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Week 1 Lecture

  1. 1. ALA eCourse Mirela Roncevic mirelaroncevic@gmail.com April 7-May 2, 2014
  2. 2. Introduction to Ebooks & E-readers  Definition and context  History of ebooks  Major milestones  Basic features of ebooks  Ebook advantages and challenges  Ebook softwares and formats  Ebook reading devices  Digital Rights Management (DRM)  Dominant brands in the ebook market
  3. 3. What is an ebook?  It is a book read on an electronic device.  Several variations are currently used in the media: electronic book, ebook, e-book, eBook, digital book.  It is an electronic version of any printed work (most ebooks first exist as print books).  It can also be a book available in electronic format only, born digital.  It is an electronic document that maintains many of the features of traditional books, including typography, table of contents, chapters, and index.  As with any print book, ebooks are discussed in the context of a variety of genres, including fiction, nonfiction, illustrated books, reference books, e-textbooks, etc.  Ebooks can be produced in a variety of formats, ranging from very basic text files to well structured files that use one of the emerging standards for e-books (including ePub and Adobe PDF).  In addition to text, ebooks may include multi-media components, including the cover image, illustrations and photographs, audio for 'text to speech' (a standard ebook reader feature), audiobooks, and videos.
  4. 4. E-book < E-content  A variety of materials besides books are available for reading electronically. Hence, the term e-content is 'greater' than the term e- book. In fact, a number of prominent industry leaders believe ebooks are a transitional digital medium that will be transcended in the future.  The term "digital media" is also used to encompass a variety of e-texts available for reading on electronic devices, including, for example, newspapers and magazines.
  5. 5. E-book < E-content, Cont.  Amazon, for example, uses the term "eDoc," to refer to digital content that can be viewed on a computer screen. According to Amazon.com, "in addition to being shorter (typically) than eBooks, eDocs do not have software protection that prevents them from being copied and printed (Digital Rights Management). However, eDocs are still subject to copyright law."  Gutenberg Press, as another example, uses the term e-text to distinguish regular ASCII text files from the files that contain ebooks.
  6. 6. History of ebooks/Major milestones  Ebooks are still in their infancy (compared to print books that have been around for five centuries). Their story begins in 1971 with Michael S. Hart's Project Gutenberg, whose goal is to preserve historical and cultural works in digital format, with volunteers scanning and typing in texts of books. Since these books are in the public domain, they may be shared and distributed freely.  Ebooks start to emerge as digital versions of print books with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s and are read on computers and distributed on CD-ROMS (users copy the book on the CD-ROM onto their desktop).
  7. 7. History of ebooks/Major milestones, cont.  A small number of publishers release ebooks as early as 1994.  Digital publishing becomes mainstream by late 1990s.  Amazon.com emerges in 1995 as the first main online bookstore and is considered "bad news" for local bookstores.  By 2000, digital publishing and print publishing become complimentary, although most publishers still do not produce ebook versions of every new book.
  8. 8. History of ebooks/Major milestones, cont. In 1993: Apple Newton, the first Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), is introduced, followed by the advent of the following ebook reading devices between 1999 and 2012:  1999: Franklin EB-500 Rocket Book  2000: Microsoft E-Reader  2002: Palm Treo  2004: Sony Libre  2006: Sony eReader  2007: Kindle (Amazon)  2009: Nook (Barnes & Noble)  2010: iPad (Apple)  2011: Kindle Fire (Amazon)  2012: mini iPad (Apple)
  9. 9. History of ebooks/Major milestones, cont.  By 2010, most publishers, particularly on the academic and reference publishing side, have a digital strategy in place for every title published.  By 2013, the market is saturated with ebook reading devices competing for the attention of readers. These include both dedicated readers like the Kindle, tablets like the iPad and the Android, and a range smartphones, like the iPhone.
