GWH Chapter 08

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GWH Chapter 08

  1. 1. Splash Screen
  2. 2. Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1 China Reunified Section 2 The Mongols and China Section 3 Early Japan and Korea Section 4 India after the Guptas Section 5 Civilization in Southeast Asia Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  3. 3. Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  4. 4. Intro 2 Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the development of the Asian world.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Innovations in agricultural production, the reemergence of trade routes, and a unified central government allowed China to prosper under the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s geography isolated it from other countries and caused the island nation to develop its own unique culture. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intro 3 Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the development of the Asian world. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Muslim expansion made both Islam and Hinduism powerful religions in the Indian subcontinent.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the geography of the region, Southeast Asian countries developed into a series of separate states with their own culture, religion, and language. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intro 4 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Gunpowder and printing were invented during the Tang dynasty in China.  </li></ul><ul><li>The expansion of Islam into northwestern India is reflected in the current division of the Indian subcontinent into India, which is mostly Hindu, and the two Islamic states of Bangladesh and Pakistan. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intro 5 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>explain differences and similarities among the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties.  </li></ul><ul><li>describe the accomplishments of the Mongol dynasty and the growth of Chinese culture.  </li></ul><ul><li>describe the emergence of Japan and Korea.  </li></ul><ul><li>explain the influence of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam on the development of India. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intro 6 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>describe the geography and peoples of Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. End of Intro
  10. 10. Section 1-1 <ul><li>The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restored peace to China in between periods of chaos and disorder.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. China Reunified Key Terms <ul><li>scholar-gentry  </li></ul><ul><li>dowry </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations and reforms in government, agriculture, and technology brought periods of growth and prosperity to China.  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 1-2 <ul><li>Sui Yangdi  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Marco Polo  </li></ul><ul><li>Wu Zhao  </li></ul><ul><li>Tibet  </li></ul>Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. China Reunified <ul><li>Changan  </li></ul><ul><li>Hangzhou </li></ul><ul><li>Tang Xuanzang  </li></ul><ul><li>Uighurs  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1-3 <ul><li>What contributions did the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties make to Chinese civilization?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. China Reunified <ul><li>What economic changes occurred under the Tang and Song rulers? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 1-4 Preview of Events China Reunified
  14. 14. Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  15. 15. Section 1-6 The Tang was the only dynasty that allowed a female to become “emperor.” Empress Wu, a woman who had clawed her way out of her position as a concubine by murdering her own daughter and then framing the childless empress for the crime, was known as a harsh ruler. She also lowered taxes, supported the arts, and put civil service examination graduates in the highest government positions, however.
  16. 16. Section 1-7 (pages 247–249) The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty <ul><li>China fell into chaos after the Han dynasty ended in 220.  </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 581, the Sui dynasty was set up.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was short-lived, but the Sui dynasty did unify China under the emperor’s authority. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) <ul><li>He used forced labor to build the canal.  </li></ul><ul><li>This practice, extravagant living, high taxes, and military failures caused a rebellion and the dynasty ended. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Sui Yangdi built the Grand Canal that linked the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River), making it easier to ship rice from the south to the north.  </li></ul>(pages 247–249)
  18. 18. Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Tang rulers began by instituting reforms, restoring the civil service examination for recruiting civilian bureaucrats, and trying to stabilize the economy by giving land to peasants and breaking up the power of large landowners. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tang dynasty lasted from 618 to 907.  </li></ul>The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  19. 19. Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Neighboring states like Korea offered tribute to powerful China, and China’s court had diplomatic relations with the states of Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>They extended their control to the borders of Tibet, an area north of the Himalaya.  </li></ul>The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  20. 20. Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Tang rulers were not able to prevent plotting and government corruption.  </li></ul><ul><li>Tang Xuanzang was a particularly unfortunate emperor.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was in love with a commoner’s daughter. </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Han, the Tang dynasty brought about its own destruction.  </li></ul>The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  21. 21. Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>It is said that for the rest of his life, the emperor “washed his face every day with a fountain of tears.” </li></ul><ul><li>When a general rebelled and demanded someone pay for the war and strife in his country, the emperor invited his beloved to hang herself, which she did.  </li></ul>The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  22. 22. Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Tang rulers hired Uighurs, a northern tribal group of Turkic-speaking people, to fight for the dynasty.  </li></ul><ul><li>Continued unrest led to the collapse of Tang rule in 907. </li></ul><ul><li>During the eighth century, the Tang dynasty weakened.  </li></ul>The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  23. 23. Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Grand Canal aided shipping by linking China’s two great rivers. What are some other important canals in world history? The Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. The Panama Canal made a huge difference for moving goods between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Suez Canal opened a water route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The Sui Dynasty and The Tang Dynasty (cont.) (pages 247–249)
  24. 24. Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 249–250) The Song Dynasty <ul><li>The Song ruled from 960 to 1279, during a period of economic and cultural achievement.  </li></ul><ul><li>China’s northern neighbors were a problem, however. Their threat caused Song rulers to move the imperial court to Hangzhou. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Song Dynasty (cont.) <ul><li>During the 1200s, the Mongols– a nomadic people from the Gobi–built a vast empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>Within 70 years, the Mongols overthrew the Song dynasty and created a Mongol dynasty in China. </li></ul>(pages 249–250)
  26. 26. Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Using the civil service exam to pick civil servants by merit undermined the power of the aristocrats and created a new class of scholar-gentry.  </li></ul><ul><li>Passing the exam was crucial for a government career.  </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for it began at a young age.  </li></ul><ul><li>For years, students memorized many Confucian classics.  </li></ul><ul><li>A text’s meaning was explained only after it was completely memorized. </li></ul>The Song Dynasty (cont.) (pages 249–250)
  27. 27. Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Manual labor was forbidden to these students.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Song introduced the practice of “name covering.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Test graders did not know the name of the students whose exams they were grading. </li></ul>The Song Dynasty (cont.) (pages 249–250)
  28. 28. Section 1-19 Boys preparing for the Chinese civil service examination had to memorize Confucian texts before learning what they meant. Is there any educational value for students to memorize poems, texts, etc.? The Song Dynasty (cont.) (pages 249–250)
  29. 29. Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 250–251) Government and the Economy <ul><li>It was seven hundred years from the beginning of the Sui to the end of the Song dynasties.  </li></ul><ul><li>China was a monarchy that had a large bureaucracy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the capital, government had a structure of provinces, districts, and villages.  </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture, manufacturing, and trade grew dramatically during these seven hundred years. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Government and the Economy (cont.) <ul><li>China was still primarily a farming society.  </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the peasants had become serfs or slaves for wealthy, large landowners.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Song tried to weaken their power and help the poor peasants get their own land.  </li></ul><ul><li>These reform efforts and advances in farming techniques created an abundance of food. </li></ul>(pages 250–251)
  31. 31. Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Technological advances added products and stimulated trade.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese began to make steel, which was used to make swords and sickles.  </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of cotton made new kinds of clothes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder was invented during the Tang dynasty.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was used to make explosives and a weapon called a fire-lance, which shot out flame and projectiles up to 40 yards. </li></ul>Government and the Economy (cont.) (pages 250–251)
  32. 32. Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Woodblock printing was developed during the Tang dynasty.  </li></ul><ul><li>Books could be mass produced.  </li></ul><ul><li>The first complete book to be printed was a Buddhist work, printed in 868.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the eleventh century, the Chinese invented movable type. </li></ul>Government and the Economy (cont.) (pages 250–251)
  33. 33. Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Long-distance trade revived with the Tang dynasty and unification of much of Southwest Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Silk Road was renewed and thrived, and caravans carried goods back and forth from China to the countries of South Asia and Southwest Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>This and domestic trade made Changan, estimated population of two million, the richest city in the world during the Tang period. </li></ul>Government and the Economy (cont.) (pages 250–251)
  34. 34. Section 1-25 What might motivate a powerful dynasty to help the poor? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Possible answers: A concern for their plight and social justice and a desire to make allies of such a large population in the struggle with the aristocrats and local nobles might have motivated a powerful dynasty to help the poor. Government and the Economy (cont.) (pages 250–251)
  35. 35. Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 252) Chinese Society <ul><li>In the thirteenth century, Marco Polo described the Song capital of Hangzhou, saying that “So many pleasures may be found that one fancies himself to be in Paradise.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Life was good in these cities for the wealthy. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chinese Society (cont.) <ul><li>People found new ways to communicate with the invention of block printing in the eighth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of Chinese lived off the land in villages.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most hardly left their villages during their lifetimes.  </li></ul><ul><li>The gulf between rich and poor was reduced a bit, however, and a more complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers emerged. </li></ul>(page 252)
  37. 37. Section 1-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The most significant change was the rise of the landed gentry.  </li></ul><ul><li>They controlled much of the land and produced most of the civil service candidates.  </li></ul><ul><li>These scholar-gentry replaced the landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society. </li></ul>Chinese Society (cont.) (page 252)
  38. 38. Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The status of women in Chinese society was low.  </li></ul><ul><li>As elsewhere in the world, female children were considered less desirable than male children.  </li></ul><ul><li>Female infants might even be killed if there was not enough food for all.  </li></ul><ul><li>Wives became part of their husbands’ families.  </li></ul><ul><li>When a woman married, her parents provided a dowry (money or goods) to her husband. </li></ul>Chinese Society (cont.) (page 252)
  39. 39. Section 1-30 <ul><li>Poor families often sold their daughters to wealthy villagers. </li></ul>Chinese Society (cont.) (page 252)
  40. 40. Section 1-31 What was an effect of the invention of block printing? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. One effect was that images or writing could be more easily reproduced and more people had access to them. Chinese Society (cont.) (page 252)
  41. 41. Section 1-32 __ 1. a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride’s parents to her husband, or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife __ 2. in China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for the civil service A. scholar-gentry B. dowry Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  42. 42. Section 1-33 Describe the reasons that civil service examinations were instituted by the Tang and Song rulers. Also describe the impact of the use of the exams on the Chinese government. Checking for Understanding Civil service examinations were instituted to ensure that government positions went to the most qualified people. The exams weakened the power of the landed aristocrats. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  43. 43. Section 1-34 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the new social and economic classes that emerged in the countryside during the Tang and Song Eras. A more complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers emerged during the Tang and Song Eras. Also, the scholar-gentry class replaced the landed aristocracy.
