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Stone Masonry and Brick Masonry.pdf

Chapter:- 7 Masonry 7.1 Definition, technical terms used in brick masonry, General principles to be observed in brick masonry, mortar, tools used in brick masonry Bonding, different types of bonding, their uses at specific locations 7.2 Stone masonry, technical terms used in stone masonry, mortar, tools used in stone masonry; Types of stone masonry-rubble masonry and ashlars masonry, their description with classification 7.3 Comparison between stone masonry and brick Masonry Hollow concrete block Masonry, composite masonry, Cavity wall- purpose and construction. السلام علیکم ورحمتہ اللہ وبرکاۃ Mohammed Abdullah Laskar Student of Karimganj polytechnic Department of civil engineering. Contact:-6900519196 E-Mail 📩 :-mohammedabdullahlaskar@gmail.com

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EDITING BY MOHAMMED ABDULLAH (MAL)
Chapter:- 7 Masonry
7.1 Definition, technical terms used in brick masonry, General principles to be observed in brick
masonry, mortar, tools used in brick masonry Bonding, different types of bonding, their uses at
specific locations
7.2 Stone masonry, technical terms used in stone masonry, mortar, tools used in stone
masonry; Types of stone masonry-rubble masonry and ashlars masonry, their description with
classification
7.3 Comparison between stone masonry and brick Masonry Hollow concrete block Masonry,
composite masonry, Cavity wall- purpose and construction
Unit:-7.1
1) Brick Masonry:- Brick masonry is defined as the placement of bricks in a systematic manner
using mortar to bind the bricks together and create a solid mass that can withstand a great deal
of pressure.
*General principles to be observed in brick masonry
(i) The bricks should be uniform size, shape and colour.
(ii)The bricks used in a good work should be sound, hard and well burnt .
(iii) ...
(iv) The brick courses should be laid truly horizontal and should have truly horizontal and should
have truly vertical joints
Ans:-Bonding is a process of arranging bricks with mortar to tie them together in a mass of brick
work. It should have a minimum of vertical joints in any part of the work . It shall distribute load on
a wider area and thereby minimize the tendency to settlement.
Following are the types of bonds provided in brick work:_--
1. Stretcher bond , 2. Header bond , 3. English bond
4. Flemish bond.------> Single flemish bond--->Double flemish bond
5. Garden-wall bond--->English garden wall bond---->Flemish garden wall bondi
6.Facing bond, 7.Dutch bond, 8. Ranking bond--->Herring bone bond---->Diagonal bond
9. Zig-zag bond, 10. English cross bond, 11. Brick on edge bond or Solider course, 12. Bonds in
columns, 13. Bonds at junctions and squint junctions.
-In this type of bond all the bricks are laid as stretchers on the faces of walls.
The length of the bricks are these along the direction of the wall. This pattern is used only for
those walls which have thickness of half brick i.e. 9 cm.
In this type of bond all the bricks are laid with their ends towards the face of the
wall. This type of arrangement is suitable for walls which are one bricks thick.
3. English Bond :-This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is
considered to be the strongest.
-->In this type of bond alternate courses of headers and stretchers are laid. It is necessary to
place queen closers after the first header in the heading course for breaking the joints vertically.
English bond construction requires the following points to be kept in view:-
1. A queen closer must be provided after the quoin header. A header course should never start
with a queen closer.
2. Continues vertical joints should not be allowed except at stopped end. 3. Each alternate header
should be centrally placed over a stretcher.
4. In case of the wall thickness equivalent to an odd number of half bricks, the same course shall
have stretcher on one face and header on the other.
6. Only headers should be used for the hearting of the thickers walls.
:- In this arrangement of bonding brick work, each course consists of alternate
headers and stretchers. The alternate headers of each course are centered over the stretchers in
the course below :-
Flemish bond is further divided into two different types viz. single Flemish bond and Double
Flemish bond.
(a) Single Flemish Bond This bond:- is a combination of English and Flemish bond. In this work
the facing of the wall consists of Flemish bond and the backing consists of English bond in each
course. This type of bonding can not be adopted in walls less than one and a half bricks in
thickness.
In this system of bonding brick work each course presents the same
appearance both in the front and back elevations.Every course consists of headers and stretchers
laid alternately. This type of bonding is comparatively weaker than English bond. The alternative
courses of the walls of various thickness in Double Flemish bond are shown in Fig. 3.21
:- This type of bond is employed for the construction of garden compound
walls, boundary wall, etc. The garden wall bond can be both English as well as Flemish.