  10. 10. History of ebooks/Major milestones, cont.  According to Marie Lebert (NEF, University of Toronto, 2009), author of A Short History of Ebooks, the following may be recognized as the major milestones in the evolution of ebooks:  1971: Project Gutenberg is the first digital library  1990: The web boosts the Internet  1993: The Online Books Page is a list of free ebooks  1994: Some publishers get bold and go digital  1995: Amazon.com is the first main online bookstore  1996: There are more and more texts online  1997: Multi-media convergence and employment  1998: Libraries take over the web  1999: Librarians get digital  2000: Information is available in many languages  2002: Creative Commons licenses are released  2003: eBooks are sold worldwide  2004: Authors are creative on the Internet  2005: Google gets interested in ebooks  2006: We strive for a public digital library  2007: We read on portable electronic devices
  11. 11. Advantages of ebooks There are a number of advantages ofreading books in e-formats and they generally outweigh the drawbacks. Advantages include the following:  Portability — Ebook devices are easy to carry and can store numerous books simultaneously; a great feature for travelers.  Storage — E-reading devices are able to store large number of titles. In libraries, digital collections open the door for a much greater range of titles than brick-and-mortar institutions can hold.  Free content — Thousands of books—older public domain titles as well as newly released, self-published titles—are available for downloading for free via a number of web sites, including popular online books stores like Amazon and Barnes & Noble.  Inexpensive content — Some authors opt to self-publish their own books and make them available online for a fraction of the cost of print equivalents.
  12. 12. Advantages of ebooks, cont.  Fast access & distribution — Downloading ebooks takes little time and effort; no wait periods or shipping is involved; and Internet connectivity, especially broadband connectivity, is becoming increasingly more affordable and available in many remote locations. Ebooks can be easily distributed over the Internet, much like email files, and distribution costs are usually negligible.  Multiple access points — Ebooks may be accessed in many different ways: via desktops, laptops, phones, and various other mobile devices.  More choices & variety — Brick-and-mortar bookstores and libraries cannot provide the variety available in an online environment; their digital collections are far larger and more varied than their print collections.  Adaptability & ADA Compliance —Readers can adjust font size and brightness to individual preferences. Ebooks are easier to hold and more comfortable to use for those with carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, and other physical disabilities.  Interactivity — An e-book is structured like a web page, providing the reader with features that enable fast navigation through hyperlinking, annotation, and keyword searches. Most ebooks can be searched, bookmarked, and highlighted.  "Enhanced" reading experience — More and more ebooks are enhanced with multi-media features. A medical e-textbook, for example, can explain a medical condition using a video clip and a children’s book may contain animations that help depict the story.
  13. 13. Advantages of ebooks, cont.  Literacy support — Because of the inclusion of multi-media and other features, ebooks support learning and teaching in ways not possible before. E-textbooks are expected to play a vital role in the future of education. Teachers and professors are already producing their own ebooks as learning resources via a number of platforms.  Currency — Unlike print books, which often include information that ages quickly, ebooks can be updated and re-published faster. This is especially relevant in certain branches of publishing susceptible to frequent updating, including STM and reference publishers. A traditional print encyclopedia takes months, sometimes years, to undergo a single revision. An ebook (or digital) version of the same encyclopedia may be updated on an ongoing basis.  Usage monitoring —Usage of ebooks can be tracked, which helps libraries manage expectations and resources and decide with confidence which titles to buy, license, or remove from their collections. Traditional weeding practices call for much more complex decision making.  Self-publishing — A growing number of authors are skipping the traditional publishing process and opting to publish their own books digitally via a variety of tools available online. This makes them available for consumption faster and it opens up publishing opportunities for individuals to share their work who wouldn't otherwise be able to via traditional publishing channels.  Environmentally-friendly — Publishing ebooks generally means using less paper, which is usually translated to saving the environment.
  14. 14. Challenges with ebooks Notable challenges with ebooks include:  Lack of standard format—There is still no standard format for reading ebooks; most ebook readers can only read certain formats.  Device fatigue — The proliferation of ebook reading devices is showing no signs of slowing down. The choices can be overwhelming for the average consumer.  High price tag of ebooks — Consumers expect ebooks to cost significantly less than their print counterparts (as production cost is minimal compared to the traditional printing process). However, many ebooks are priced only slightly less than print books or, in many cases, they cost the same. The library price in some cases is four times higher than the retail price.  High price tag of reading devices — Although the prices of portable devices have gone down in recent years, many are still considered expensive for the average consumer. They also date quickly.  Threat of piracy — Ebooks can be easily duplicated and disseminated and, if available without protection, can lead to unauthorized copying and distribution.  Built-in DRM — Many ebooks cannot be copied, loaned, or restored owing to DRM protection.