  44. 44. Section 1-35 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluate   The Chinese form of government was adopted by many other countries. Describe the basis for the Chinese form of government and evaluate its effectiveness. China was a monarchy with a large bureaucracy. The country was divided into provinces, districts, and villages. Civil service exams were used to select civil servants by merit. Competent bureaucrats were very effective.
  45. 45. Section 1-36 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe in detail the people and activities depicted in the painting shown on page 251 of your textbook. Identify and describe elements in a present-day situation that parallel the situation shown in the painting. Students taking an exam is a parallel present-day situation.
  46. 46. Section 1-37 Close Guide students in a discussion of the new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that developed during the Chinese periods discussed in this section. You may wish to compare these developments to those discussed in Chapter 3. Trace the spread of these ideas to other civilizations.
  47. 47. End of Section 1
  48. 48. Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Mongols and China <ul><li>The Mongols acquired the world’s largest land empire.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Key Terms <ul><li>khanate  </li></ul><ul><li>With the invention of printing, a golden age of literature and art emerged in China.  </li></ul><ul><li>neo-Confucianism  </li></ul><ul><li>porcelain </li></ul>
  49. 49. Section 2-2 The Mongols and China Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Genghis Khan  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Li Bo  </li></ul><ul><li>Duo Fu  </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Vietnam  </li></ul><ul><li>Java  </li></ul><ul><li>Sumatra </li></ul><ul><li>Gobi  </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing  </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan  </li></ul>
  50. 50. Section 2-3 <ul><li>What were the major achievements of the Mongol dynasty?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Mongols and China <ul><li>What changes resulted from the Mongol invasions? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Section 2-4 Preview of Events The Mongols and China
  52. 52. Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  53. 53. Section 2-6 Genghis Khan used homing pigeons as messengers for military and political instructions. As he expanded his territory, he set up pigeon relay posts across Asia and much of eastern Europe; the pigeons transmitted instructions to his capital for the governing of his distant dominions.
  54. 54. Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 253–254) The Mongol Empire <ul><li>The Mongols came from present-day Mongolia.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were organized loosely into clans.  </li></ul><ul><li>Temujin gradually unified the Mongols.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1206 he was elected Genghis Khan (“strong ruler”) at a massive meeting in the Gobi.  </li></ul><ul><li>He devoted himself to conquest. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Mongol Empire (cont.) <ul><li>The Mongols created the largest land empire in history, comprising much of the Eurasian landmass.  </li></ul><ul><li>Its capital was at Karakorum.  </li></ul><ul><li>Genghis Khan died in 1227.  </li></ul><ul><li>Following Mongol custom, the empire was divided among his sons into several khanates.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol forces soon attacked the Persians, Abbasids, and the Song. </li></ul>(pages 253–254)
  56. 56. Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In attacking the Song, the Mongols first experienced gunpowder and the fire-lance.  </li></ul><ul><li>The latter evolved into more effective handguns and cannons.  </li></ul><ul><li>By the early fourteenth century foreigners in the employ of Mongol rulers brought gunpowder and firearms to Europe. </li></ul>The Mongol Empire (cont.) (pages 253–254)
  57. 57. Section 2-10 What imported inventions have had a large effect on America? The Mongol Empire (cont.) (pages 253–254)
  58. 58. Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 254–255) <ul><li>In 1279 Kublai Khan completed conquering the Song.  </li></ul>The Mongol Dynasty in China <ul><li>He established the Yuan dynasty in China.  </li></ul><ul><li>He established the capital at Khanbaliq (“the city of the Khan”), now known as Beijing. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.) <ul><li>Under Kublai Khan, Mongol forces advanced against Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, and Japan.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol military tactics, such as cavalry charges and siege warfare, were not effective in these largely tropical, hilly regions.  </li></ul><ul><li>These Mongol campaigns failed. </li></ul>(pages 254–255)
  60. 60. Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Mongols were successful at ruling China.  </li></ul><ul><li>They adapted to the Chinese political system and used Chinese bureaucrats.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongols formed their own class, however, staffing the highest positions in the bureaucracy. </li></ul>The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.) (pages 254–255)
  61. 61. Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Over time, the Mongol dynasty won the support of the Chinese people, in part due to the economic prosperity and social stability the Mongols brought.  </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo wrote glowingly of Khanbaliq.  </li></ul><ul><li>His stories of the glories of China seemed unbelievable to Europeans. </li></ul>The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.) (pages 254–255)
  62. 62. Section 2-15 <ul><li>The Mongol dynasty finally fell apart due to problems that affected the other dynasties: too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and growing internal instability.  </li></ul>Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang, the son of a peasant, formed an army, ended the Mongol dynasty, and established the Ming dynasty. </li></ul>The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.) (pages 254–255)
  63. 63. Section 2-16 From what poem do the following lines come? “But oh! That deep romantic chasm which slanted/Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover! A savage place! as holy and enchanted/as e’er beneath a waning moon was haunted/By woman wailing for her demon-lover.” Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The lines are from Kubla Khan, by the English romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The Mongol Dynasty in China (cont.) (pages 254–255)
  64. 64. Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 255–256) <ul><li>By the time of the Sui and Tang dynasties, Buddhism and Daoism had emerged to rival Confucianism.  </li></ul>Religion and Government <ul><li>Confucianism reemerged during the Song dynasty and held its dominance until the early twentieth century. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Religion and Government (cont.) <ul><li>Buddhism came to China in the first century A.D.  </li></ul><ul><li>Indian merchants and missionaries brought it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the instability after the collapse of the Han dynasty, both Buddhism and Daoism attracted many people, especially the ruling classes, intellectuals, and the wealthy. </li></ul>(pages 255–256)
  66. 66. Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Early Tang rulers supported monasteries, and Buddhists became advisers at the imperial court.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, however, Buddhism was criticized and attacked.  </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism was attacked for being a foreign religion.  </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the Buddhist monasteries held lands and serfs, and with these holdings came corruption. </li></ul>Religion and Government (cont.) (pages 255–256)
  67. 67. Section 2-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>During the late Tang period, the government destroyed many Buddhist temples and forced more than 260,000 monks and nuns to return to secular life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism and Daoism no longer enjoyed state support. </li></ul>Religion and Government (cont.) (pages 255–256)
  68. 68. Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Official support went to a revived Confucianism, Neo-Confucianism.  </li></ul><ul><li>It differs from the original Confucianism.  </li></ul><ul><li>It teaches that the world is real, not illusory, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world. </li></ul>Religion and Government (cont.) (pages 255–256)
  69. 69. Section 2-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Neo-Confucianists divide the world into material and spiritual worlds. Humans link the two.  </li></ul><ul><li>We live in the material world but are linked with the Supreme Ultimate.  </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of humans is to unify with the Supreme Ultimate, through a careful examination of the moral principles that rule the universe. </li></ul>Religion and Government (cont.) (pages 255–256)
  70. 70. Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Many Eastern religions emphasize that the material realm of sense perception is an illusion. What does that idea mean? Possible answer: The basic idea is that there is a non-material structure of permanence beneath changing appearances, or illusions. Religion and Government (cont.) (pages 255–256)
  71. 71. Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 256–257) <ul><li>The invention of printing during the Tang dynasty helped make literature available and popular.  </li></ul>A Golden Age in Literature and Art <ul><li>The period between the Tang and Ming dynasties was a great age of Chinese literature.  </li></ul><ul><li>Art also flourished. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) <ul><li>Poetry was the highest literary art of the time.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some 2,200 authors wrote at least 48,000 poems.  </li></ul><ul><li>They celebrated the beauty of nature, the changes of seasons, and the joys of friendship.  </li></ul><ul><li>The expressed the sadness of parting and life’s brevity. </li></ul>(pages 256–257)
  73. 73. Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Li Bo and Duo Fu were two of the most popular poets.  </li></ul><ul><li>One of Li Bo’s poems has been memorized by Chinese schoolchildren for centuries.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was a free spirit known for his nature poetry.  </li></ul><ul><li>Duo Fu was a serious Confucian concerned with social justice and the plight of the poor. </li></ul>A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) (pages 256–257)
  74. 74. Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Landscape painting reached its height during the Song and Mongol dynasties.  </li></ul><ul><li>Painters went into the mountains to paint and find the Dao, or Way, in nature.  </li></ul><ul><li>The word for landscape in Chinese means “mountain-water” and reflects the Daoist search for balance between Earth and water. </li></ul>A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) (pages 256–257)
