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Additive Manufacturing (2.008x Lecture Slides)

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Slides accompanying 2.008x* video module on Additive Manufacturing, Prof. John Hart, MIT, 2016.

*Fundamentals of Manufacturing Processes on edX: https://www.edx.org/course/fundamentals-manufacturing-processes-mitx-2-008x

Published in: Engineering

Additive Manufacturing (2.008x Lecture Slides)

  1. 1. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing MIT 2.008x Prof. John Hart
  2. 2. 2.008x E. Sachs, M. Cima, et al. MIT ~1990.
  3. 3. 2.008x
  4. 4. 2.008x Photo taken in Fall 2013 at MIT IDC
  5. 5. 2.008x Earlier AM parts (arguably not the earliest) Photopolymerization Kodama, Rev Sci Instr. 1981 Sintering of metal/ceramic powder Housholder, 1979 (Patent) Image: http://nsfam.mae.ufl.edu/Slides/Beaman.pdf
  6. 6. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a process by which digital 3D design data is used to build up a component in layers by depositing material. The term ‘3D printing’ is increasingly used as a synonym for AM. However, the latter is more accurate in that it describes a professional production technique which is clearly distinguished from conventional methods of material removal. From the International Committee F42 for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, ASTM. and http://www.eos.info/additive_manufacturing/for_technology_interested
  7. 7. 2.008x Material removal (“top-down”) Material addition “bottom-up” CNC machining image © 2016 Dungarvan Precision Engineering http://dpe.ie/cnc-milling/
  8. 8. 2.008x Why is AM such a big deal now? § Wide availability of CAD/CAM software. § Improved automation and component technologies. § A growing library of ‘printable’ materials. § Major industry and government investment. § Freedom to operate enabled by patent expirations. § Momentum, confidence, and creative vision.
  9. 9. 2.008x Agenda: Additive Manufacturing § What and why? § Overview of AM processes § Extrusion AM (FFF/FDM) § Photopolymerization (SLA) § Powder bed fusion (SLS/SLM) § Emerging AM technologies § Conclusion
  10. 10. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 2. What can AM do and why is it so important?
  11. 11. 2.008x The AM industry today Wohlers report 2016 Machines Services 2015: $5.2B AM machines and services 2015 growth = 26% 27-year CAGR = 26% Worldwide mfg is ~$15 trillion (16% of the world economy) àà AM = 0.03%.
  12. 12. 2.008x The AM industry today “How do you use the parts made on your industrial AM machines?” Ti64 hip implant cups (Arcam) Orthodontic aligners (Align Tech) Wohlers report 2016
  13. 13. 2.008x Aston Martin DB7: Skyfall Custom airway stent: U. Michigan Shoe cleats: NIKE Tooling: Linear Mold, Triform Airbus GE leap fuel nozzle The diverse industrial uses of AM Modular products: Google Ara
  14. 14. 2.008x Why Additive Mfg? § Fast prototyping § Complex geometries § Mutiple materials; new materials § Enhanced performance § Low-volume (personalized?) manufacturing § etc..
  15. 15. 2.008x Gibson, Rosen, and Stucker. Additive Manufacturing Technologies Could this be machined?
  16. 16. 2.008x What additive manufacturing processes have you used? What was your experience?
  17. 17. 2.008x How good (or bad) is additive manufacturing? (it depends on the process, machine, settings, and post-processing) Rate LOW 0.01-1 kg/hr (getting better!) Quality LOW ~0.1 mm resolution (rate-quality tradeoff) Cost HIGH $0.1-10 per gram! (highly dependent on material and process) Flexibility AMAZING (if you know what to do)
  18. 18. 2.008x Manufacturing: value at scale
  19. 19. 2.008x AM lets us redefine value and scale àà How do we get there? Conner et al. Additive Manufacturing, 2014
  20. 20. 2.008x AM lets us redefine value and scale Conner et al. Additive Manufacturing, 2014
