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Week 3 lecture

  1. 1. ALA eCourse Mirela Roncevic mirelaroncevic@gmail.com April 7 – May 2, 2014
  2. 2.  Librarians are inundated with the choices available to them when selecting which platforms to purchase to host their ebook collections.  Some ebook platforms serve primarily as tools for lending ebooks to patrons; others serve as research tools for students and faculty. Some are available directly from publishers; others come from aggregators and distributors who amass content from disparate sources. Some provide broad coverage of subjects and are suitable for all libraries; others target niche markets with subject-specific content.  Librarians need to keep up with the proliferation of ebook platforms. As library vendors continue to experiment with business models, consolidate content, and merge with competitors, librarians need to become very skilled at choosing what ebooks to purchase based on their patrons' needs and wants.
  3. 3. Types of ebook platforms for libraries There is no one agreed-upon definition of what constitutes an ebook platform. In their broadest sense, they include products that house electronic versions of ebooks. They are usually hosted by one of the following sources:  Publishers  Aggregators  Distributors
  4. 4. Publisher-hosted ebook platforms  Libraries acquiring trade titles don't have the option to purchase ebooks directly from publishers like Random House, since those are usually available through ebook lending services, such as, OverDrive and 3M.  On the academic side, a number of publishers have pursued their own ebook initiatives, releasing platforms that house e-versions of their own titles, including, for example, Oxford University Press, SAGE Publications, and Springer.  Since science ebooks age more rapidly than other types of e-content—owing to time-sensitive advancements in the STM field—STM publishers faced the ebook challenge long before most others and have positioned themselves as leaders in the ebook market.  On the K-12 side, the industry has seen the proliferation of platforms featuring interactive ebooks, such as those by Scholastic, as well as web-based ebook platforms, such as ePointbooks.com, which hosts the ebook titles of several imprints, including Rosen Publishing, Gareth Stevens Publishing, Britannica Educational Publishing, and Windmill Books.
  5. 5. Publisher ebook platforms, cont.  There are many advantages for libraries wanting to buy directly from publishers, including the elimination of middlemen in the process, which saves libraries time and money, and the ability to search across content formats without significant restrictions (many publisher platforms fully integrate ebook chapters with journal articles, making it easy for students to peruse ebooks and journals on the same topic simultaneously).  Publisher platforms also feature a more "organic" look and are equipped with publisher-nurtured enhancements, including maintenance by on-site editors and other staff members familiar with the content. Their platforms may also contain content not available in aggregator versions of their books.  One challenge associated with publisher-hosted ebook platforms is the need for librarians to engage with several publishers simultaneously. Libraries need to sign multiple agreements and they need to devote time to staff (as well as patron) training each time a new publisher platform is implemented.
  6. 6. Aggregator ebook platforms  Aggregators include companies that amass ebook content from multiple publishers and sell it to libraries via a range of buying plans. They are more established in academic libraries, since much of their ebook content is intended for use by students, faculty, and scholars. However, many aggregators are releasing public library and K-12 versions of their legacy platforms, and their presence in schools and public libraries is growing.  Ebooks on aggregator platforms are fully searchable and cross-searchable and may be acquired in several ways. Just about every major library aggregator offers its own set of unique buying plans.  Since aggregators were the early players in the ebook market, their products are often ahead of the curve in terms of technical capabilities and purchasing options. Major aggregator platforms include ebooks on EBSCOhost, ProQuest's ebrary, and Ingram's MyiLibrary. Others include EBL (by Ebooks Corporation Limited, now owned by ProQuest), Safary Books Online, Books 24/7, Knovel, and for reference ebooks, The Gale Virtual Reference Library and Literati by Credo.