  75. 75. Section 2-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Chinese artists tried to depict the idea of the landscape, not how it appeared realistically.  </li></ul><ul><li>Empty spaces were left in the paintings because Daoists believe one cannot know the whole truth.  </li></ul><ul><li>Daoist influence also caused the people to be quite small in these landscapes, not dominating but living within nature. </li></ul>A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) (pages 256–257)
  76. 76. Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Ceramics, and especially Tang-period porcelain, a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures, flourished.  </li></ul><ul><li>The technique for making porcelain did not reach Europe until the eighteenth century. </li></ul>A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) (pages 256–257)
  77. 77. Section 2-30 Look at Li Bo’s poem on page 256 of your textbook. What does it say about Chinese culture that generations of Chinese schoolchildren have learned this poem? A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.) (pages 256–257)
  78. 78. Section 2-31 __ 1. a revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century __ 2. a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures __ 3. one of the several separate territories into which Genghis Khan’s empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons A. khanate B. neo-Confucianism C. porcelain Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B C A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  79. 79. Section 2-32 Explain how neo-Confucianism differs from Confucianism. Checking for Understanding Confucianism is primarily a system of social ethics and political ideals. Neo-Confucianism encourages speculation on the nature of the universe and humanity’s place in it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  80. 80. Section 2-33 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the ways in which Daoism is represented in Chinese art of the Song and Mongol dynasties. Daoism is represented in Chinese art by empty spaces left in paintings and the idea that humans are insignificant in the midst of nature.
  81. 81. Section 2-34 Critical Thinking Explain   What is the difference between the Buddhist and neo-Confucian philosophies? What impact might these two philosophies have had on the way the early Chinese viewed life? In Buddhism, the material world is not real. In neo-Confucianism the world is real, and fulfillment comes from participation in the world. The early Chinese placed action over contemplation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  82. 82. Section 2-35 Describe what you see in the landscape painting shown on page 257 of your textbook, then describe your emotional reaction to the painting. How do you think the painting reflects the times during which it was created? What artistic ideals did the artist express in the work? Analyzing Visuals
  83. 83. Section 2-36 Close Discuss the developments in Chinese culture that took place during the Mongol dynasty.
  84. 84. End of Section 2
  85. 85. Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Japan and Korea <ul><li>Japan developed differently from many other countries because of its geography.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Key Terms <ul><li>samurai  </li></ul><ul><li>daimyo  </li></ul><ul><li>Shinto  </li></ul><ul><li>Zen </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s history has been marked by power struggles between rulers and independent families.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bushido  </li></ul><ul><li>shogun  </li></ul><ul><li>shogunate  </li></ul>
  86. 86. Section 3-2 <ul><li>Shotoku Taishi  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Murasaki Shikibu  </li></ul><ul><li>Yi Song-gye  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Shikoku  </li></ul><ul><li>Osaka  </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto  </li></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul>Early Japan and Korea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Hokkaido  </li></ul><ul><li>Honshu  </li></ul><ul><li>Kyushu  </li></ul><ul><li>Minamoto Yoritomo  </li></ul>
  87. 87. Section 3-3 <ul><li>Why did Japan not develop a centralized government like China’s?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Early Japan and Korea <ul><li>How was Korea influenced by China? </li></ul>
  88. 88. Section 3-4 Preview of Events Early Japan and Korea
  89. 89. Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  90. 90. Section 3-6 The Zen Buddhist tea ceremony consists of the host bringing tea utensils into the room, offering the guests sweets, and then preparing and serving the guests tea made of pulverized tea leaf in hot water. The prepared tea is usually thin and frothy with a mildly astringent flavor. A light meal may precede the serving of sweets and tea.
  91. 91. Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 263–264) <ul><li>Chinese and Japanese societies have always been very different.  </li></ul>The Geography of Japan <ul><li>One reason is the differing geographies.  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is a chain of many islands.  </li></ul><ul><li>The population is concentrated on Hokkaido, the main island of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s total land size is about equal to the state of Montana. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Geography of Japan (cont.) <ul><li>Much of Japan is mountainous.  </li></ul><ul><li>About 11 percent of the land can be farmed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is prone to earthquakes.  </li></ul><ul><li>An earthquake almost destroyed Tokyo in 1923.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because of being geographically isolated, the Japanese developed a number of unique qualities, which contributed to the Japanese belief that they had a destiny separate from other peoples. </li></ul>(pages 263–264)
  93. 93. Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. From Japan’s geography, which do you think is a larger source of protein for the Japanese, beef or fish? Fish, because Japan is a nation of islands. Since much of Japan is mountainous, there is not much land for grazing cattle. In recent times, however, more and more Japanese are eating beef. The Geography of Japan (cont.) (pages 263–264)
  94. 94. Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 264–265) <ul><li>Japanese first settled in the Yamato plain near present-day Osaka and Kyoto.  </li></ul><ul><li>Society was comprised of clans, and the people were divided into a small aristocratic class and a large group of farmers, artisans, and servants.  </li></ul><ul><li>Local rulers protected the population in return for a share of the harvest.  </li></ul><ul><li>One Yamato clan gained supremacy and, in effect, ruled Japan.  </li></ul><ul><li>Other families continued to compete for power, however. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State
  95. 95. Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) <ul><li>Shotoku Taishi (early seventh century) tried to unify the clans to resist Chinese invasion.  </li></ul><ul><li>To do this, he imitated to a degree the Chinese structure of government.  </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted a supreme ruler over a centralized government to limit the aristocrats’ power and enhance his own.  </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was portrayed as a divine figure and the symbol of Japan. </li></ul>(pages 264–265)
  96. 96. Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His successors continued to emulate the Chinese model.  </li></ul><ul><li>They formed administrative districts.  </li></ul><ul><li>The rural village was the basic governmental unit.  </li></ul><ul><li>A new tax system was set up so taxes went directly to the government, not local aristocrats, and all farmland technically belonged to the state. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  97. 97. Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>After Shotoku Taishi’s death in 622, the Fujiwara clan gained power.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 710, the ruler moved the capital to Nara and began to use the title “son of Heaven.”  </li></ul><ul><li>The central government declined because the noble families were able to keep taxes from the lands for themselves. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  98. 98. Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>In 794, the emperor moved the capital to nearby Heian, present-day Kyoto.  </li></ul><ul><li>The government was returning to the decentralized system that existed before Shotoku Taishi.  </li></ul><ul><li>More and more peasants gave their lands to the aristocrats to avoid paying high taxes to them, becoming tenant farmers. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  99. 99. Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Landed aristocrats increasingly turned to military power to pursue their interests.  </li></ul><ul><li>This led to the creation of the samurai (“those who serve”) class.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were like knights and had their own code, called Bushido (“the way of the warrior”).  </li></ul><ul><li>Above all, the samurai were loyal to their lord and employer. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  100. 100. Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By the late twelfth century, Japanese wealthy families were embroiled in almost constant civil war.  </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the nobleman Minamoto Yoritomo defeated several rivals and set up his power near modern Tokyo.  </li></ul><ul><li>He created a more centralized government, called the shogunate, under a military ruler, or shogun.  </li></ul><ul><li>He, not the emperor, had the real power. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  101. 101. Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Yoritomo’s Kamakura shogunate lasted from 1192 to 1333.  </li></ul><ul><li>This system came just in time.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1281, Kublai Khan invaded Japan with vastly superior forces.  </li></ul><ul><li>A typhoon, however, destroyed almost the entire Mongol fleet.  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan would not have foreign invaders again until 1945. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  102. 102. Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The power of local aristocrats grew during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.  </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of noble families, called daimyo (“great names”), controlled vast landed estates that were tax exempt.  </li></ul><ul><li>The daimyo relied on the samurai, and a loose coalition of noble families came into power. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  103. 103. Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>By 1500 central power had disappeared.  </li></ul><ul><li>The disastrous Onin War, a civil war, almost destroyed Kyoto.  </li></ul><ul><li>The rivalries of powerful lords plunged Japan into virtual chaos. </li></ul>The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  104. 104. Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What are some powerful, wealthy families from American history? Three examples are the Roosevelts, Kennedys, and Rockefellers. The Rise of the Japanese State (cont.) (pages 264–265)