  15. 15. Challenges with ebooks, cont.  ADA Compliance still an issue — Some e-readers still don't comply with ADA accessibility regulations, making some titles out of reach to people with disabilities.  Availability — Not all titles are available in ebook format. Many titles still only exist in print.  Quality of content is called into question — Because of the phenomenon of ebook self- publishing, valid concerns exist about the quality of content produced and delivered via self- publishing tools requiring minimal or no professional editorial input.  Presence of typos — Because a large number of free ebooks are entered into e-repositories manually by volunteers, they may (and do) contain typos.  Lack of multi-media — Many educational ebooks still don't contain images and other multi- media components. Great strides have been made in recent years by K-12 publishers to increase interactivity of their digital offerings, but adding multi-media components is a costly endeavor for most, particularly independent, educational publishers.  Content is never (really) owned — Ebook content is not owned the same way print content is owned. Upon purchase and download of an ebook, Content Provider (e.g., Publisher) grants a user a non-exclusive right to view, use, and display the content in electronic format (also referred to as "digital content" on various sites selling ebooks) an unlimited number of times on a device or a reading application. Therefore, ebook content is licensed—not sold—by the Content Provider.
  16. 16. Digital Rights Management  Digital Rights Management (DRM) is considered to be the answer to the threat of piracy associated with ebooks. It has been the topic of many a discussion in the publishing and library industries in recent years.  Also referred to as Digital Restriction Management, DRM is different from Copyright law, which is defined as follows: " The Copyright Law of the United States encourages the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights. Federal Copyright law grants authors and artists the exclusive right to make and sell copies of their works, the right to create derivative works, and the right to perform or display their works publicly. These exclusive rights are subject to a time limit, and generally expire 70 years after the author's death." (source: Wikipedia)
  17. 17. Digital Rights Management, cont.  DRM is often discussed in conjunction with DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), which is defined as "a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself." (source: Wikipedia)  DRM is used not only in connection with books and other written content but also in connection with music, videos, computers, mobile phones, and games.  The majority of traditional publishers and book sellers place some DRM protection on ebooks. Each has its own set of DRM restrictions in place. These vary from strict, to light, to DRM-free. Academic publishers often place light DRM on their ebook titles (that are usually accessed via large e-resources to which libraries subscribe). Ebook Lending Services like OverDrive, on the other hand, provide access to titles with strict DRM.
  18. 18. Digital Rights Management, cont. DRM systems are used to protect author, publisher, and distributor rights by enforcing limits on the use of digital content. This means that ebooks with DRM protection…  cannot be copied or printed  cannot be viewed on multiple devices  cannot be moved from one device to another  cannot be purchased in certain territories  can only be downloaded a certain number of times (if the buyer loses a book, he may only be able to download it again once more; in some cases, he has to purchase it again)  cannot be read aloud (a barrier for the visually impaired)
  19. 19. Digital Rights Management, cont.  There are different ways to block readers from acquiring ebook content published in another country. For example, ebook titles are often made invisible to shoppers in certain territories via IP address identification.  DRM is usually managed by the manufacturers of eReaders. These eReaders possess the “key” to a “lock” on the ebook. If the ebook is locked for reading on one device, only that device has the “key” to it. The user is, therefore, unable to read it on any other device.  Several DRM systems exists, with the following three being the most dominant:  Amazon/Mobipocket encryption (used by Amazon)  FairPlay (used by Apple)  Adobe Content Server (used by most others)
  20. 20. How are eBooks read?  Ebooks may be read on a variety of devices with a variety of apps (applications) and programs.  All ebook file formats require software to display the contents of an ebook. Titles are tied to both formats and devices. While some titles may be available on all major devices, others may only be available on some.  The software may run on one of three platforms: Desktop (your computer/laptop), mobile devices (mobile phones, smartphones, tablet PCs), and dedicated ebook readers (Kindle, Nook).  Mobile devices are in essence small computers with a built-in phone and include iPods, iPads, iPhones, Android Phones, and Blackberries. Most mobile devices have LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), which makes reading in bright light somewhat difficult. Most mobile devices feature touch screens (rather than buttons) and are compatible with the ePub format, which is becoming the dominant format.  Dedicated eReaders are different from other multi-functional portable devices in that their main function is to serve as "devices used to read books only," whereas tablets and other mobile devices offer a range of other functions, such as web-browsing, game playing, and many others. They also feature e-Ink display.