The type of bond comprises of one course of header to three or five
courses of stretchers. In ord break continuity of vertical joints a queen closer is laid next to the
quoin header of the heading com and the middle course of stretchers is started with a header (Fig.
3.22).
In this type of bond each course comprises of one header to three
or five stretchers. In order to deve necessary lap a 3/4 bat is placed next to the quoin header in
every alternate course. A header is centrally over each middle stretchers in the lower course (Fig.
3.23)
6. Facing Bond:- This arrangement of bricks is adopted for thick walls, where the facing and
backing are desired constructed with brick of different thickness. This bond consists of heading
and stretching courses so arranged that one heading course comes after several stretching
courses.
:- This type of bond is a modified form of English bond. The corners of the wall
provided with Dutch bond are quite strong. In stretcher course a ¼ bat is used as quoin. A header
is placed next to the ¼ bat in every alternate stretchers course (Fig. 3.24).
:-This is a bond in brick work in which the bonding bricks are laid at any angle
other than zero or ninety degrees. This arrangement helps to increase the longitudinal stability of
thick walls built in English bond., (a) Herring bone bond , (b) Diagonal bond
, the bricks are placed at an angle of 45° from the central line
in both the directions. This type of bond is used in case of walls having thickness more than four
bricks or for paving etc. (Fig. 3.25).
(b) Diagonal Bond:- In this type of bond bricks are laid at every fifth or seventh course along the
height of the wall. Internal placing of the bricks is made in one direction only at certain angle, after
the face bricks are laid.
:-This is is similar to herring bone bond with the only difference that in this case
the bricks are laid in a Zig-Zag fashion.This is commonly adopted in brick paved flooring,(Fig.
3.27).
-This type of bond is aesthetically more sound and possesses greater
strength than English bond. In this bond every alternate stretchers course has a header placed
next to the quoin stretchers. Rest of the details are similar to the one provided in English bond (Fig.
3.28).
:-This is a form of bonding
brick-work in which bricks are laid on edge. It is economical but weak in strength and hence it is
only recommended for garden walls or partition walls.
:-- The shape of the columns can be rectangular, square, circular, octagonal,
etc. Generally, English bond or Double Flemish bond are used for column construction. In case of
circular or octagonal construction moulded bricks are used. The various arrangements of bricks
in different column shapes are shown in Fig. 3.30 to Fig. 3.33.
When two wall meet or intersect each other, the meeting point is
known as junction. The junction can be either right angled junction or squint junction. The right
angled junction can be further classified as:-- (i) Tee-junction and, (ii) Cross-junction
Tee-junction can be constructed either in English bond or in Double Flemish
bond Fig. 3.34 and Fig. 3.35.
(ii) Cross-junctions :- Cross-junctions of walls are constructed in English bond is an arrangeme
shown in Fig. 3.36.
13. (b) Bonds in Squint Junction:- A squint junction is formed when two walls meet each other at
angle other than right angle. They can be Formed in both English and Double Flemish bonds.
These bonds are difficult to construct. The arrangemer to be made in the bond are shown in Fig.
:- When walls take turn, corners are formed. These corners are known as quoins.
They can turn at right angles or at any other angle. Depending upon the angle of turn they can be
classified as:--
(i) Right angle quoins (ii) Obtuse angle quoins (iii) Acute angle quoins
These quoins require special bricks at junctions. The arrangement of the bricks at quoins is
shown in Fig. 3.39 and Fig. 3.40.
*CAVITY WALLS:--It is a wall made of two parallel leaves of masonry separated by a continuous
air space. Continuous air space is called cavity.
Cavity wall consists of two walls with a 5 cm to 8 cm, cavity between them.
Unit:- 7.2 And 7.3
STONE MASONRY :-- Masonry may be defined as the construction of building units bounded
together with mortar. The building units (commonly known as masonry units) may be stones,
bricks or pre cast blocks of concrete.Depending upon the type of building units used, masonry
may be of the following type:
1. Stone masonry , 2. Brick masonry, 3. Hollow concrete blocks masonry, 4. Reinforced brick
masonry, 5. Composite masonry.
ClASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY
Depending upon the arrangement of stones in the construction, degree of refinement used in
shaping the stone and finishing adopted, stone masonry can be classified as follows:
1. Rubble masonry, 2. Ashlar masonry
1. Rubber masonry: It is further sub-divided in the following categories:-
(a) Uncourrsed rubble masonry, (b) Random Rubble masonry, (c) Coursed rubble masonry, (d) Dry
rubble masonry
(a) Uncoursed Rubble Masonry: This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone walling. In this
type of masonry, the stones used are of widely different sizes.