  7. 7. Aggregator ebook platforms, cont.  When buying from aggregators, librarians are dealing with one vs. many license agreements and the ordering is easier since they are fully integrated into distribution systems. Another advantage is that they provide many more titles in one place and are often marketed to libraries as "solution" platforms, with a host of embedded discovery services and features extending beyond providing access to the content, including interactive learning tools and lesson plans.  Since aggregator platforms are publisher-neutral, they are likely to give as much exposure to bestselling titles as to those published by small presses. On the other hand, not all titles are available by every publisher on aggregator platforms and many are not available in ebook format as soon as they are published in print (owing to embargo periods set by publishers in advance; these vary from one to six months).  Although they provide access to large quantities of content, aggregator platforms usually come with a higher price tag, impose minimum purchase requirements, and don't allow as much room for negotiation since ebook prices, like embargo periods, are mandated by publishers.
  8. 8. Distributor platforms and ebook lending services  It has become more challenging to set distributors apart from aggregators, as both engage in similar ebook practices and the explosion of new technologies has paved the way for significant expansion of distributor and aggregator roles in the library market.  Distributors usually include companies that distribute ebooks to libraries in an a la carte fashion, include large quantities of popular titles heavily circulated in public libraries, and generally do not make the ebooks on their platforms cross-searchable. Distributors' main mission is to circulate ebooks on a title-by-title basis rather than to "blend" them or use them to develop "offspring" collections.  In the ebook market, distributors include both wholesalers migrating to the e-model, such as, for example, Baker & Taylor, as well as ebook lending services like OverDrive and Follett, which have dominated ebook distribution in public and school libraries for a number of years. Pay per page services like Total Boox, have entered the market to offer alternatives to libraries looking to provide instant access and pay only for the content actually read by patrons.
  9. 9. Distributor platforms and ebook lending services, cont.  Both traditional distributors (with a long history in the print book business) and ebook lending services generally operate on a one book/one user business model. This means that an item can be checked out for an established period of time by one user. In addition, their titles are coded with DRM (Digital Rights Management) to limit access after the due date. Aggregator platforms usually do not apply the same DRM restrictions.  Owing to new technologies, print wholesalers (also a type of distributor) are now transforming their practices and developing digital media platforms of their own. Baker & Taylor's Axis 360 platform makes it possible for libraries to acquire all content in one place—this is especially beneficial for libraries already using B&T for their print collections.  Purchasing ebooks through wholesalers gives libraries a lot of flexibility. They may choose to purchase single or multiple ebooks from many different publishers and aggregators and they can negotiate their licenses directly with the wholesaler (e.g., Yankee Book Peddler offers ebooks from ebrary, EBL, and ebooks on EBSCOhost). However, ebook prices and licensing terms are set by the publishers, not wholesalers.
  10. 10. University Press consortia ebook platforms Most monographic content is now available to academic libraries via four digitization initiatives supporting the academic market:  Oxford University Press’ (OUP) University Press Scholarship Online (UPSO)  Cambridge University Press’ (CUP) University Publishing Online (UPO)  University Press Content Consortium (UPCC) Book Collections on Project MUSE  Books at JSTOR
  11. 11. University Press consortia ebook platforms, cont.  Oxford’s UPSO and Cambridge’s UPO represent the efforts of two leading university presses using their existing platforms as the foundation to digitize their backlists and those by partner presses. UPSO is a collaboration between OUP and several university presses (including Fordham and University of Florida) to aggregate monograph content into a single, cross-searchable platform (no cross- searching with journals is provided via this platform; the content is limited to scholarly books and monographs).  UPO is the result of a joint venture between CUP and partner publishers (including Liverpool University and Mathematical Association of America), to integrate scholarly books with journal articles on a single platform.  Project MUSE and JSTOR models represent the initiatives of well-known journal aggregators in the academic community. Project MUSE and JSTOR are marrying scholarly books to journals and incorporating other types of content into their growing multi-content platforms.
  12. 12. Ebook platforms in academic and research libraries  Academic libraries have for the most part mastered the shift from p to e on the journal front. Ebooks are perceived as the next digital frontier.  Ebook concerns in academic libraries extend beyond circulation issues and lending controversies and involve questions about how ebook platforms support research needs of students and faculty as well as how they promote information and research literacy.  Academic vendors are expected to provide the tools and services that help students and faculty deepen and simplify their research at the same time. This has led to the merging of ebook and journal content in a number of products.