  21. 21. Advantages and Disadvantages of LCD and e-Ink Screens LCD + Full color - Harder on the eyes + Can display video (movies) - Takes more power (battery doesn’t last as long) + Backlit, so you can read in the dark - Hard to read outdoors or in bright sunlight e-Ink - Black & white + Easy on the eyes; like paper - Can’t display full video + Takes very little power (battery lasts longer) - Can’t be read in the dark (like a regular book) + Easy to read outdoors, the more light the better + Very crisp and sharp
  22. 22. How are eBooks delivered to the user?  Ebooks are downloaded in several ways: via a USB connection (between e-reader devices and computer – this method is being phased out); wirelessly (via wi-fi built into e- readers); and via broadband connection, 3G or 4G (built into e-readers).  E-books are distributed to desktop computers, mobile devices, and e-book readers by ebook stores, publishers, and various online repositories. Ebooks may be downloaded in a number of ways:  Simple computer download – Ebooks are either publicly available (free ebooks) or available upon registration or payment (paid-for ebooks), with a link provided to the user which allows the ebook to be downloaded directly to a computer.  Via applications (apps) – A growing number of apps allow users to search and download ebooks directly to their computer or device. Generally, each reading device and/or format requires its own app. Apps are downloadable free of charge.  Via Email – Ebooks can also be emailed to a device and then manually added to a reader software or reading device.
  23. 23. Navigating and browsing ebooks Ebooks can be more difficult to navigate than print books, owing in part to the fact that ebook readers usually don't have the same context as readers of print books and depend more on browsing and keyword spotting rather than having the opportunity to be engaged in an in-depth reading of text. On the other hand, ebooks often include the option of following hyperlinks to other content of interest online, which deepens research and leads to a more satisfying learning experience for the user. Ebooks may be navigated via:  browsing  searching for keywords (if the reading device has a search function)  the Table of Contents, which often links directly to the chapters in the book  the Index, if available
  24. 24. Ebook Software  Ebooks can be read on a computer using ebook reading software designed to display various file formats.  Ebook software = operating device  All of the major ebook sellers provide their own eReading software.  One of the most popular software readers is Adobe Digital Editions.  For PCs, software readers include Adobe Digital Editions, Kindle for PC, and Nook for PC, among others. For Macs, software readers include Adobe Digital Editions, Kindle for Mac, and Nook for Mac, among others. Other software readers include: Calibre, Stanza Desktop, and Mobipocket Reader Desktop.  E-reading apps are needed for smartphones and tablets; they are downloaded via each device's app store. eReading apps include, among others:  iBooks (for iPad)  Aldiko (for Android)  Kindle (multi-platform)  Nook (multi-platform)
  25. 25. Ebook Formats  The format of ebook depends on the device used to read the ebook. Important to note: not all e-readers recognize all ebook formats.  Ebooks come in a variety of formats. The format of an ebook is recognized from the extension of its file name.  Most dominant ebook formats include: ePub, PDF, MOBI, AZW/Kindle (a version of Mobi), and HTML. Other, less used formats include Plain Text, eReader (.pdb), Microsoft LIT (discontinued on August 30th, 2012), Broadband eBooks (BBeB), and SSReader.  There is no standard for describing what format a publisher should use to produce an ebook, although most professional publishers in 2014 are leaning toward two formats: ePub and Adobe PDF.  A useful comparison of ebook formats used for creating and reading ebooks is available on Wikipedia.