  105. 105. Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 266) <ul><li>Early Japan was largely a farming society.  </li></ul>Life in Early Japan <ul><li>Due to abundant rainfall, many farmers grew wet rice, or rice grown in flooded fields.  </li></ul><ul><li>Trade and manufacturing began to develop during the Kamakura period.  </li></ul><ul><li>Industries such as paper, iron casting, and porcelain emerged.  </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign trade with Korea and China emerged in the eleventh century. </li></ul>
  106. 106. Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Life in Early Japan (cont.) <ul><li>Women may have had a certain level of equality with men in early Japan.  </li></ul><ul><li>An eighth-century law guaranteed inheritance rights for women.  </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned wives could divorce and remarry.  </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, women were considered subordinate to men.  </li></ul><ul><li>A husband could divorce on the grounds of the wife talking too much, having a serious illness, or being unable to produce a male child. </li></ul>(page 266)
  107. 107. Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women played an active role in various levels of society.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some were prominent at court, and some were known for artistic and literary talents.  </li></ul><ul><li>Women often appear in the paintings of the time as farm workers, salespersons, and entertainers. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  108. 108. Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Early Japanese worshipped spirits called kami they believed resided in nature.  </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed their own ancestors were in the air around them.  </li></ul><ul><li>These beliefs evolved into a kind of state religion called Shinto (“the Sacred Way” or “the Way of the Gods”), still practiced today. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  109. 109. Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Shinto evolved into a state doctrine connected to a belief in the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation.  </li></ul><ul><li>According to legend, the first emperor was descended from the sun goddess, Amaterasu. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  110. 110. Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Some Japanese turned to Buddhism, brought from China during the sixth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The sect called Zen became the most popular.  </li></ul><ul><li>Zen beliefs became part of the samurai warrior’s code.  </li></ul><ul><li>According to Zen, there are different ways to achieve enlightenment, a state of pure being.  </li></ul><ul><li>Some say it can come suddenly, others that it can be achieved only through strong self-discipline, especially meditation. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  111. 111. Section 3-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>From the ninth to the twelfth centuries, women were the most productive writers of prose in Japan.  </li></ul><ul><li>Men in early Japan believed prose fiction was merely “vulgar gossip.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Women wrote diaries, stories, and novels to pass the time. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  112. 112. Section 3-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>This tradition produced one of the world’s great novels, The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu around the year 1000.  </li></ul><ul><li>The novel traces the life of the noble Genji as he moves from youthful adventure to a life of sadness and compassion in his later years.  </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout, he tries to remain in favor with the powerful in Japan. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  113. 113. Section 3-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Landscape served as the means of expression in Japanese art and architecture.  </li></ul><ul><li>The landscape around the fourteenth-century Golden Pavilion in Kyoto shows a harmony of garden, water, and architecture.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the world’s treasures. </li></ul>Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  114. 114. Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Who are some contemporary female fiction writers? Toni Morrison, Amy Tan, and J.K. Rowling are contemporary female fiction writers. Life in Early Japan (cont.) (page 266)
  115. 115. Section 3-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 267) <ul><li>The Korean Peninsula is only slightly larger than Minnesota.  </li></ul>The Emergence of Korea <ul><li>It is mountainous.  </li></ul><ul><li>No society in East Asia was more influenced by the Chinese model than Korea. </li></ul>
  116. 116. Section 3-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Emergence of Korea (cont.) <ul><li>In 109 B.C., the northern part of the peninsula came under Chinese control.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Koreans drove them out in the third century A.D.  </li></ul><ul><li>Three kingdoms emerged: Koguryo in the north, Paekche in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were bitter rivals from the fourth to the seventh centuries. </li></ul>(page 267)
  117. 117. Section 3-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Silla gained control. Korea sank into civil war after the king of Silla was assassinated.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the tenth century, the Koryo (root of the word Korea ) dynasty arose in the north.  </li></ul><ul><li>To unify the country, it adopted Chinese political institutions and stayed in power for four hundred years. </li></ul>The Emergence of Korea (cont.) (page 267)
  118. 118. Section 3-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Mongols seized the northern part of Korea in the thirteenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Koryo dynasty stayed in power.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol rule was harsh, however, especially for the thousands of people forced to make ships for Kublai Khan’s invasion of Japan.  </li></ul><ul><li>In 1392, Yi Song-gye seized power and founded the Yi dynasty in Korea. </li></ul>The Emergence of Korea (cont.) (page 267)
  119. 119. Section 3-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why is it not surprising that the Chinese political model influenced Korea more than any other East Asian country? Geographically, Korea is really a peninsula of China. The Emergence of Korea (cont.) (page 267)
  120. 120. Section 3-36 __ 1. “the way of the warrior,” the strict code by which Japanese samurai were supposed to live __ 2. “great names,” heads of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection __ 3. “those who serve,” Japanese warriors similar to the knights of medieval Europe __ 4. “the Sacred Way” or “the Way of the Gods,” the Japanese state religion; among its doctrines are the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation A. samurai B. Bushido C. shogun D. daimyo E. Shinto Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B D A E Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  121. 121. Section 3-37 __ 5. “general,” a powerful military leader in Japan A. samurai B. Bushido C. shogun D. daimyo E. Shinto Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  122. 122. Section 3-38 Explain why women were the most productive writers of prose fiction in Japan between the ninth and twelfth centuries. Checking for Understanding Men considered fiction vulgar. Women wrote to pass the time. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  123. 123. Section 3-39 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the reforms in government made by Shotoku Taishi’s successors. Which country’s system of government was the model for these reforms? Shotoku’s successors divided the territory into administrative districts, with taxes paid directly to the central government. China’s government was a model for these reforms.
  124. 124. Section 3-40 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain   How did the samurai and shogun affect the government of early Japan? The samurai kept Japan from developing a strong central government. The shogun was an aristocrat who effectively ruled Japan.
  125. 125. Section 3-41 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Examine the painting of the woman shown on page 266 of your textbook. What do you think her role was in Japanese society? Identify elements in the painting that support your answer. Do you see any similarities between the tone and mood of the painting and the feelings generated by looking at the landscape architecture shown on page 267 of your textbook? The woman was a court entertainer. Both works reflect grace and harmony.
  126. 126. Section 3-42 Close Discuss the difficulty Japan’s leaders faced in establishing and maintaining central control over their lands.
  127. 127. End of Section 3
  128. 128. Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. India after the Guptas <ul><li>Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam influenced the development of India.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Key Terms <ul><li>Theravada  </li></ul><ul><li>Its location made India a center for trade, but conflicts among its states plagued its growth and prosperity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana </li></ul>
  129. 129. Section 4-2 <ul><li>Mahmud of Ghazni  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Moguls  </li></ul><ul><li>Dandin  </li></ul><ul><li>India  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Deccan Plateau  </li></ul><ul><li>Samarkand </li></ul>India after the Guptas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Ghazni  </li></ul><ul><li>Sultanate of Delhi  </li></ul><ul><li>Rajputs  </li></ul><ul><li>Timur Lenk  </li></ul>
  130. 130. Section 4-3 <ul><li>What major events marked the Islamic expansion into India?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. India after the Guptas <ul><li>What impact did Muslim rule have on Indian society and culture? </li></ul>
  131. 131. Section 4-4 Preview of Events India after the Guptas
  132. 132. Section 4-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  133. 133. Section 4-6 In India, as in many other Asian countries, the elephant is the work animal for such projects as clearing land. Cows generally are not put to work in India because Hindus believe they are sacred, a belief that has given us our expression sacred cow. According to legend, the Hindu hero Prithu changed himself into a cow to encourage his countrymen to be vegetarians.