Since the stone are not of uniform size and shapes, greater care and ingenuity have to be
exercised in arranging them in such a way that they adequately distribute the pressure over the
maximum area and at the same time long continuous vertical joints are avoided.
(b) Random Rubble Masonry:-This form is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry. In this
form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel-dressed. In a good work the face stones
are of uniform colour and approximately equal in size. The height of stones should be greater than
their breadth or length of tail into work.
(c) Coursed Rubble Masonry:- This is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in the
construction residential buildings public buildings, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. In
first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and the minimum height of
the course is limited to 15 cm.
(d) Dry rubble masonry:- Dry rubble masonry is that rubble masonry, made to courses, in which
mortar is not used in the joints. This type of construction is the cheapest, and requires more skill
in construction. This may be used for non-load hearing walls, such as compound wall etc.
2. Ashlar Masonry: Ashlar masonry consists of blocks of accurately dressed stone with extremely
fine bed and joints. The blocks may be either square and rectangular shape. The height of stone
varies from 25 to 30 cm.
(a) Ashlar fine, (b) Ashlar rough, (c) Ashlar rock, rustic or quarry faced,(d) Ashlar chamfered, (e)
Ashlar facing.
(a) Ashlar fine: In this type of masonry, all the stones are fine tooled, on all bed and side joints.
and the faces are rendered perfectly true to the pattern desired. The height of the course is never
less than 30 cm and generally all are kept of the same height throughout the work.
.(b) Ashlar rough: In this type of masonry, the exposed faces of stone generally have a fine
dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion of face stone enclosed by the chisel draft
is rough tooled.
.(c) Ashlar rock, rustic or quarry faced: In this type of masonry, the exposed face of the stone is
not dressed but is kept as such so as to give rock facing. However a strip of about 25 mm wide,
made by means of a chisel, is provided around the perimeter of the exposed face of every stone.
.(d) Ashlar chamfered: This is special form of rock- faced ashlar masonry in which the strip
provided around the perimeter of the exposed face is chamfered or bevelled at an angle of 45° by
means of a chisel to a depth of 25 mm.
.(e) Ashlar facing: In this type of masonry the faces of stone are rough tooled and chamfered and
the stones are provided in face work only. The height of the course is never kept less than 20 cm
and the width of each stone is about 1½ times its height. Fore walls upto 75 cm in thickness, the
bond stones should extend for the full thickness of the wall and for thicker walls, the bond stones
should overlap each other by 15 cm.
Edited by Mohammed Abdullah Laskar
Thank you

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Stone Masonry and Brick Masonry.pdf

  • 1. EDITING BY MOHAMMED ABDULLAH (MAL) Chapter:- 7 Masonry 7.1 Definition, technical terms used in brick masonry, General principles to be observed in brick masonry, mortar, tools used in brick masonry Bonding, different types of bonding, their uses at specific locations 7.2 Stone masonry, technical terms used in stone masonry, mortar, tools used in stone masonry; Types of stone masonry-rubble masonry and ashlars masonry, their description with classification 7.3 Comparison between stone masonry and brick Masonry Hollow concrete block Masonry, composite masonry, Cavity wall- purpose and construction Unit:-7.1 1) Brick Masonry:- Brick masonry is defined as the placement of bricks in a systematic manner using mortar to bind the bricks together and create a solid mass that can withstand a great deal of pressure. *General principles to be observed in brick masonry (i) The bricks should be uniform size, shape and colour. (ii)The bricks used in a good work should be sound, hard and well burnt . (iii) ... (iv) The brick courses should be laid truly horizontal and should have truly horizontal and should have truly vertical joints
  • 2. Ans:-Bonding is a process of arranging bricks with mortar to tie them together in a mass of brick work. It should have a minimum of vertical joints in any part of the work . It shall distribute load on a wider area and thereby minimize the tendency to settlement. Following are the types of bonds provided in brick work:_-- 1. Stretcher bond , 2. Header bond , 3. English bond 4. Flemish bond.------> Single flemish bond--->Double flemish bond 5. Garden-wall bond--->English garden wall bond---->Flemish garden wall bondi 6.Facing bond, 7.Dutch bond, 8. Ranking bond--->Herring bone bond---->Diagonal bond 9. Zig-zag bond, 10. English cross bond, 11. Brick on edge bond or Solider course, 12. Bonds in columns, 13. Bonds at junctions and squint junctions. -In this type of bond all the bricks are laid as stretchers on the faces of walls. The length of the bricks are these along the direction of the wall. This pattern is used only for those walls which have thickness of half brick i.e. 9 cm. In this type of bond all the bricks are laid with their ends towards the face of the wall. This type of arrangement is suitable for walls which are one bricks thick. 3. English Bond :-This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is considered to be the strongest. -->In this type of bond alternate courses of headers and stretchers are laid. It is necessary to place queen closers after the first header in the heading course for breaking the joints vertically. English bond construction requires the following points to be kept in view:- 1. A queen closer must be provided after the quoin header. A header course should never start with a queen closer. 2. Continues vertical joints should not be allowed except at stopped end. 3. Each alternate header should be centrally placed over a stretcher. 4. In case of the wall thickness equivalent to an odd number of half bricks, the same course shall have stretcher on one face and header on the other. 6. Only headers should be used for the hearting of the thickers walls. :- In this arrangement of bonding brick work, each course consists of alternate headers and stretchers. The alternate headers of each course are centered over the stretchers in the course below :-