  26. 26. ePub (.epub)  most common format; becoming the standard; the most versatile of all formats  formatting possibilities in ePub books have surpassed all of the other formats  maintained by IDPF (International Digital Publishing Forum), a non-profit made up of technology and publishing companies  supports JPEG, PNG, GIF, SVG images, and Flash, which enable audio and video  supported by nearly every device, except Amazon Kindle  DRM can be added to it (Adobe DRM is used most often)  textbook developers are most interested in this format  can be read on Windows and Mac computers with Adobe Digital Editions, on the Nook, Sony Reader, iOS devices, the Android devices, and on Linux computers
  27. 27. PDF (.pdf)  an open standard largely used as an alternative to ePub  compatible with most readers  good for exact layouts and illustrated books  doesn't reflow to fit small screens  ideal for computer screens (not mobile devices)  sold and distributed by a variety of companies  DRM can be added to it
  28. 28. Mobipocket (.mobi, .prc)  developed by a French company that launched its ebook reading software when ebooks were still in their infancy  company purchased by Amazon in 2005 and is now its main format  supports most devices (except Nook)  DRM can be added to it (when an encrypted file is downloaded from a retailer it is locked to the user's registered device)  there is no difference between .mobi, .prc, or .azw (below) -- the files are the same  can be used on any of the Kindle devices, plus Kindle apps for PC, Mac, Android, Blackberry, and iOS devices; cannot be used on Nook or Sony  used to be the most popular format but is becoming dated
  29. 29. Kindle (.azw)  Amazon's proprietary format; a version of Mobi (see above)  can be read on mobile devices via the Kindle app  can be used on any of the Kindle devices, plus Kindle apps for PC, Mac, Android, Blackberry, and iOS devices; cannot be used on Nook or Sony
  30. 30. HTML (.htm; .html)  HTML is the markup language for web pages  can be read in a web browser  can be read on any device with a built-in web browser  can be printed, copied, pasted, and manipulated; no DRM
  31. 31. eReader (PDB)  not based on HTML (like other formats) but on PML (Palm Markup Language)  can be locked down with DRM  can be converted into an ebook file using one of eReader's programs: Dropbook and ebookStudio  compatible with iPhone, iPod Touch, Blackberry, Windows, Mac, and Palm OS
  32. 32. Dedicated E-Readers  Examples include Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble’s Nook, and Sony Reader  feature e-ink display (which looks like text on paper)  e-ink display does not emit light; can be read in direct sunlight  longer battery life than tablets  low functionality overall; searchable text  long battery life (several days)  are designed for reading only  weigh less than tablets  can access one book store (as opposed to many different ones like tablets)  cost less (circa 150-250, depending on model)  some predict they will be replaced by tablets (according to industry estimates, their sales peaked in 2011)
  33. 33. Tablets  Examples include the iPad, Kindle Fire, the Android devices, the Nook HD  feature LCD display, with high resolution (similar to computer screen)  good for reading in dim light/screen glare in bright light  not used just for reading but also for watching movies, playing games and music, and using various software applications (apps)  also used for web surfing  a lot of memory but limited battery life  can access many different book stores online  cost more than dedicated e-readers (circa $500, depending on model)
  34. 34. Mobile Devices (Phones)  phones that can be used for reading  include Blackberry, iPhone, Android  lightweight  small screen  battery life comparable to cell phone  convenient and lightweight but not good for long reading
  35. 35. Dominant Brands in the Ebook Market Kindle by Amazon.com Kinde E-Reader Family  Kindle (original)  Kindle Paperwhite  Kindle Paperwhite 3G  Kindle Keyboard 3G Kindle Fire Family (tablets)  Kindle Fire  Kindle Fire HD  Kindle Fire HD 8'9  Kindle Fire HD 8'9 4G
  36. 36. Dominant Brands in the Ebook Market, cont. NOOK by Barnes & Noble  Nook Simple Touch (6 inch Reader)  Nook Simple Touch with GlowLight (6 inch Reader)  Nook HD (7 inch tablet)  Nook HD+ (9 inch tablet) Sony [exited US market in early 2014]  Reader PRST2  Reader PRST2HBC  Xperia Tablet Kobo  kobo mini  kobo glow  kobo touch  kobo arc
  37. 37. Dominant Brands in the Ebook Market, cont. Apple iOS Devices  iPad (the original; with Retina Display)  iPad 2  iPad mini  iPhone  iPod