  134. 134. Section 4-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 268–269) <ul><li>Buddhism was popular among the Indian people for hundreds of years.  </li></ul>The Decline of Buddhism <ul><li>A split developed in the followers of Buddhism in India.  </li></ul><ul><li>One group believed it was following the original teaching of the Buddha.  </li></ul><ul><li>Its members called themselves the school of Theravada (“the teachings of the elders”).  </li></ul><ul><li>They saw Buddhism as a way of life, not a religion centered on individual salvation. </li></ul>
  135. 135. Section 4-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Decline of Buddhism (cont.) <ul><li>They claimed that understanding one’s self is the chief way to gain nirvana, or release from the “wheel of life.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Another view of Buddhism stressed that nirvana was achieved through devotion to the Buddha.  </li></ul><ul><li>This school is known as Mahayana Buddhism.  </li></ul><ul><li>Its members claimed that Theravada teachings were too strict for ordinary people. </li></ul>(pages 268–269)
  136. 136. Section 4-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>To Mahayana, Buddhism is a religion, not a philosophy.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Buddha was not just a wise man but also a divine figure.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nirvana is a true heaven.  </li></ul><ul><li>Through devotion to the Buddha people can achieve salvation in this heaven after death. </li></ul>The Decline of Buddhism (cont.) (pages 268–269)
  137. 137. Section 4-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Ultimately, neither sect remained popular in India.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism and Islam became more accepted.  </li></ul><ul><li>Both schools of Buddhism were successful abroad, however, with monks carrying them to China, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia, where people still practice Buddhism extensively. </li></ul>The Decline of Buddhism (cont.) (pages 268–269)
  138. 138. Section 4-11 What might influence people to follow one view of Buddhism over another? The Decline of Buddhism (cont.) (pages 268–269)
  139. 139. Section 4-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 269) <ul><li>In the early eighth century Islam became popular in the northern Indian subcontinent.  </li></ul>The Eastward Expansion of Islam <ul><li>It had a major impact on Indian civilization.  </li></ul><ul><li>One reason for this success is that it arrived at a time of political disunity.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Gupta Empire had collapsed, and India’s almost 70 states warred with each other. </li></ul>
  140. 140. Section 4-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Eastward Expansion of Islam (cont.) <ul><li>The founder’s son, Mahmud of Ghazni, took power in 997.  </li></ul><ul><li>He attacked neighboring Hindu kingdoms and greatly expanded his state. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the tenth century, Islam expanded as rebellious Turkish slaves founded an Islamic state known as Ghazni, in present-day Afghanistan.  </li></ul>(page 269)
  141. 141. Section 4-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Mahmud’s cavalry outfought their slower infantry and elephants, however.  </li></ul><ul><li>By 1200, Muslim power was spread over north India, creating a new Muslim state known as the Sultanate of Delhi.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the next century, this state extended its power into the Deccan Plateau. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu warriors called Rajputs fought Mahmud in the north.  </li></ul>The Eastward Expansion of Islam (cont.) (page 269)
  142. 142. Section 4-15 What do you know about Islamic beliefs? The Eastward Expansion of Islam (cont.) (page 269)
  143. 143. Section 4-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 269–270) <ul><li>The Sultanate of Delhi declined by the end of the fourteenth century.  </li></ul>The Impact of Timur Lenk <ul><li>A new military force raided Delhi and then retreated, but not before massacring 100,000 Hindu prisoners.  </li></ul><ul><li>The commander was Timur Lenk (Tamerlane). </li></ul>
  144. 144. Section 4-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Impact of Timur Lenk (cont.) <ul><li>Timur Lenk ruled a Mongol state based in Samarkand.  </li></ul><ul><li>He seized power in 1369 and began conquering.  </li></ul><ul><li>He placed Mesopotamia and the region east of the Caspian Sea under his control.  </li></ul><ul><li>He died in 1405. </li></ul>(pages 269–270)
  145. 145. Section 4-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>His death removed a major threat from the various states of the Indian subcontinent.  </li></ul><ul><li>By the early sixteenth century, two new challenges appeared: the Moguls, a newly emerging nomadic power from the north, and the Portuguese traders arriving by sea searching for gold and spices. </li></ul>The Impact of Timur Lenk (cont.) (pages 269–270)
  146. 146. Section 4-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What principle for treating war prisoners is recognized by just war theory? The principle of humanity: A person does not lose basic rights as a war prisoner, a position Timur Lenk clearly did not hold. The Impact of Timur Lenk (cont.) (pages 269–270)
  147. 147. Section 4-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 270) <ul><li>Since the Indian Muslim rulers saw themselves as foreign conquerors, they tried to maintain a strict separation between the Muslim ruling class and the mass of the Hindu population.  </li></ul>Islam and Indian Society <ul><li>Muslim rulers tended to be intolerant of other faiths.  </li></ul><ul><li>They generally used peaceful means to encourage people to convert to Islam, however.  </li></ul><ul><li>The sheer number of Hindus convinced some Muslim rulers that the population could not be converted to Islam. </li></ul>
  148. 148. Section 4-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Islam and Indian Society (cont.) <ul><li>Muslim rulers did impose Muslim customs on the Hindus.  </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the relationship between Muslim and Hindu was that of conqueror and conquered, and so marked by suspicion and dislike rather than friendship and understanding.  </li></ul><ul><li>Hatred and violence between Hindus and Muslims have plagued Indian history.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in 1992 a mob of Hindu militants sacked a Muslim mosque in northern India. </li></ul>(page 270)
  149. 149. Section 4-22 <ul><li>The mosque was built centuries ago on a Hindu sacred site. </li></ul>Islam and Indian Society (cont.) (page 270)
  150. 150. Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What country was created to try to alleviate the Hindu and Muslim conflicts in India? The Muslim state of Pakistan was created in 1947 to alleviate conflict. Islam and Indian Society (cont.) (page 270)
  151. 151. Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 270–271) <ul><li>Between 500 and 1500, most Indians farmed their own small plots.  </li></ul>Economy and Daily Life <ul><li>They paid a share of their harvest to a landlord, basically a tax collector for the local lord.  </li></ul><ul><li>Many people, such as landed elites and rich merchants, during this period lived in cities, however. </li></ul>
  152. 152. Section 4-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Economy and Daily Life (cont.) <ul><li>Many rulers were fabulously wealthy.  </li></ul><ul><li>One maharaja (great king) had more than a hundred thousand soldiers in his pay, nine hundred elephants, and twenty thousand horses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Another kept a thousand women to sweep his palace.  </li></ul><ul><li>They went before him as he walked. </li></ul>(pages 270–271)
  153. 153. Section 4-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>India’s chief source of wealth was agriculture, but it also was a trade center between Southwest and East Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>Internal trade declined during periods of internal strife.  </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign trade remained high, especially in the south and along the northwestern coast.  </li></ul><ul><li>Both areas were on the traditional trade routes to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul>Economy and Daily Life (cont.) (pages 270–271)
  154. 154. Section 4-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. From this and the previous chapters of your textbook, what patterns do you see in the economic relations between the rich and poor? Possible answer: Commonly the peasants struggled with keeping their own land and avoiding having to become tenant farmers of the landed aristocracy. Economy and Daily Life (cont.) (pages 270–271)
  155. 155. Section 4-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 271–272) <ul><li>Indian arts flourished between 500 and 1500.  </li></ul>The Wonder of Indian Culture <ul><li>Two of the most important were architecture and prose literature.  </li></ul><ul><li>Indian architects built magnificent Hindu temples.  </li></ul><ul><li>Each had a central shrine surrounded by a tower, a hall for worshippers, an entryway, and a porch, all set in a courtyard.  </li></ul><ul><li>The temples and tower were complex and ornate. </li></ul>
  156. 156. Section 4-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Wonder of Indian Culture (cont.) <ul><li>The greatest temples probably are at Khajuraho.  </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 80 built there, 20 are still standing.  </li></ul><ul><li>They all are buttressed (supported by stone walls) at various levels on the sides.  </li></ul><ul><li>This gives a sense of upward movement similar to the sacred Mount Kailasa in the Himalaya. </li></ul>(pages 271–272)
  157. 157. Section 4-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Prose was established in India by the sixth and seventh centuries.  </li></ul><ul><li>By contrast, the novel did not appear in Japan until the tenth century and Europe until the seventeenth.  </li></ul><ul><li>One of the greatest masters of Sanskrit prose was Dandin, who wrote The Ten Princes in the seventh century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The book fuses history and fiction.  </li></ul><ul><li>Dandin’s powers of observation and humor give his writing vitality. </li></ul>The Wonder of Indian Culture (cont.) (pages 271–272)
  158. 158. Section 4-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. In your opinion, what is the difference between prose and poetry in regard to what each expresses.? Possible answer: Prose may be better able to carry a story and develop character, although great epic poems like Homer’s do both well. Poetry may be better at expressing intuitive insights. The Wonder of Indian Culture (cont.) (pages 271–272)
  159. 159. Section 4-32 __ 1. “the teachings of the elders,” a school of Buddhism that developed in India; its followers view Buddhism as a way of life, not a religion centered on individual salvation __ 2. a school of Buddhism that developed in northwest India, stressing the view that nirvana can be achieved through devotion to the Buddha; its followers consider Buddhism a religion, not a philosophy, and the Buddha is a divine figure A. Theravada B. Mahayana Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. A B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  160. 160. Section 4-33 Explain what happened to the spread of Buddhism in India. Checking for Understanding Theravada declined, and Mahayana was absorbed by Hinduism and Islam. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  161. 161. Section 4-34 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the two groups that entered India after the death of Timur Lenk. The Moguls and the Portuguese entered India after the death of Timur Lenk.
