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TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA
Mrs. AMRITA ROY
M.SC PSYCHIATRIC NURSING
NIMHANS,BANGALORE

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TEACHER EDUCATION
Teacher education refers to the policies and
procedures designed to equip
prospective teachers with
the ...

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DEFINITION
A programme of education, research and
training of persons to teach from pre-
primary to higher education level...

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Teacher education in india

  1. 1. TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Mrs. AMRITA ROY M.SC PSYCHIATRIC NURSING NIMHANS,BANGALORE
  2. 2. TEACHER EDUCATION Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classrooms, schools and wider community.
  3. 3. DEFINITION A programme of education, research and training of persons to teach from pre- primary to higher education level. -(National Council for Teacher Education)
  4. 4. DEFINITION Teacher education encompasses teaching skills, sound pedagogical theory and professional skills. (W.H. Kilpatrick) • Teacher Education = Teaching Skills + Pedagogical skills + Professional skills.
  5. 5. NATURE OF TEACHER EDUCATION 1) Teacher education is a continuous process 2) Teacher education is broad and comprehensive 3) It is ever-evolving and dynamic 4) The crux of the entire process of teacher education lies in its curriculum, design, structure, organization and transaction modes
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION 1. Imparting an adequate knowledge of the subject matter 2. Equipping the prospective teachers with necessary pedagogic skills 3. Enabling the teacher to acquire understanding of child psychology
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION 4. Developing proper attitudes towards teaching 5. Developing self-confidence in the teachers 6. Enabling teachers to make proper use of instructional facilities
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER TRAINING "If you educate a boy, you educate one individual. If you educate a girl, you educate the whole family and if you educate a teacher, you educate the whole community."
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER TRAINING (i) Better Understanding of the Student (ii) Building Confidence (iii) Using Methodology of Teaching (iv) Building favorable Attitude (v) Familiarizing with the Latest in Education
  10. 10. IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER TRAINING (vi) Making familiar with School organization (vii) Creating social Insight (viii) Improving Standards (ix) Training for Democracy
  11. 11. TYPES OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES 1. Pre-primary teacher education [higher secondary, one year] 2. Primary teacher education [higher secondary, two years ] 3. Secondary teacher education [graduation, one year] 4. Higher education programmes [One-year M.Ed. Course, Two-year M. A in Education, Two-year Ph.D. course after M.Ed./M.A. ] 5. Vocational Teachers Training [One-year Diploma in Physical Education (DPE), Training courses to prepare teachers of Music, Dancing, Painting and Fine Arts, One-year training course to prepare teachers for Home Science, Certificate courses in Arts & Crafts]
  12. 12. CHALLENGES IN TEACHER EDUCATION 1. Several types of teacher education institutions thereby lacking in uniformity. 2. Poor standards with respect to resources for colleges of education. 3. Unhealthy financial condition of the colleges of education 4. Incompetent teacher educators resulting in deficiency of scholars. 5. Improper selection of the candidates (student teachers) to be admitted.
  13. 13. CHALLENGING TASKS OF TEACHER EDUCATION 6. Traditional curriculum and teaching methods of teaching in the teacher education programme. 7. Haphazard and improper organization of teacher education. 8. Unplanned and insufficient co-curricular activities. 9. Inadequate duration of the teacher programme. 10. Feedback mechanisms lacking.
  14. 14. TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • Teacher education is provided by several Universities, affiliated colleges, private and open Universities in India. • list
  15. 15. TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • The Teacher Education Policy in India has evolved over time and is based on recommendations contained in various Reports of Committees/Commissions on Education: – the Kothari Commission (1966) – the Chattopadyay Committee (1985) – the National Policy on Education (NPE 1986/92) – Acharya Ramamurthi Committee (1990) – Yashpal Committee (1993) – and the National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005)
  16. 16. TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009, which became operational from 1st April, 2010, has important implications for teacher education in the country.
  17. 17. IMPLICATIONS OF RTE ACT • The Central Government shall develop and enforce standards for training of teachers • Existing teachers not possessing prescribed qualifications would be required to acquire that qualification within a period of 5 years.
  18. 18. IMPLICATIONS OF RTE ACT • The Government must ensure the Pupil- Teacher Ratio • Vacancy of a teacher in a school, shall not exceed 10% of the sanctioned strength.