  38. 38. Other Devices used for Reading Ebooks  Google Nexus 4, 7, and 10  Samsung Galaxy 4G Tablet  Toshiba Folio  Ectacto Jetbook Color 2  Motorola XOOM  teXet TB-436  Bookeen Cybook Odyssey HD Frontlight  txtr Beagle  BeBook Pure  JWF eReaderPRO  Hanvon C18  Kyobo Mirasol eReader  Onyx Boox M92  BeBook Club 'S'  PocketBook 360 plus  Pocketbook IQ  Pocketbook ProBook 602/603 902/903
  39. 39. Pros and Cons of E-reading Devices DEVICES Pros Cons Smartphones Many options and choices, highly mobile, long battery life, built-in phone Small screen and keyboard Tablets Computer-like features, portability, best reading interface, expandable memory, more capable hardware, apps Not as powerful and capable as laptops for professional work Dedicated E-Readers Lightweight, portability, ability to hold many ebooks, affordable price Inadequate power and speed Laptops/Netbooks More powerful, feature-rich, fast, web capability, functionality, software, peripherals support (e.g., printers, monitors) Less portable than tablets but more expensive Source: E-Book Devices: An Overview for Libraries, John Burns, eContent Quarterly, March 2014
  40. 40. Useful sources of information on ebook readers  Wikipedia Comparison chart of ebook readers  E-Reader-info.com Directory of E-Readers  E-Reader-info.com 2013 Ebook Reader Reviews
  41. 41. Factors To Consider When Deciding on An E-Reading Device  Do I want to use the device only for reading ebooks?  Do I also want to be able to view email and browse the Internet via the same device?  Do I want to use the device for playing games and downloading music and apps?  Do I already own a device which allows me to check email and browse the web?  Do I want to be able to download and watch movies using the same device?  Do I want constant Internet access on this device or do I have sufficient access to the Internet via WiFi?  How much time will I spend using the device on the go?  What size am I most comfortable with?  How important are the following: connectivity speed, compatibility, and security?  How important is battery life?
  42. 42. How prevalent are ebooks in American culture? According to January 2014 Pew Research Center Survey:  Three in ten adults read an ebook last year; half own a table or e-reader  The percentage of adults who read an ebook in the past year has risen to 28 percent, up from 23 percent in 2012  Seven in ten Americans reported reading a book in print  14 percent of adults listened to an audiobook
  43. 43. How prevalent are ebooks in American culture, cont. Other Pew Research Center Survey findings:  Print remains the foundation of Americans’ reading habits.  Most people who read ebooks also read print books  4 percent of readers are “ebook only” readers  76 percent of adults read a book in some format over the previous 12 motnhs  The typical American adult read or listened to 5 books in the past year
  44. 44. How prevalent are ebooks in American culture, cont.  50 percent of Americans now have a handheld device, either a tablet or an e-reader (up from 43 percent in September 2013)  92 percent of adults have a cell phone  55 percent of adults have a smartphone  75 percent of adults own a laptop or desktop computer
  45. 45. The effect of ebook growth on reading habits among children and young adults In 2013, Scholastic released the fourth edition of its biannual "Kids & Family Reading Report," which focused on the effects of the growth of ebooks and e-reading devices on the reading habits of children aged 6-17 and their parents. The survey found the following:  46 percent of kids aged 6-17 have an ebook (up from 25 percent in 2010).  41 percent of parents have read an ebook (up from 14 percent in 2010).  75 percent of kids said they read ebooks at home.  27 percent of kids said they read ebooks at school.  13 percent of kids said they read ebooks at the library.  half of children aged 9-17 said they would read more books for fun if they had greater access to ebooks, a 50 percent increase since 2010.  72 percent of parents were interested in having their child read ebooks.  58 percent of kids aged 9-17 said they would always want to read books printed on paper even though there are ebooks available.
  46. 46. Ebook Usage in Public, Academic and K-12 Libraries  According to a 2012 and 2013 surveys of public, academic and school libraries conducted by Library Journal and School Library Journal, the following conclusions were drawn about the use of ebooks :
  47. 47. Average number of ebooks offered in… 2010 2011 2012 Graduate/Professional libraries 37,500 97,500 138,800 Undergraduate libraries 31,000 60,600 80,700 Community College/2-year libraries 21,500 25,200 32,400 ACADEMIC LIBRARIES Academic libraries were early adopters of ebooks, with 19% reporting they have carried ebooks for more than eight years. As a result, ebook adoption has plateaued in academic libraries, with about 95% currently carrying ebooks.