  13. 13. Ebook platforms in public libraries  Main ebook controversies in public libraries continue to revolve around ebook lending policies as many trade publishers maintain their imposed restrictions on ebook circulation (e.g., HarperCollins has an imposed limit of 26 checkouts on their ebooks, while Random House has raised ebook prices, in some cases by 300 percent) and several others remain uneasy about making their ebooks available for library lending.  As of early 2014, controversies surrounding ebook lending in public libraries have subsided and progress has been made on all front, with all publishers previously hesitant to sell ebooks to libraries now having some strategy in place. In late 2012, Penguin embarked on a new ebook pilot program with the New York and Brooklyn Public Libraries to allow patrons of the two systems to check out Penguin titles six months after publication via 3M Cloud Library, which already partners with Penguin's sister company Random House.  Public libraries have several ebook lending services to choose from, both for adult and K-12 content, with OverDrive usually the first platform most public librarians turn to when deciding on adding ebooks to their library's offerings.
  14. 14. Ebook platforms in public libraries, cont. OverDrive remains the only platform currently offering books on Kindle (owing to OverDrive's partnership with Amazon) and no other platform for public libraries has as many "big publisher" titles. However, many libraries have been frustrated with the cost of subscription to OverDrive and have started exploring other options.  OverDrive's domination started to be challenged in late 2011 when 3M entered the ebook market as a direct competitor. 3M is a cloud-based ebook lending system that lets patrons read and check out titles at home, on the go, or via discovery terminals (or kiosks) located inside the library. Total Boox entered the market in late 2013 with the launch of a pilot in Westchester county in New York. It is the only ebook service offering instant, simultaneous access to all of the titles on the platform. However, it does not yet include the titles from the big five.  A number of public libraries have started experimenting with purchasing books directly from publishers and hosting them on their own platforms. A good example is Douglas County Libraries (CO) model, which has received a lot of attention from the library community and significant interest from publishers.  Douglas County Libraries hosts its own ebook content on an Adobe Content Server (ACS) and is able to purchase directly from hundreds of publishers at a discount. Patrons are able to borrow thousands of ebooks from the collection, while the library claims the ownership of the titles after purchasing them.
  15. 15. Ebook platforms in K-12 and school libraries  Like academic librarians, school and K-12 librarians look for ways to tie digital content to information literacy, as more emphasis is placed on educating children at a young age about the types of resources available to them. Educators are drawn to "enhanced" ebooks that provide embedded tools allowing students to enrich the reading experience by creating storyboards and blogs, writing book reviews, and building wiki pages and web sites.  Several well-known K-12 publishers have successfully launched a series of interactive ebooks designed to meet the needs of AASL (American Association of School Libraries) standards as well as to support transliteracy skills among K-12 students. These books engage students by encouraging them to create their own content within the ebooks. They also engage parents and educators with embedded lesson plans and suggested classroom activities.  K-12 librarians expect ebook platforms for elementary, middle, and high school students to feature embedded tools that help educators in the process of teaching. They are also on the lookout for platforms fully aligned with the Common Core, a nation-wide initiative that calls for a deeper understanding of the context behind each text a student encounters, to be gained via discussions and close readings of primary sources (rather than traditional textbooks).
  16. 16. Ebook platforms in K-12 and school libraries, cont.  When the Common Core first began to make waves in 2010, reference publishers in particular were quick to recognize the value of their content—especially in digital form—for educators implementing the new standards into their curriculums. This is why we have seen more releases (and re-releases) of ebook platforms strongly aligned with (and supporting) Common Core from major aggregators such as EBSCO and publishers like InfoBase Publishing.  Major K-12 ebook aggregators include Follett and Mackin, both platforms designed to enhance students' research experience via a purchase-to-own acquisition model and both platforms supporting use of multi-media to enhance learning in K-12 settings, with some differences.  Mackin is a web-based portal that integrates all of its ebooks and databases (from 20-plus publishers). The platform supports a number of classroom research activities but does not yet allow for books to be checked out individually. Follett, on the other hand, offers a larger number of ebooks, which can be checked out or downloaded for reading either on a web browser or a mobile device.