  162. 162. Section 4-35 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluate   What was the impact of the introduction of Islam into the Indian culture? Give reasons to support whether the impact was negative or positive. Possible answer: Muslims angered Hindus. The impact was negative because the two remain bitter rivals to this day.
  163. 163. Section 4-36 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyze how the Hindu temple, shown on page 272 of your textbook, reflects the history of the culture in which it was produced. The temple is monumental, it gives a sense of unity, and the decorations reflect Hindu beliefs and stories.
  164. 164. Section 4-37 Close Discuss how India’s rich economy allowed it to support the arts and led to the construction of many fabulous temples and palaces.
  165. 165. End of Section 4
  166. 166. Section 5-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Civilization in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Geography and cultural influences affected the development of Southeast Asia.  </li></ul>Main Ideas Key Terms <ul><li>archipelago  </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asian countries had primarily farming or trading economies that influenced their social structures.  </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural society  </li></ul><ul><li>trading society </li></ul>
  167. 167. Section 5-2 <ul><li>Jayavarman  </li></ul>People to Identify <ul><li>Malay Peninsula  </li></ul>Places to Locate <ul><li>Thailand  </li></ul><ul><li>Strait of Malacca  </li></ul><ul><li>Melaka </li></ul>Civilization in Southeast Asia Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Vietnam  </li></ul><ul><li>Angkor  </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan  </li></ul><ul><li>Thai  </li></ul>
  168. 168. Section 5-3 <ul><li>What influence did geography have on the development of Southeast Asia?  </li></ul>Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Civilization in Southeast Asia <ul><li>How does Southeast Asia reflect Chinese, Indian, and Muslim influences? </li></ul>
  169. 169. Section 5-4 Preview of Events Civilization in Southeast Asia
  170. 170. Section 5-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  171. 171. Section 5-6 The site of Trinil on Java is famous for the 1891 discovery by the Dutch army surgeon Eugène Dubois of the first fossilized remains of Homo erectus, or “Java man.” The fossils mean that the island was the site of human activity as early as 800,000 years ago.
  172. 172. Section 5-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 273–274) <ul><li>Southeast Asia lies between China and India.  </li></ul>The Land and People of Southeast Asia <ul><li>It has two major parts: a mainland region extending southward from China to the tip of the Malay Peninsula, and an extensive archipelago (chain of islands) that makes up modern Indonesia and the Philippines.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient mariners called the area the “golden region” or “golden islands.”  </li></ul><ul><li>It contains a vast mixture of races, cultures, and religions. </li></ul>
  173. 173. Section 5-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Land and People of Southeast Asia (cont.) <ul><li>The densely forested mountains often contain malaria-carrying mosquitoes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the people in the valleys were often cut off from one another. </li></ul><ul><li>The mainland has many mountain ranges, between which are fertile valleys.  </li></ul>(pages 273–274)
  174. 174. Section 5-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Rather, separate and distinctive cultures developed, with different languages, religions, and other cultural practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia is one of the few parts of Asia that never unified under a single government.  </li></ul>The Land and People of Southeast Asia (cont.) (pages 273–274)
  175. 175. Section 5-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Did geography affect the fact that Southeast Asia never unified under a single government? The answer is “Yes.” The combination of the many mountain ranges and dense forests helped to keep people from unifying. The Land and People of Southeast Asia (cont.) (pages 273–274)
  176. 176. Section 5-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 274–276) <ul><li>Between 500 and 1500, states that adapted Chinese and Indian models to their own needs developed throughout Southeast Asia.  </li></ul>The Formation of States <ul><li>The Vietnamese were one of the first people in Southeast Asia to develop their own culture and state.  </li></ul><ul><li>China conquered Vietnam in 111 B.C.  </li></ul><ul><li>They failed for centuries to make Vietnam part of China, however. </li></ul>
  177. 177. Section 5-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Formation of States (cont.) <ul><li>Vietnamese rulers adapted the Chinese model of governing after overthrowing the Chinese in the tenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The new Vietnamese state–Dai Viet (Great Viet)– adopted Confucianism, Chinese court rituals, and the civil service examination.  </li></ul><ul><li>The state was a dynamic force that expanded southward to the Gulf of Thailand by 1600. </li></ul>(pages 274–276)
  178. 178. Section 5-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The kingdom of Angkor arose in the ninth century in present-day Cambodia, after the powerful leader Jayavarman united the Khmer people.  </li></ul><ul><li>He was crowned god-king in 802.  </li></ul><ul><li>Angkor (Khmer Empire) was the most powerful mainland state in Southeast Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>Angkor faced enemies on all sides. </li></ul>The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  179. 179. Section 5-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Angkor declined with the arrival of the Thai people in the fourteenth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier in the eleventh or twelfth centuries, the Thai began moving southward, encouraged by the Mongol invasion of China.  </li></ul><ul><li>The migrating Thai destroyed the Angkor capital in 1432.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Thai converted to Buddhism and borrowed Indian political practices, but evolved their own distinct blend that became the culture of present-day Thailand. </li></ul>The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  180. 180. Section 5-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Burmans migrated from Tibet beginning in the seventh century A.D. , probably to escape advancing Chinese armies.  </li></ul><ul><li>They were pastoral, but they took up farming after their arrival in Southeast Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>They converted to Buddhism and established the kingdom of Pagan, which was active in the sea trade throughout the region.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan declined in the late thirteenth century due to attacks from the Mongols. </li></ul>The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  181. 181. Section 5-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>The Malay Peninsula and Indonesian Archipelago were tied to the trade that passed from East Asia through the Indian Ocean.  </li></ul><ul><li>The area did not unite under a single ruler, and peoples lived in several different communities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two states did finally emerge.  </li></ul><ul><li>Srivijaya dominated the trade through the Strait of Malacca beginning in the eighth century.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sailendra emerged in eastern Java. </li></ul>The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  182. 182. Section 5-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Later the kingdom of Majapahit became the region’s greatest empire.  </li></ul><ul><li>Then around 1400, the Islamic state of Melaka began to form.  </li></ul><ul><li>The small town of Melaka on the western coast of the Malay Peninsula soon became the area’s major trading post.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually almost the entire population of the region was converted to Islam and was part of the Sultanate of Melaka. </li></ul>The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  183. 183. Section 5-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What were the major religions of the early Southeast Asian states? Vietnam followed Confucianism. Thailand and Burma (Pagan) followed Buddhism. The Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago followed Islam. The Formation of States (cont.) (pages 274–276)
  184. 184. Section 5-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 277) <ul><li>Southeast Asian states can be divided into two groups– agricultural societies and trading societies –depending on the basis of their economies.  </li></ul>Economic Forces and Social Structures <ul><li>Agricultural societies did some trading, of course. </li></ul>
  185. 185. Section 5-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Economic Forces and Social Structures (cont.) <ul><li>Demand for spices rose and added to the growing amount of trade, as European and Southeast Asian wealth grew around the same time.  </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants from India and the Arabian Peninsula sailed to the Indonesian islands to bring back cloves, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, and precious woods like teak and sandalwood that the wealthy in China and Europe wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade reached its height after the Muslim conquest of northern India.  </li></ul>(page 277)
  186. 186. Section 5-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>They lived in the cities.  </li></ul><ul><li>Angkor Thom was one, with royal palaces and parks, a large parade ground, reservoirs, and temples. </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary aristocrats topped the social ladder in most Southeast Asian societies, holding political and economic power.  </li></ul>Economic Forces and Social Structures (cont.) (page 277)
  187. 187. Section 5-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Most people were rice farmers who lived at a subsistence level and paid heavy rent or taxes to local landlords or rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers, fishers, artisans, and merchants made up the rest of the population.  </li></ul>Economic Forces and Social Structures (cont.) (page 277)
