 2
  222. 222. Maps and Charts 3
  223. 223. Maps and Charts 4
  224. 224. Maps and Charts 5 Europe, 1160 Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe Maps Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  225. 225. Maps and Charts 5a
  226. 226. Maps and Charts 5b
  227. 227. Maps and Charts 6
  228. 228. Maps and Charts 2a Carolingian Empire, 768–814 Map Chart Charlemagne, King of the Franks Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  229. 229. Maps and Charts 2b
  230. 230. Maps and Charts 2c
  231. 231. Maps and Charts 4a Crusades, 1096–1204 Children’s Crusade 1212 Third Crusade, 1189–1192 Maps Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  232. 232. Maps and Charts 4b
  233. 233. Maps and Charts 4c
  234. 234. Maps and Charts 4d
  235. 235. Chapter Transparency
  236. 236. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Pepin the Short Charles Martel Many rulers had the same name, so an adjective such as “bald,” or “short” could help people identify them; sometimes numbers were used.
  237. 237. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  238. 238. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  239. 239. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. the Bosporus strait the Dardanelles strait spices and jewelry
  240. 240. End of Custom Shows End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.
  241. 241. End of Slide Show

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