  19. 19. AIMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • To enhance the institutional capacity available at present for ensuring the adequate supply of trained teachers for all levels of school education. • To utilize all possible kinds of institutions for in- service training of the existing cadre at all levels. • To bring about synergy between institutional structures operating at different levels
  20. 20. AIMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN INDIA • To facilitate co-operation and collaboration between institutes of teacher training and colleges • To envision a comprehensive model of teacher education • To prepare a curriculum policy and framework for teacher education which is consistent with the vision of NCF
  21. 21. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK • Broad policy and legal framework on teacher education is provided by the Central Government • Implementation of various programmes and schemes are undertaken largely by state governments. • Within the broad objective of improving the learning achievements of school children, the twin strategy is to: – Prepare teachers for the school system (pre-service training). – Improve capacity of existing school teachers (in-service training).
  22. 22. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK For pre-service training: • The National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), a statutory body of the Central Government, is responsible for planned and coordinated development of teacher education in the country. • The NCTE lays down norms and standards for various teacher education courses, minimum qualifications for teacher educators, course and content and duration and minimum qualification for entry of student- teachers for the various courses. • It also grants recognition to institutions (government, government-aided and self-financing) interested in undertaking such courses and has in- built mechanism to regulate and monitor their standards and quality.
  23. 23. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK For in-service training: • The country has a large network of government-owned teacher training institutions (TTIs), which provide in-service training to the school teachers. • The spread of these TTIs is both vertical and horizontal. • At the National Level: – the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) – National University on Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA). • Both NCERT and NUEPA are national level autonomous bodies.
  24. 24. LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK • At the state level: – the State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs). – The Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes for Advanced Learning in Education (IASEs). • At the district level: – in-service training is provided by the District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs).
  25. 25. FINANCING OF PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITES • For pre-service training, the government and government-aided teacher education institutions are financially supported by the respective State Governments. • Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education, the Central Government also supports over 930 institutions, including the DIETs, CTEs, IASEs and the BITEs. • For in-service training, financial support is largely provided by the Central Government under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). • Under the SSA, 20 days in-service training is provided to school teachers, 60 days refresher course for untrained teachers and 30 days orientation for freshly trained recruits.
  26. 26. FINANCING OF PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITES • State Governments also financially support in- service programmes. • Several NGOs support various interventions of in-service training activities. • The Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Teacher Education has been revised for the XII Plan with an approved outlay of Rs. 6308.45 crore.
  27. 27. CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME ON TEACHER EDUCATION • As envisaged in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, and its Programme of Action (POA), a Centrally-Sponsored Scheme of Restructuring and Reorganization of teacher education was launched in 1987: – to create a sound institutional infrastructure for pre- service and in-service training of elementary & secondary school teachers – for provision of academic resource support to elementary and secondary schools.
  28. 28. CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME ON TEACHER EDUCATION • The Scheme had the following components:- – Setting up of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs). – Strengthening of Secondary Teachers Education Institutions into Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and Institutes of Advanced Study in Education (IASEs). – Strengthening of State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs). – Establishment of Block Institute of Teacher Education (BITEs). • Under the Scheme, Central assistance is provided to the State Governments as resource support to the DIETs, CTEs, IASEs, BIETs and SCERTs.