  188. 188. Section 5-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Women worked side by side with men in the fields and often participated in trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Women in most Southeast Asian societies had more rights than they did in China or India.  </li></ul>Economic Forces and Social Structures (cont.) (page 277)
  189. 189. Section 5-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why were spices so sought after by wealthy Europeans? Spices were used to help preserve food or to hide the smell of rotting foods. Spices were also used as perfumes and were carried in hand kerchiefs to aid in blotting out the stench of urban life. Economic Forces and Social Structures (cont.) (page 277)
  190. 190. Section 5-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 277–278) <ul><li>Chinese culture affected Vietnam.  </li></ul>Culture and Religion <ul><li>Indian influence prevailed in most of the rest of Southeast Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture is the best example of the latter influence, for example the temple of Angkor Wat in present-day Cambodia.  </li></ul><ul><li>It rises like a 200-foot mountain in a series of three terraces, and huge walls surround it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing it took forty years and as much stone as Egypt’s Great Pyramid. </li></ul>
  191. 191. Section 5-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Culture and Religion (cont.) <ul><li>Hinduism and Buddhism moved into Southeast Asia beginning in the first millennium A.D.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, old faiths blended with the new.  </li></ul><ul><li>The king played an important role in this process.  </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was seen as a living link between the people and the gods. </li></ul>(pages 277–278)
  192. 192. Section 5-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. <ul><li>Buddhism began to have a real impact with the introduction of Theravada in the eleventh century, initially in Burma.  </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, Buddhism became the religion of the masses of people in Southeast Asia.  </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the reason is that it teaches that people can seek nirvana through their own efforts, they do not need priests or rulers.  </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, it tolerated local gods, and so it did not threaten established faiths. </li></ul>Culture and Religion (cont.) (pages 277–278)
  193. 193. Section 5-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What about the beliefs and practices of Buddhism might attract a convert? Possible answers: It promises an escape from suffering and it emphasizes compassion for all living things. Culture and Religion (cont.) (pages 277–278)
  194. 194. Section 5-29 __ 1. a group of people who depend primarily on trade for income __ 2. a chain of islands __ 3. a group of people whose economy is largely based on farming A. archipelago B. agricultural society C. trading society Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C A B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
  195. 195. Section 5-30 Explain the importance of Islam in the development of Melaka. What other religious and philosophical influences were important in the formation of states in Southeast Asia? Checking for Understanding Muslim merchants settled port cities, and an Islamic state formed. Hinduism and Buddhism were also important in the formation of states in Southeast Asia. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  196. 196. Section 5-31 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the Chinese reforms that were adopted by the Dai Viet. State Confucianism, Chinese court rituals, and civil service examinations were adopted by the Dai Viet.
  197. 197. Section 5-32 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain  How would an increase in trade and exporting cause a region to develop more complex forms of political and social organization? Use examples from the textbook to support your answer. Cities would grow, and new classes (merchants, artisans) would evolve. To maintain control, more sophisticated forms of political organization would be needed.
  198. 198. Section 5-33 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Compare the examples of religious temples and their art pictured on pages 275, 277, and 278 of your textbook. What elements or features are unique in each example? Identify the country where each was built or resides. How do these buildings and sculptures compare to the religious art and architecture in your area? The shape of towers is different, and the art differs between the Hindu and Buddhist temples. The temples were built in Thailand, Cambodia, Java.
  199. 199. Section 5-34 Close Discuss the importance of the physical geography of Southeast Asia on the development of states and cultures in its history.
  200. 200. End of Section 5
  201. 201. Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary In the Asian world, countries developed different political systems and forms of government. Each country, however, had strong leaders, as shown below.
  202. 202. End of Chapter Summary
  203. 203. Chapter Assessment 1 1. The sons of Genghis Khan divided his empire up into separate territories called _______________. 2. The purpose of the _______________ in Japan was to protect the security and property of their patrons. 3. In Japan, a powerful military leader who exercised actual power while ruling under the emperor’s name was called a _______________. 4. In India, the teachings of the Buddha came to be interpreted in two different ways: the school of Theravada and the school of _______________. 5. Southeast Asia has a mainland region and an extensive _______________, or chain of islands. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. khanates samurai shogun Mahayana archipelago
  204. 204. Chapter Assessment 2 History   Discuss the importance of the kamikaze, the “divine wind,” in early Japanese history. Reviewing Key Facts The kamikaze destroyed the Mongol fleet that was attempting to invade Japan. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  205. 205. Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography   Name the two rivers in China that the Grand Canal connected. Explain why the canal was important. The Grand Canal connected the Huang He and Chang Jiang Rivers. The canal made it easier to ship rice from the south to the north.
  206. 206. Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Science and Technology  Choose three products developed by the Tang and discuss the importance of each. Steel was used to make weapons and farm tools. Cotton made new kinds of clothing. Gunpowder was used to make explosives and weapons.
  207. 207. Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Government   Explain the circumstances under which the Mongol dynasty ended. Name the dynasty that emerged as a result. The Mongol dynasty ended because of too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and internal instability. The Ming dynasty emerged after the Mongol dynasty.
  208. 208. Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography   Compare the geography of Japan and China. How did geography influence their development? The Mongol dynasty ended because of too much spending on foreign conquests, corruption at court, and internal instability. The Ming dynasty emerged after the Mongol dynasty.
  209. 209. Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Economy   Specify the reasons India was successful in world trade. India was successful in world trade because of its location at the crossroads of major trade routes between Southwest Asia and East Asia.
  210. 210. Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing   How did the civil service examinations aid in the development of a strong central government in China? The civil service examinations ensured that bureaucrats were well trained since appointments were based on merit.
  211. 211. Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Making Comparisons   In what ways were the roles of women of the early Chinese dynasties similar to the roles of women of Southeast Asia? How were they different? Women in both regions were given fewer rights than men and were primarily viewed as homemakers, wives, and mothers. Women in Southeast Asia had more rights than their counterparts in China. They worked alongside men in the fields and played an active role in trading activities.
  212. 212. Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Study the map below and answer the questions on the following slides.
  213. 213. Chapter Assessment 10 From the map, determine in which geographic direction the population shifted. The population decreased in the north and increased in the southeast. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts
  214. 214. Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts Using your textbook, explain why the population decreased in certain areas of China during this period. The population decreased in some areas due to the Uighur threat in the north and civil war.
  215. 215. Chapter Assessment 12 Which of the following sentences completes the flowchart? F Central authority eroded. G The Yuan dynasty expanded. H Regional trade increased. J More Shinto shrines were built. Test-Taking Tip Flowcharts show how events influenced other events. Study the progression carefully. Think about what cause-and-effect relationship the flowchart illustrates. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Use the flowchart and your knowledge of world history to choose the best answer to the following question. Standardized Test Practice
  216. 216. End of Chapter Assessment
  217. 217. World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://wh.glencoe.com
  218. 218. CC 1 Economics Make a list of new products China manufactured during the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties. Identify and support your choice of the product you believe was most important to changing the history of China.
  219. 219. CC 2 Science Literature Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  220. 220. CC 2a Science The Gobi is known as a vast zone of desert, occupying about 30 percent of Mongolia. However, the Gobi also features semi-arid grasslands. The western part of the Gobi has high mountains, forests, and steppes. The Gobi is home to wild horses, whose ancestors were used by Genghis Khan. It is also home to snow leopards, mountain sheep, ibex, lynx, gazelles, the Gobi bear, and the khavtagi, a wild camel that is the ancestor of the Bactrian camel. Summer temperatures often reach 104 °F, and winter temperatures can drop as low as -40°F.