  • 3. Flemish bond is further divided into two different types viz. single Flemish bond and Double Flemish bond. (a) Single Flemish Bond This bond:- is a combination of English and Flemish bond. In this work the facing of the wall consists of Flemish bond and the backing consists of English bond in each course. This type of bonding can not be adopted in walls less than one and a half bricks in thickness. In this system of bonding brick work each course presents the same appearance both in the front and back elevations.Every course consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately. This type of bonding is comparatively weaker than English bond. The alternative courses of the walls of various thickness in Double Flemish bond are shown in Fig. 3.21 :- This type of bond is employed for the construction of garden compound walls, boundary wall, etc. The garden wall bond can be both English as well as Flemish. The type of bond comprises of one course of header to three or five courses of stretchers. In ord break continuity of vertical joints a queen closer is laid next to the quoin header of the heading com and the middle course of stretchers is started with a header (Fig. 3.22). In this type of bond each course comprises of one header to three or five stretchers. In order to deve necessary lap a 3/4 bat is placed next to the quoin header in every alternate course. A header is centrally over each middle stretchers in the lower course (Fig. 3.23) 6. Facing Bond:- This arrangement of bricks is adopted for thick walls, where the facing and backing are desired constructed with brick of different thickness. This bond consists of heading and stretching courses so arranged that one heading course comes after several stretching courses. :- This type of bond is a modified form of English bond. The corners of the wall provided with Dutch bond are quite strong. In stretcher course a ¼ bat is used as quoin. A header is placed next to the ¼ bat in every alternate stretchers course (Fig. 3.24). :-This is a bond in brick work in which the bonding bricks are laid at any angle other than zero or ninety degrees. This arrangement helps to increase the longitudinal stability of thick walls built in English bond., (a) Herring bone bond , (b) Diagonal bond , the bricks are placed at an angle of 45° from the central line in both the directions. This type of bond is used in case of walls having thickness more than four bricks or for paving etc. (Fig. 3.25).
  • 4. (b) Diagonal Bond:- In this type of bond bricks are laid at every fifth or seventh course along the height of the wall. Internal placing of the bricks is made in one direction only at certain angle, after the face bricks are laid. :-This is is similar to herring bone bond with the only difference that in this case the bricks are laid in a Zig-Zag fashion.This is commonly adopted in brick paved flooring,(Fig. 3.27). -This type of bond is aesthetically more sound and possesses greater strength than English bond. In this bond every alternate stretchers course has a header placed next to the quoin stretchers. Rest of the details are similar to the one provided in English bond (Fig. 3.28). :-This is a form of bonding brick-work in which bricks are laid on edge. It is economical but weak in strength and hence it is only recommended for garden walls or partition walls. :-- The shape of the columns can be rectangular, square, circular, octagonal, etc. Generally, English bond or Double Flemish bond are used for column construction. In case of circular or octagonal construction moulded bricks are used. The various arrangements of bricks in different column shapes are shown in Fig. 3.30 to Fig. 3.33. When two wall meet or intersect each other, the meeting point is known as junction. The junction can be either right angled junction or squint junction. The right angled junction can be further classified as:-- (i) Tee-junction and, (ii) Cross-junction Tee-junction can be constructed either in English bond or in Double Flemish bond Fig. 3.34 and Fig. 3.35. (ii) Cross-junctions :- Cross-junctions of walls are constructed in English bond is an arrangeme shown in Fig. 3.36. 13. (b) Bonds in Squint Junction:- A squint junction is formed when two walls meet each other at angle other than right angle. They can be Formed in both English and Double Flemish bonds. These bonds are difficult to construct. The arrangemer to be made in the bond are shown in Fig. :- When walls take turn, corners are formed. These corners are known as quoins. They can turn at right angles or at any other angle. Depending upon the angle of turn they can be classified as:-- (i) Right angle quoins (ii) Obtuse angle quoins (iii) Acute angle quoins These quoins require special bricks at junctions. The arrangement of the bricks at quoins is shown in Fig. 3.39 and Fig. 3.40.