  17. 17. The table below lists the most dominant ebook products in libraries and their parent companies, sorted alphabetically by product/platform name. The purpose of this table is to provide a bird's eye view of the ebook market in libraries. PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT TYPE PARENT COMPANY 123Library Aggregator/Distributor 123Doc Education 3M™ Cloud Library Distributor/Ebook lending service 3M ABC-CLIO eBook Collection Publisher ABC-CLIO Axis 360 Distributor Baker & Taylor Books at Jstor University Press Consortium ITHAKA Books@Ovid Aggregator/Distributor Ovid Technologies, Inc. Books24x7 Aggregator Skillsoft Brain Hive Distributor/Ebook lending service Brain Hive, LLC Cambridge Books Online Publisher Cambridge University Press
  18. 18. DawsonEra Distributor Dawson Books, Ltd. De Gruyter Online Publisher De Gruyter EBL Ebook lending service Ebooks Corporation Limited eBooks on EBSCOhost Aggregator EBSCO Publishing eBrary Aggregator ProQuest EpointBooks.com Publisher Rosen Publishing Follett Shelf Distributor/Ebook lending service Follet Corporation Freading Ebook Service Distributor/Ebook lending service Library Ideas LLC FreedomFlix Publisher Scholastic, Inc. Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL) Aggregator Gale Cengage Infobase eBooks Publisher Infobase Publishing Knovel Aggregator Knovel Corporation LexisNexis® Digital Library Ebook lending service Lexis Nexis Literati by Credo Aggregator Credo Reference
  19. 19. Mackin VIA Aggregator Mackin Educational Resources McGraw Hill Ebook Library Publisher McGraw Hill MyiLibrary Aggregator Ingram Content Group OverDrive Distributor/Ebook lending service OverDrive Oxford Handbooks Online Publisher Oxford University Press Oxford Reference Publisher Oxford University Press Palgrave Connect Publisher Palgrave MacMillan PsycBooks® Publisher American Psychological Association Questia Aggregator Cengage Learning R2 Digital Library Aggregator/Distributor Rittenhouse Book Distributors Routledge Reference Online Publisher Taylor & Francis Safari Books Online Aggregator Safari Books Online, LLC (Pearson and O'Reilly) SAGE Knowledge Publisher SAGE Publications Science Direct Publisher Elsevier Sharpe Online Reference Publisher M.E. Sharpe SpringerLink Publisher Springer Science + Business Media
  20. 20. SpringerReference Publisher Springer Science + Business Media StarWalk Kids Media Distributor Seymour Science LLC Storia® Ebooks Publisher Scholastic, Inc. SwetsWise Distributor Swets Information Services Taylor & Francis eBooks Publisher Taylor & Francis Total Boox Distributor/Ebook Lending Service Total Books Ltd University Press Scholarship Online University Press Consortium Oxford University Press University Publishing Online University Press Consortium Cambridge University Press UPCC Book Collections on Project Muse University Press Consortium Johns Hopkins University Press Wheelers ePlatform Distributor/Ebook lending service Wheelers Books Wiley Online Library Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. World Book Online Publisher World Book, Inc.