  48. 48. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES Ebook usage/circulation in academic libraries for the 2010–2011 academic year, on average, was 24,700, up considerably from the reported ebook circulation figure of 6,849 in 2009–2010. There was a major surge of undergraduate ebook circulation. Community colleges are still lagging behind other types of post-secondary schools. Mean ebooks circulation/usage... 2009–2010 school year 2010–2011 school year Graduate/Professional libraries 16,200 35,881 Undergraduate libraries 4,800 27,550 Community College/2-year libraries 3,200 3,873
  49. 49. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES Academic spending on ebooks is focused on new releases and updates to reference titles and e-textbooks. The average amount spent on ebooks by respondents during the 2011–2012 academic year was $67,400 (median $16,600). Average amount spent on ebooks... 2010–2011 academic year 2011–2012 academic year Graduate/Professional libraries $142,272 $99,900 Undergraduate libraries $36,356 $42,600 Community College/2-year libraries $14,123 $15,600
  50. 50. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES The top issue for library users wanting access to e-content remains the fact that they remain “unaware of ebook availability." Other barriers to ebook access include preference to read materials in print, difficulty in reading onscreen, and DRM. Barriers to user ebook access... 2010 2011 2012 Unaware of ebook availability 62% 58% 52% Users prefer print 40% 47% 50% Limited titles available 41% n/a 49% Difficult to read onscreen/online 52% 45% 45% Complex downloading process 14% 18% 41% Digital rights management issues 55% 35% 37% Difficult to find/Discover 32% 38% 32% Not available for preferred devices 23% 32% 30% Lack of training 26% 28% 29% Difficult to annotate 32% 26% 27% High demand titles not available for libraries n/a 17% 24% Ebook titles not available concurrent with print release n/a 22% 21% Limited access to ereading devices 20% 19% 19% Faculty resistance n/a 18% 18% Long wait times for ebooks n/a 4% 8% Other 7% 10% 3% Awkward interface 35% n/a n/a Not downloadable n/a n/a 2% Limited concurrent users n/a n/a 1% Printing limitations n/a n/a 1% None of the above n/a n/a 1%
  51. 51. Ebook Usage in Public Libraries 2014: Demand Slows Down but Remains High According to a 2013 survey of public libraries conducted by Library Journal, the following conclusions were drawn about the use of ebooks:  While ebooks are still growing in popularity, they are not exploding like they were a year or two ago  89 percent of libraries indicated they offered ebooks (unchanged from 2012)  The median number of ebooks offered was in excess of 7000, an increase by more than 800 percent since 2010  42 percent reported “dramatic increase,” in demand, down from 79 percent in 2012  Most of public libraries’ ebook titles (91 percent) are accessed one user at a time, rather than simultaneously  74 percent of ebook collections are fiction titles, while 26 percent are nonfiction titles  Adult titles account for 71 percent of public libraries’ collections
  52. 52. SCHOOL LIBRARIES (2012 Data) School libraries lag behind academic and public libraries in adoption of ebooks. Many are still in the earliest stages of ebook adoption, with budget issues usually cited as a large part of what is holding school libraries back from implementing ebook lending services. In 2012, the likelihood of a school library carrying ebooks increased by grade level, with 63% of high school libraries, 50% of middle schools, and 33% of elementary schools offering them. Of those libraries that do not offer ebooks (60% of all school libraries), 26% say they will definitely purchase ebooks to add to their collections in the next two years, while the majority—55%—may purchase them, but it’s not a priority. Only 9% have ruled out ebook purchasing entirely.
  53. 53. K-12 LIBRARIES (2013 Data)
  54. 54. WEEK 1 REVIEW By the end of Week 1, you should be able to answer the following:  How long have ebooks been around?  What were the major milestones in the evolution of ebooks?  What are basic features of ebooks?  What are the advantages of reading books in electronic format?  What are the challenges associated with ebooks?  How can ebooks be read?  How are ebooks downloaded?  What are the most dominant ebook formats?  What are "ebook software readers" used for?  What types of portable devices can ebooks be read on?  What is the difference between e-ink and LCD screens?  What are key differences when reading ebooks on tablets, dedicated e-readers, and smart phones?  Who are the major players in the market of ebook readers?  What are key factors to consider when deciding on an ebook reader?  What is the effect of ebook growth on reading habits?  What do recent studies suggest about the consumption of ebooks among general population?  What do recent studies suggest about ebook usage in academic, public, and K-12 libraries?