  • 5. *CAVITY WALLS:--It is a wall made of two parallel leaves of masonry separated by a continuous air space. Continuous air space is called cavity. Cavity wall consists of two walls with a 5 cm to 8 cm, cavity between them. Unit:- 7.2 And 7.3 STONE MASONRY :-- Masonry may be defined as the construction of building units bounded together with mortar. The building units (commonly known as masonry units) may be stones, bricks or pre cast blocks of concrete.Depending upon the type of building units used, masonry may be of the following type: 1. Stone masonry , 2. Brick masonry, 3. Hollow concrete blocks masonry, 4. Reinforced brick masonry, 5. Composite masonry. ClASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY Depending upon the arrangement of stones in the construction, degree of refinement used in shaping the stone and finishing adopted, stone masonry can be classified as follows: 1. Rubble masonry, 2. Ashlar masonry 1. Rubber masonry: It is further sub-divided in the following categories:- (a) Uncourrsed rubble masonry, (b) Random Rubble masonry, (c) Coursed rubble masonry, (d) Dry rubble masonry (a) Uncoursed Rubble Masonry: This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone walling. In this type of masonry, the stones used are of widely different sizes. Since the stone are not of uniform size and shapes, greater care and ingenuity have to be exercised in arranging them in such a way that they adequately distribute the pressure over the maximum area and at the same time long continuous vertical joints are avoided. (b) Random Rubble Masonry:-This form is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry. In this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel-dressed. In a good work the face stones are of uniform colour and approximately equal in size. The height of stones should be greater than their breadth or length of tail into work. (c) Coursed Rubble Masonry:- This is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in the construction residential buildings public buildings, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. In first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and the minimum height of the course is limited to 15 cm.
  • 6. (d) Dry rubble masonry:- Dry rubble masonry is that rubble masonry, made to courses, in which mortar is not used in the joints. This type of construction is the cheapest, and requires more skill in construction. This may be used for non-load hearing walls, such as compound wall etc. 2. Ashlar Masonry: Ashlar masonry consists of blocks of accurately dressed stone with extremely fine bed and joints. The blocks may be either square and rectangular shape. The height of stone varies from 25 to 30 cm. (a) Ashlar fine, (b) Ashlar rough, (c) Ashlar rock, rustic or quarry faced,(d) Ashlar chamfered, (e) Ashlar facing. (a) Ashlar fine: In this type of masonry, all the stones are fine tooled, on all bed and side joints. and the faces are rendered perfectly true to the pattern desired. The height of the course is never less than 30 cm and generally all are kept of the same height throughout the work. .(b) Ashlar rough: In this type of masonry, the exposed faces of stone generally have a fine dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion of face stone enclosed by the chisel draft is rough tooled. .(c) Ashlar rock, rustic or quarry faced: In this type of masonry, the exposed face of the stone is not dressed but is kept as such so as to give rock facing. However a strip of about 25 mm wide, made by means of a chisel, is provided around the perimeter of the exposed face of every stone. .(d) Ashlar chamfered: This is special form of rock- faced ashlar masonry in which the strip provided around the perimeter of the exposed face is chamfered or bevelled at an angle of 45° by means of a chisel to a depth of 25 mm. .(e) Ashlar facing: In this type of masonry the faces of stone are rough tooled and chamfered and the stones are provided in face work only. The height of the course is never kept less than 20 cm and the width of each stone is about 1½ times its height. Fore walls upto 75 cm in thickness, the bond stones should extend for the full thickness of the wall and for thicker walls, the bond stones should overlap each other by 15 cm. Edited by Mohammed Abdullah Laskar Thank you