  21. 21. The table below lists the dominant ebook products in libraries listed above, sorted by the library markets they serve (in some cases more than one): PRODUCT LIBRARY TYPE 123Library Academic/Research Books at Jstor Academic/Research Books@Ovid Academic/Research Books24x7 Academic/Research Cambridge Books Online Academic/Research De Gruyter Online Academic/Research EBL Academic/Research MyiLibrary Academic/Research Oxford Handbooks Online Academic/Research Oxford Reference Academic/Research Palgrave Connect Academic/Research PsycBooks® Academic/Research Routledge Reference Online Academic/Research Safari Books Online Academic/Research Science Direct Academic/Research SpringerLink Academic/Research SpringerReference Academic/Research University Press Scholarship Online Academic/Research University Publishing Online Academic/Research UPCC Book Collections on Project Muse Academic/Research Wiley Online Library Academic/Research McGraw Hill Ebook Library Academic/Research, Corporate SwetsWise Academic/Research, Corporate, Government Taylor & Francis eBooks Academic/Research, Corporate, Government, Public SAGE Knowledge Academic/Research, Corporate, Public
  22. 22. LexisNexis® Digital Library Academic/Research, Government, Corporate DawsonEra Academic/Research, Professional R2 Digital Library Academic/Research, Professional Knovel Academic/Research, Professional, Government eBrary Academic/Research, Public Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL) Academic/Research, Public Sharpe Online Reference Academic/Research, Public ABC-CLIO eBook Collection Academic/Research, Public, K-12 eBooks on EBSCOhost Academic/Research, Public, K-12 Literati by Credo Academic/Research, Public, K-12 Questia Academic/Research; 9-12 Brain Hive K-12 EpointBooks.com K-12, Public Follett Shelf K-12, Public FreedomFlix K-12, Public Mackin VIA K-12, Public StarWalk Kids Media K-12, Public TrueFlix K-12, Public Infobase eBooks K-12, Public, Academic/Research Storia® Ebooks Pre K-8 3M™ Cloud Library Public Freading Ebook Service Public OverDrive Public Wheelers ePlatform Public, K-12 Total Boox Public Axis 360 Public, K-12, Government, Corporate, Academic
  23. 23. What to consider choosing ebook platforms Four main criteria Content Technical Specs Business Model Functionality
  24. 24. Criterion 1: Content Questions pertaining to content can usually be answered by simply browsing each product's web site. Publishers and vendors tend to be forthright about the scope of their platforms. Rule of thumb: the greater the scope, the greater the value; the greater the value, the higher the price. The following content-specific questions usually arise in discussions with vendors:  How many books are included overall?  Do I need to purchase all of them?  What library markets is the platform built for?  Who is the primary audience?  What types of ebooks are available on the platform (e.g., reference books; trade titles from major houses; monographs)?  In the case of subject-specific or publisher-specific ebook platforms, what are the key subjects covered?  How often are new titles added to the platform?  How much of the content in the platform I may already own?  How can I avoid content overlap and paying twice for the same ebooks already available via other products by the same company or via its other partners?  In the case of aggregator and distributor platforms, how many publishers are represented?
  25. 25. Keeping up with titles and publishers is no small task; most ebook platforms are updated on a monthly and in some cases weekly basis. Major aggregators are constantly signing new deals and announcing new partnerships with publishers to boost their offerings. For research and learning purposes, librarians will want to know about the inclusion of multi-media.  Are there videos, images, maps, charts, graphs, and other multi-media tools included to enhance the reading experience?  What about integration of other types of content, such as, for example, journals and various digital encyclopedias and dictionaries?  Is there a sister product (an "offspring") associated with the platform that may be duplicating some of the content available in other places?
