“Knowing about Knowing”,
A way to explain how one examines
The mental process.
1. The way in which learners manipulate information,
monitor it, and strategize about it.
2. The two main parts of processing involve memory and
The ability to focus ones mental resources on something.
The greater ones ability to focus ones attention the greater
the potential for increased cognitive processing.
Types of Attention
Three types of memory are …
• Sensory , Short-Term, and Long Term.
A. Encoding - how information is stored and differentiated
between that which is relevant and irrelevant. Robert Siegler
B. Storage - The retention of information over time.
C. Retrieval – the manner in which information is found for a
certain purpose later.
Encoding – the process of focusing ones
attention—by visual inspection, physical
manipulation, or using words—highlights
features of an event or material being
remembered and thus improves how
information is stored and purposed for future
use. (Ornstein, Coffman, & Grammer, 2009;
Ornstein & Light, 2010).
Theory of Mind - awareness of one’s own mental
processes and the mental processes of others.
Strategies – the effective use of problem solving and
Two part process
Metacognitive Knowledge - involves monitoring and
reflecting on one’s current or recent thoughts. This includes
both factual knowledge, such as knowledge about the task,
one’s goals, or oneself, and strategic knowledge, such as
how and when to use specific procedures to solve
Metacognitive Activity - occurs when students consciously
adapt and manage their thinking strategies during problem
solving and purposeful thinking exercises.
Familiar items are easier to learn than unfamiliar
Short lists are easier than long ones.
Recognition is easier than recall.
Forgetting increases over time.
(Lyon & Flavell, 1993)
1. Notice features and meaningful patterns of information
that novices don’t.
2. Have acquired a great deal of content knowledge that is
organized in a manner that reflects deep understanding
of the subject.
3. Can retrieve important aspects of their knowledge with
4. Are adaptive in their approach to new situations.
5. Use effective strategies.
1. Santrock, John (2010-12-28). Educational Psychology (Page 284). Humanities & Social
Science. Kindle Edition.
2. Tingley, PhD, J.C. (February 9, 2012). 11 Simple Ways to Improve Your Memory. retrieved
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3. Benjamin, K (August 12, 2013 - 12:11am). 11 Simple Ways to Improve Your Memory.
retrieved 4/14/2014, from mentalfloss.com Web Site: mentalfloss.com/article/52136/11-
4. Ditkoff, M (July 09, 2011). 50 Awesome Quotes on the Power of Your Ideas. retrieved
4/14/2014, from http://www.ideachampions.com Web Site:
5. Dr. Davis, (April 22, 2011). Teaching College English. retrieved 4/14/2014, from
http://www.teachingcollegeenglish.com Web Site:
6. (#7) Dough & Dutches (produced by Logikbomb), The Ghostface Beat Tape, 2011