USED To narrate events thathave alreadyoccurred in atime-specificor not, in thepast but still have arelevance in the present.
STRUCTURE The sentence is constructed withthe auxiliary verbhas if in the third person singular HAS/ (he, she, it) and HAVEhave if (I, they, we, you) plus the participle of the verb: subject + have been + verbor participle past.
PRAYERS CAN BE PRESENTED IN THREE WAYS:AFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVEI I Have Haven tYou G You GHe He HaveShe Has o She Hasn t o HasIt n It n HaveWe WeThey Have e They e Haven tYou You
AFIRMATIVEI have [Ive] talked to Peter.You have [you ve] lived in Japan.He has [he s] eaten pizza. She has [Shes] gone to work.It has [IT s ] bought for him. We have [Weve] been to London. They have [Theyve] learned English.
NEGATIVE I haven‘t bought a shoes.You haven´t run in the park. He hasn´t written a letter.She hasnt gone to work.It hasn´t been repaired. We havent been to London. They havent learned English.
INTERROGATIVEHave you talked to Camila?Has he drunk beer? Has she gone to school? Have you been to Paris? Have we read a book?Have they learned E nglish?
USESWe use the present perfectfor actions that occurred inthe not concrete beforenow. The specific time isnot important. Therefore,we do not often useexpressions specific time(this morning, yesterday,last year...) with thepresent perfect. You canuse the present perfectwith no specific timeexpressions (never, ever,many times, for, since,already, yet...).
1. EXPERIENCE You can use the Examples: Present Perfect to I have been to France. THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE describe your HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN experience. It is like FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES. saying, "I have theexperience of..." You I have been to France three times. YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT can also use this THE END OF THE SENTENCE.tense to say that you I have never been to France. have never had a THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE certain experience. NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE. The Present Perfect is NOT used to I think I have seen that movie before. describe a specific He has never traveled by train. event. Joan has studied two foreign languages.
2. CHANGE OVER TIMEWe often use You have grown since the lastthe Present time I saw you. The government hasPerfect to talk become more interested in artsabout change education. Japanese has become one ofthat has the most popular courses at thehappened university since the Asian studiesover a period program was established. Myof time. English has really improved sinc e I moved to Australia.
3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Examples:We often use the Man has walked on the Moon. Present Perfect Our son has learned how to read. Doctors have cured many deadly to list the diseases.accomplishment Scientists have split the atom.s of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
4. AN UNCOMPLETEDACTION YOU ARE EXPECTINGWe often use the Examples: Present Perfect James has not finished his to say that an homework yet.action which we Susan hasntexpected has not mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.happened. Using Bill has still not arrived. the Present The rain hasnt stopped.Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
5. MULTIPLE ACTIONS AT FIFFERENT TIMESWe also use the Examples: Present Perfect The army has attacked that city five to talk about times.several different I have had four quizzes and five actions which tests so far this semester. We have had many major problemshave occurred in while working on this project. the past at She has talked to severaldifferent times. specialists about her problem, but Present Perfect nobody knows why she is sick. suggests the process is not complete andmore actions are possible.