  221. 221. CC 2b Literature One of the most famous poems of the English Romantic period is “Kublai Khan,” by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Published in 1816, it portrays Kublai Kahn’s court as a place of fantastic beauty. His magnificent capital is thought to be the city Coleridge calls Xanadu.
  222. 222. CC 3 Government Speculate about how limited trade, mountainous land, and an agrarian economy would have contributed to the lack of a central government in Japan.
  223. 223. CC 4 Music Another area of creativity that developed in India during this era was music. Indian classical music is based on a musical scale called a raga. Performers select a basic raga and then are free to improvise the melody and rhythm, as is the case with Western jazz music. Many artists, including the late George Harrison of the Beatles, have been influenced by Indian music. Identify examples of music that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.
  224. 224. CC 5 Geography Using a wall map if possible, locate the water routes by which cultural elements from India and China were transported to the countries of Southeast Asia.
  225. 225. WWWW 1 Chinese Classical Writing Chinese writing dates back to about 1400 B.C. and is an intricate system of characters that used to be written with a paintbrush. A Chinese typewriter contains a tray of over 2,000 characters, with several thousand more available on other trays.
  226. 226. WWWW 2 Mongolian Capital The Mongolian capital of Karakorum was founded in 1220 in the Orkhon Valley, at the crossroads of the Silk Road. The city was visited by a papal mission led by Giovanni Carpini in 1267. Karakorum still has ruins of the first Buddhist monastery built in Mongolia, which was built in 1586, more than three hundred years after Kublai Khan had moved his capital to Bejing in 1267. The monastery was surrounded by majestic walls, approximately 400 m long, and the ruins are still visible. The ruins of Karakorum were found in 1889 by a Russian explorer, N. M. Yadrinstev.
  227. 227. WWWW 5 contents Borobudur Batik Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
  228. 228. WWWW 5a Borobudur Another magnificent religious complex in Southeast Asia, Borobudur, is located on the island of Java. Built about 800 A.D., it is not only a temple but also a representation of Buddhist doctrine. As visitors climb its five terraces, they pass from sculptural depictions of the ordinary world to those suggesting the profound truths of Buddhist enlightenment.
  229. 229. WWWW 5b Batik The cloth known as batik originated in Southeast Asia but is known in many other parts of the world. Report on the history of batik and how it is made. Bring a piece of batik cloth to class.
  230. 230. TP 2 After you have read this chapter, identify changes that resulted from the Mongol invasions.
  231. 231. TP 3 The kamikaze, or “divine wind,” that saved Japan from Mongol defeat in 1281 never lost its importance for the Japanese. During World War II, Japanese suicide pilots who dived their planes into Allied aircraft carriers were known as kamikaze pilots.
  232. 232. Skill Builder 1 If someone asked you what the movie Star Wars was about, how would you answer? At first you might want to describe everything that happens in the movie. Identifying central issues is finding the key themes, or major ideas, in a body of information. Central issues are the framework that holds a body of information together. Identifying Central Issues Why Learn This Skill? This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook.
  233. 233. Skill Builder 2 Follow the steps below to identify a central issue:  Learning the Skill <ul><li>Find out the setting and purpose of the selection.  </li></ul><ul><li>Skim the material to identify its general subject.  </li></ul><ul><li>Read the information to pinpoint the ideas that the details support.  </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the central issue. Ask: What part of the material conveys the main idea? </li></ul>This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Identifying Central Issues
  234. 234. Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Read the following excerpt from Code of the Samurai: A Modern Translation of the Bushido Shoshinshu of Taira Shigesuke discussing the rules and expectations of Japan’s warrior class.  “ . . . when young people or servants are unmannerly in conversation and other interaction with their employers or parents, and yet this is overlooked as long as they are sincere in their regard for their employers and parents, this is the loyalty and familial duty of the lower three classes. In the way of warriors, no matter how much you may treasure loyalty and familial duty in your heart, without the courteous manners to express respect for your employers and honor for your parents, you cannot be said to be in accord with the way.” Identifying Central Issues
  235. 235. Skill Builder 4 Learning the Skill The Bushido code emphasizes courtesy and respect. The central issue in this excerpt is that warriors must express their respect through actions. Identifying Central Issues This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook.
  236. 236. Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill Read the excerpt below from The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian about Kublai Khan and answer the questions on the following slides.  Identifying Central Issues “ But since the wise men of the idolaters, and especially the baksis [learned astrologers], already mentioned, have represented to his majesty that providing for the poor is a good work and highly acceptable to their deities, he has relieved their wants in the manner stated, and at his court none are denied food who come to ask it. Not a day passes in which there are not distributed, by the regular officers, twenty thousand vessels of rice, millet, and panicum. By reason of this admirable and astonishing liberality which the grand khan exercises towards the poor, the people all adore him as a divinity.” This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
  237. 237. Skill Builder 6 According to Marco Polo, how do people view Kublai Khan? Practicing the Skill People view Kublai Khan as a divinity. This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identifying Central Issues
  238. 238. Skill Builder 7 Summarize the central issue in one sentence. Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 279 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Kublai Khan is generous to the poor. Identifying Central Issues
  239. 239. A Story That Matters 1 Read Japan Faces Kublai Kahn on page 246 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 246 of your textbook. Destruction of the Mongol fleet attacking Japan Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan
  240. 240. A Story That Matters 2 What reasons might the leaders of China have had to invade the much less developed state of Japan? Possible answer: The leaders of China might have had to invade Japan to show the might of China and to force the Japanese to pay tribute. This feature can be found on page 246 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  241. 241. A Story That Matters 3 Why did Kublai Khan wait seven years before trying to invade Japan a second time? Possible answer: He was distracted with other campaigns, needed to rebuild or strengthen the naval fleet, or needed time to recruit and train 120,000 more warriors. This feature can be found on page 246 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  242. 242. A Story That Matters 4 How could the relatively poor and weak states in Japan maintain their independence from foreign domination for many years? Japan’s island geography kept it isolated. This feature can be found on page 246 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  243. 243. Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 262 of your textbook. Read the information on page 262 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 262 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
  244. 244. Eyewitness 2 This feature can be found on page 262 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What did the arrangement of the banquet tables symbolize about the Great Khan’s reign? The arrangement of the banquet tables symbolized the hierarchy of society, with each level at the feet of the level above it and Kublai Khan at the highest level. Even the Great Khan’s family members sat beneath him, their heads level with the emperor’s feet.
  245. 245. Eyewitness 3 This feature can be found on page 262 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Who was the center of attention at the banquet–the Great Khan or his guests? Why? From Marco Polo’s description, the banquet revolved around the host. Great care was taken that nothing tainted Kublai Khan’s food and drink, music was played as he began to sip, and all the company bowed before him as he did so. This is how the power of his position was reinforced.
  246. 246. The Way It Was 1 Traditional China By using the civil service examination, a practice started by the Qin dynasty, Tang and Song rulers sought to recruit a class of civil servants based on merit. This undermined the power of the aristocrats and created a new class of scholar-gentry. Read the excerpt on pages 250–251 of your textbook and answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on pages 250–251 of your textbook.
  247. 247. The Way It Was 2 Summarizing What skills were Chinese boys required to master in preparation for the civil service exams? They were required to master reading and writing and to memorize all of the Confucian classics. This feature can be found on pages 250–251 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  248. 248. The Way It Was 3 Explaining What measures were taken to prevent favoritism in the testing process? “ Name covering” was used so that names of the test takers could not be seen by the graders. Later, tests were copied so the taker’s identify could not be determined from the handwriting. This feature can be found on pages 250–251 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  249. 249. The Way It Was 4 Writing about History How was the use of the civil service examination a departure from the traditional way of placing young men in government service? Traditionally, sons of favored aristocrats would have been given government jobs. With civil service examinations, positions went to those who merited them. This feature can be found on pages 250–251 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  250. 250. STS 1 The Invention of Printing in China Woodblock printing on paper began in the seventh century A.D. The first printed text in China (and in the world) was a Buddhist prayer, done sometime between 704 and 751. The first complete book was a Buddhist work printed in 868. Read the excerpt on page 249 of your textbook and answer the question on the following slide. This feature can be found on page 249 of your textbook.
  251. 251. STS 2 Drawing Inferences What did the invention of movable type mean to China and the rest of the world? It meant that books could be mass produced rather than copied by hand, which made them more accessible, which in turn led to a rise in literacy. This feature can be found on page 249 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
  252. 252. Video 1 The Great Wall After viewing “The Great Wall,” you should:  Objectives <ul><li>Know that the Great Wall was an enormous undertaking accomplished over thousands of years.  </li></ul><ul><li>Real

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