  29. 29. REFORMS IN TEACHER EDUCATION Revision of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Teacher Education 1. Modification in Centre-State financial sharing pattern, from the existing 100% central assistance to sharing pattern in the ratio of 75:25 for all States/UTs (90:10 for NER States) 2. Continuation of support to SCERTs/SIEs • Strengthening and re-structuring of SCERTs, • Training for Educational Administrators, including Head Teachers. • Orientation / Induction Training to Teacher Educators
  30. 30. 3. Continuation of support to CTEs and establishment of new CTEs 4. Continuation of support to IASEs and establishment of new IASEs 5. Continuation of support to and restructuring of DIETs 6. Establishment of Block Institutes of Teacher Education (BITEs) for augmenting Teacher Education capacity in SC/ST and minority concentration areas 7. Professional Development of Teacher Educators 8. Technology in Teacher Education 9. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in teacher education
  31. 31. REFORMS IN TEACHER EDUCATION National Curriculum Framework on Teacher Education – highlighted specific objectives, broad areas of study in terms of theoretical and practical learning, and curricular transaction and assessment strategies for the various initial teacher education programmes. – outlines the basic issues that should guide formulation of all programmes of these courses. – recommendations on the approach and methodology of in- service teacher training programmes – outlined a strategy for implementation of the Framework.
  32. 32. • The Framework has some important dimensions of the new approach to teacher education: – Reflective practice to be the central aim of teacher education – Student-teachers should be provided opportunities for self- learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of new ideas – Developing capacities for self-directed learning and ability to think, be critical and to work in groups – Providing opportunities to student-teachers to observe and engage with children, communicate with and relate to children.
  33. 33. TEACHER’S EDUCATION IN 1947-1990s • With Indian independence in 1947, several educational reforms were made in system and also made changes for the education of teachers’ n India. • One of the first steps was establishing University Education Commission which happened in 1948, and regulated the educational requirement of teachers in India. • Later in late 1960 the commission emphasized on the necessity of a professional training course in order to improve the education system.
  34. 34. TEACHER’S EDUCATION IN 1947-1990s • During the same time National council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was also formed, and this body reviewed and regulated the education of teachers. • In 1974, National Council for Teacher Education was established; this non-statutory body was a part of NCERT. • Gradually by 1990’s this profession had become popular with opening of several private schools and colleges and improved salary structure in both Government and Private schools.
  35. 35. TEACHER EDUCATION IN 21ST CENTURY • A lot of planning and resource has been spent on education in India and at the same time for improving the quality of education. • A lot of stress is given on teacher training course in India; unfortunately there are several loopholes in the system and a lot of times incompetent teachers get recruited.
  36. 36. TEACHER EDUCATION IN 21ST CENTURY Newly visualized Teacher Education Program - – Emphasizes learning as a self-learning participatory process taking place in social context of learner‘s as well as wider social context of the community to nation as a whole. – Puts full faith in self learning capacity of school children and student teacher and evolving proper educative programme for education. – Views the learner as an active participative person in learning. His/her capabilities or potentials are seen not as fixed but capable of development through experiences.
  37. 37. TEACHER EDUCATION IN 21ST CENTURY Newly visualized Teacher Education Program – – Views the teacher as a facilitator, supporting, encouraging learner‘s learning. – Does not treat knowledge as fixed, static or confined in books but as something being constructed through various types of experiences. It is created through discussion, evaluate, explain, compare and contrasts i.e., through interaction. – Emphasizes that appraisal in such an educative process will be continuous, will be self-appraisal, will be peer appraisal, will be done by teacher educators, and formal type too.
  38. 38. HENCE THERE WOULD BE A MAJOR SHIFT FROM • Teacher centric, stable designs • Teacher direction and decisions • Teacher guidance and monitoring • Passive reception in learning • Learning within the four walls of the classroom • Knowledge as "given" and fixed • Disciplinary focus • Linear exposure • Appraisal, short, few To • Learner centric, flexible process • Learner autonomy • Facilitates, support and encourages learning • Active participation in learning • Learning in the wider social context the class room • Knowledge as it evolves and created • Multidisciplinary, educational focus • Multiple and divergent exposure • Multifarious, continuous
  39. 39. THANK YOU

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