  26. 26. The table below provides an outline of the various content factors to consider when choosing ebook platforms: CONTENT CONSIDERATIONS Type of ebook platform (e.g., by publisher, aggregator, wholesaler, university press, ebook lending service) Primary library market (e.g., Public, K-12, Academic, Corporate, Government) Number of titles Number of publishers and/or imprints Types of ebooks on the platform (e.g., trade books; reference books; monographs; K-12 nonfiction) Expected growth/frequency of updates (how often are new titles added) Subjects covered (e.g., fiction, general nonfiction, arts & humanities; science & technology) Inclusion of multi-media (e.g., images, videos, interactive maps) Integration of content other than ebooks (e.g., journals) Inclusion of book reviews Inclusion of author biographies and other works by the same author Distributor partner (e.g., Yankee Book Peddler) Offspring (related products) Content Overlap
  27. 27. Criterion 2: Technical Specifications  Technical specs involve discussions about the equipment needed for the library/user to access ebooks, browsers supported, software or plug-ins needed, file formats of ebooks, and compatible e-readers.  Most ebook platforms support all browsers, including Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox, and Google Chrome, but there are exceptions to this rule. Knowing in advance which browsers the platform supports and whether any additional software installations are needed (e.g., Adobe Digital Editions) helps librarians give their patrons accurate information about accessing information from a home computer.  Ebooks are generally sold to libraries in PDF and ePub file formats. These two are supported by the majority of reading devices, including Nook, iPad, Sony Reader, and Kobo. Kindle uses its own proprietary format.  Not all ebooks may be read on all devices. This is one of the most challenging aspects of how the story of ebooks has unfolded in recent years. While the number of e-readers on the market continues to grow, so does the frustration surrounding the limitations imposed on users who own only one reading device or a library able to afford only one type of ebook platform or ebook lending service.
  28. 28. The table below provides an outline of the technical factors to consider when choosing ebook platforms: TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Browsers supported (e.g., Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox, Google Chrome) Software requirements (e.g., Adobe Digital Editions) Plug-in requirements File formats (e.g., ePub, PDF, HTML, XML) Availability of an app Hand-held e-readers supported (e.g., Nook, iPad, Kindle, Kobo, Sony eReader) Availability of a proprietary reader by the vendor Compatibility with ILS (integrated library system) Integration with the library's OPAC
  29. 29. Criterion 3: Functionality  Functionality is all about the bells and whistles associated with each platform. Librarians need to be aware of the different features and their usefulness both for the library (e.g., COUNTER reports) and for the patrons (e.g., ability to print portions of an ebook).  Academic librarians will be most interested in the embedded tools that support research, including full-text searching at book and chapter level, annotation and citation tools, persistent URLs, copy/paste and printing options, and content availability for offline reading.  The availability of usage data (e.g., COUNTER), ADA-compliant features, and MARC records are of interest to all libraries. Ebook catalogs can range from having MARC records available for every ebook title offered by the library to not having any. The majority of vendors provide MARC records, especially those with a large number of reference books.
  30. 30. The table below provides an outline of the various functionality factors to consider when choosing ebook platforms: FUNCTIONALITY CONSIDERATIONS Full-text searching Keyword searching Copy/paste options Printing options Downloading options Searching at article-level, book-level, and collection-level Advanced search capabilities (truncation, Boolean) Bookmarking within ebooks Citation tools Annotation tools Offline reading Availability of usage reports Persistent URLs (book, chapter, collection level) Print on Demand copy service ADA Compliance Personalization features Availability of MARC records
  31. 31. Criterion 4: Business models  Dealing with business models and understanding the multitude of pricing options available is the most complicated—and controversial—part of ebook acquisition. It not only requires constant upkeep with various policies and business practices, which change persistently owing to the mergers that occur within the industry and to the technological advances that make it possible for companies to upgrade purchasing plans more frequently.  Since pricing options are usually not explained at length on vendor sites, librarians need to take a proactive approach and explore all viable alternatives.
  32. 32. Typical business model questions  Is this a subscription or purchase-to-own model?  If I choose to purchase ebooks to own, are there annual access fees associated with using the platform?  Can fees be waived if a certain number of ebooks is purchased in advance?  If I opt for the subscription package, what happens to the content after my contract expires?  How frequently will my library be invoiced?  Can I view the product before purchasing (and without needing to sign up for an institutional trail)?  In the case of aggregator and distributor platforms, are embargo periods imposed by publishers for certain front-list titles?
