Legal and Ethical Issues in Engineering designEngineering is not just applying scientific laws and principles to technical problems. It is basically concerned with improving the lot of society
Professional Ethics Values• Honesty and truth• Honor – showing respect, integrity, and reputation• Knowledge – through education and experience• Efficiency – minimize unnecessary efforts• Diligence – persistent effort• Loyalty – to employer’s goals• Confidentiality – information safeguarding• Protecting public safety and health
ASME CODE OF ETHICS• The Fundamental PrinciplesEngineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the Engineering profession by:I. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;II. being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients;III. Striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession
THE FUNDAMENTAL CANONS1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their duties.2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.3. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional and ethical development of those engineers under their supervision.
CANONS (2/3)4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest or the appearance of COI.5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merits of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others.
)CANONS (3/36. Engineers shall associate only with reputable persons or organizations7. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
Procedure for Solving Ethical ConflictsI. Internal appeal option A. Individual preparation 1. maintain a record of the event 2. Examine the company’s internal appeal process 3. Be familiar with the laws that could protect you. 4. Identify alternative courses of action 5. Decide on the outcome that you want the appeal to accomplish
)PROCEDURE (2/3B. Communicate with your immediate supervisor 1. Initiate informal discussion 2. Make a formal written appeal 3. Indicate that you intend to begin internal process of appealC. Initiate appeal through the internal chain of command 1. Maintain formal contact as to where the appeal stands 2. Formally inform the company that you intend to pursue an external solution
)PROCEDURE (3/3II. External appeal option A. Individual action 1. Engage legal counsel 2. Contact your professional society B. Contact with your client (if applicable) C. Contact the media
Views of Ethical Behavior• Utilitarian View: ethical behavior delivers greatest good to greatest number of people.• Individualism view: ethical behavior is that which best serves long-term self interests.• Moral Rights View: ethical behaviour is that which respects the fundamental rights shared by all.• Justice View: ethical behavior is impartial, fair, and equitable in treating people.
Ethical DilemmasDilemma 1: You learn that a competitor has made an important scientific discovery. It will substantially reduce, but not eliminate, you profit for about a year. There is a possibility of hiring one of the competitor’s employees who knows the details of the discovery……
Dilemma 2: As a mortgage loan officer, you sign a customer up for an adjustable rate payment at 8.5 percent. The loan rate could rise to 10.5 in one year. Do you warn the customer how much, in dollars, his payment could increase?
REFERENCE• George E. Dieter, Engineering Design, 3d edition, McGraw-Hill International Editions, 2000.