  33. 33. Business models, cont.  Since many ebook vendors charge the cost of a print title plus a certain percentage for their ebooks, librarians want to know what the cost of each title is in relation to its print counterpart. They also want to know about single vs. multiple vs. unlimited use of each ebook. Some platforms allow for an unlimited use of their ebooks (by any number of readers at any time), while others adhere to a one title/one user model. Some offer unlimited access for older titles but impose a one title/one user model for new releases.  Access policies vary widely among vendors and they are not always set in stone. If a vendor only has one business model in place at launch, it is not unusual for the vendor to revise its policy in six months to offer more options.  Patron Driven Acquisition (PDA) is one of the most talked-about models for acquiring ebooks in academic libraries. Offered mostly by aggregators (and some publishers), the PDA model is fairly straightforward: ebook purchases are triggered based on traffic and patron interest in particular titles. In other words, patron's use of book triggers purchase (various trigger/price points are offered). This business model guarantees that only the content that gets used gets purchased. Although not as common in public libraries, some vendors, including 3M, have started experimenting with a PDA option for their public library customers.
  34. 34. Business models, cont.  Short-term loans (STL) are a good solution for librarians looking to obtain access to content they otherwise wouldn't be able to afford buying. STLs are similar to the PDA model in that the patron demand ultimately drives what the library budget is spent on. The key difference is that STLs are about renting ebooks instead of buying them. Patrons borrow titles directly from the aggregator’s catalog (not owned by the library) and get access to a title for a set period of time (usually one, two, three, seven, 14, or 30 days) and the library is charged for the rental. This costs the library anywhere from five to 30 percent of the title price (loan prices escalate according to the number of days required for the loan).  A popular way to save money when purchasing ebooks is via library consortia. Many vendors have arrangements with consortia that provide ebooks to libraries at discounted rates. As is the case with other alternatives, librarians will encounter both benefits and drawbacks when choosing the consortia route.  Consortial benefits include more ebooks for less money and equality of content across libraries and minimal energy spent on licensing agreements (these are handled by third parties). There are also challenges. Since publishers don't benefit as much when libraries share access, they often put pressure on aggregators to limit the size of consortia. In addition, certain member libraries may have unique needs that are not in line with those of other members or they may not want to spend money on titles that others want to buy. On the public library side, larger consortia means longer wait time for popular trade titles.
  35. 35. Metered Reading  Total Boox, which entered the market in late 2013, aims to change the “game” in libraries by charging them only for the portions of the content actually read by patrons. In some cases this could be a single book, in others an entire book.  The reading is metered (in real time) and libraries are never charged for downloads. The meter “starts ticking” only when patrons read. The cost of the book corresponds to the cost of the retail, not library, price.  As of early 2014, this is possibly the most cost-effective model for libraries (there are no annual maintenance fees and libraries are allowed to set their own budgets), but it is still uncertain if this type of metered reading provides long-term benefits for libraries and publishers.
  36. 36. The table below provides an outline of the business model factors to consider when choosing ebook platforms: BUSINESS MODEL CONSIDERATIONS One user/one book model Purchase to own option Subscription option Short-term loans Patron Driven Acquisition (PDA) Free viewing period (for PDA) Perpetual archive fee Title cost relative to print cost Minimum commitment InterLibrary Loan Invoicing intervals (monthly, quarterly, yearly) DRM policies Use of content via classroom projection devices (e.g., interactive whiteboards) Annual maintenance fee Free trials (length period) Pay per View option Availability of pre-built subject collections Consortia purchasing Approval plans Embargo period
  37. 37. Ebook spending in libraries According to Library Journal's 2012 and 2013 ebook surveys of ebook usage in public, academic, and K-12 libraries, the following purchasing trends were noted across library institutions:
  38. 38. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES  83 % of academic libraries opt for perpetual access. The second most popular option is subscription. (71%); Patron Driven Acquisition is a growing option, up from 16% in 2010 to 31% in 2012.  Six out of ten academic libraries belong to resource-sharing consortia, while more than 80% of those that belong to a consortium also buy books independently.  General non-circulating reference materials and monographs are the largest categories of ebooks found in academic library collections. E-textbooks lag behind reference books, monographs, classic literature, and general nonfiction.
  39. 39. From the LJ survey: What type of purchasing terms does your library typically use when acquiring ebooks? (multiple responses permitted) % of academic libraries by type of institution and acquisition budget Type of Institution Public or Private Acquisition Budget Graduate/ Prof’l Under- grad Com- munity College Public Private < $100K $100K– $999K $1 Mil+ 2012 Purchase with perpetual access 93% 79% 71% 80% 84% 77% 80% 90% Subscription 79% 66% 63% 75% 64% 62% 73% 70% Concurrent seat access 51% 40% 21% 42% 37% 31% 35% 60% Upfront purchase with maintenance fee 51% 34% 21% 34% 40% 31% 33% 50% User-driven acquisition 37% 30% 21% 35% 25% 18% 27% 48% Bundled with other content 40% 18% 17% 30% 22% 26% 22% 34% Upfront purchase with update fee 19% 8% 17% 16% 8% 13% 10% 16% Purchase with perpetual access through self hosting 18% 2% 17% 13% 5% 10% 7% 12% Pay-per-use 7% 12% 0% 8% 10% 0% 9% 14% License with set # circs model 4% 2% 8% 5% 2% 3% 3% 4% Other 0% 2% 0% 2% 1% 0% 2% 2%
  40. 40. PUBLIC LIBRARIES (2013 data) Percentage of budgets spent on ebooks
  41. 41. Business models used in public libraries in 2013
  42. 42. SCHOOL LIBRARIES (2012 data)  Most school libraries were not early to adopt ebooks: on average, they have only been carrying ebooks for less than two years. The majority of school libraries (60%) still do not offer ebooks.  On average, school libraries spend $1,200 on ebooks in the current school year.  According to the LJ survey, schools are tentatively entering the ebook market, and budgets are "finite" and "shrinking."  When school libraries purchase ebooks, more often than not, they purchase “perpetual access.” The option for “concurrent use/access” continues to grow, from 16% to 30% in 2012.  “Subscription” continues to decline in popularity.
  43. 43. In 2012 Follett remained the top vendor for elementary and middle school libraries, with Gale Virtual Reference Library slightly ahead for high schools. Buying ebooks directly from the publisher is falling out of favor across the board. Vendors Used to Purchase Ebooks Elem. Middle High 2012 FollettShelf 76% 67% 59% Gale Virtual Reference Library 2% 25% 60% Tumblebooks 20% 10% 5% Amazon.com 7% 17% 19% Barnes & Noble 10% 17% 11% Mackin 11% 3% 5% Capstone 10% 5% 2% OverDrive 3% 11% 12% EBSCOhost 2% 7% 13% Scholastic 8% 5% 0% iTunes 4% 6% 5% Direct from publisher 2% 6% 11% Baker & Taylor 3% 3% 3% Other 10% 10% 19%
  44. 44. SCHOOL LIBRARIES (2013 data) Percentage of school budgets spent on ebooks
  45. 45. WEEK 3 REVIEW By the end of Week 3, you should be able to answer the following:  What types of ebook platforms exist in libraries?  What are the basic differences between ebook distributors and aggregators?  What are the pros and cons of publisher-hosted platforms?  What are the pros and cons of aggregator platforms?  What are the pros and cons of ebook lending services?  What are the pros and cons of consortial purchasing of ebooks?  What are the main University Press content ebook platforms?  What are the main challenges associated with ebook platforms in academic libraries?
  46. 46. WEEK 3 REVIEW, Cont.  What are the main challenges associated with ebook platforms in public libraries?  What are the main challenges associated with ebook platforms in K-12/school libraries?  Who are the dominant aggregators of ebook content for academic libraries?  Who are the dominant aggregators of ebook content for school and K-12 libraries?  Who are the dominant ebook lending services in public and school libraries?  What are the main criteria for purchasing ebook platforms in libraries?  What are the most common questions associated with each purchasing criterion?  What types of business models exist for purchasing of ebook platforms?  What is the basic difference between subscription and purchase-to-own ebook platforms?  What are the main controversies surrounding ebook lending in public libraries?  What do recent surveys suggest about ebook purchasing trends in public, academic, and K-12 libraries?