  21. 21. 2.008x R. D’Aveni, Harvard Business Review, May 2015
  22. 22. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 3. Overview of AM processes
  23. 23. 2.008x Fused filament fabrication (FFF/FDM) Atlas V rocket component (Stratasys) Stereolithography (SLA) Formlabs / www.deschaud.fr Materialise http://www.c3plasticdes ign.co.uk/stereolithogra phy-process.html Selective laser sintering / melting (SLS/SLM) EOS
  24. 24. 2.008x Material and Binder Jetting Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Directed Energy Deposition Stratasys/Objet mCorFabrisonic Sciaky Optomec Objet Voxeljet https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laminat ed_object_manufacturing
  25. 25. 2.008x The 7 AM methods (from ASTM F42) § Vat photopolymerization (àà SLA): material is cured by light-activated polymerization. § Material jetting (à Objet): droplets of build material are jetted to form an object. § Binder jetting (à 3DP): liquid bonding agent is jetted to join powder materials. § Material extrusion (àà FFF/FDM): material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle and solidifies. § Sheet lamination (à LOM): sheets are bonded to form an object. § Powder bed fusion (àà SLS/SLM): energy (typically a laser or electron beam) is used to selectively fuse regions of a powder bed. § Directed energy deposition (à LENS): focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting as deposition occurs. LowenergyHighenergy
  26. 26. 2.008x We must master all the steps Gibson, Rosen and Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies
  27. 27. 2.008x
  28. 28. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 4. Extrusion processes (i.e., Fused Filament Fabrication, FFF Fused Deposition Modeling, FDM)
  29. 29. 2.008x Nozzle Build platform
  30. 30. 2.008x iPhone dock Matt Haughey (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Aircraft duct Image © WTWH Media LLC Ultimaker 2 ~US$2,500: 10 x 9 x 8” Stratasys Fortus ~US$150,000: 16 x 14 x 16” ~US$400,000: 36 x 24 x 36” Image©UltimakerB.V. Image©StratasysLtd.
  31. 31. 2.008x from Solid Concepts: excerpt of https://youtu.be/WHO6G67GJbM Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
  32. 32. 2.008x Stratasys FDM materials
  33. 33. 2.008x
  34. 34. 2.008x Build plate Support Raft (base) Part FDM part nomenclature
  35. 35. 2.008x Discretization and toolpath effects Diagrams from Gibson, Rosen and Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies Accuracy Strength
  36. 36. 2.008x Polymer extrusion in FDM Thermoplastic à amorphous polymer network, linear chain architecture Comparison to injection into a mold Tf = forming temp. The chains align then slip during flow Heated bed ABS ~80C Extruder ABS ~260C Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing Osswald et al., International Plastics Handbook Malloy, Plastic Part Design Injection Molding
  37. 37. 2.008x A dual extruder
  38. 38. 2.008x Extrusion force vs temperature 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Extruder(Force((N) Feed(Rate((mm/s) 200+C 230+C 260+C 59+N à Force increases with feed rate à Force is greater at lower temperature à Force saturates at ~60 N Extruder Load+cell Heater assembly Jamison Go
  39. 39. 2.008x Shear failure of the filament Drive knurls (normal operation) Material shear (extrusion failure) 1 mm Drive&wheel Filament& shear&area Material& under&drive& wheel&teeth Feed Direction
  40. 40. 2.008x Geometry of the FDM nozzle 𝑰𝑰 𝑰𝑰𝑰𝑰 𝑰𝑰𝑰𝑰𝑰𝑰 𝑙𝑙# 𝑙𝑙$ 𝑑𝑑# 𝑑𝑑$ 𝛽𝛽 Heater block Extrusion nozzle I II, III Zone I: heating Zone II: transition Zone III: area reduction (dominates pressure drop)
  41. 41. 2.008x Extrusion rate is limited by heat transfer à Feed rates found to cause extrusion failure correspond with inadequate filament core temperatures 3 mm/s 9 mm/s1 mm/s Temperature(C) 1 mm/s 3 mm/s 9 mm/s
  42. 42. 2.008x ABS blended with chopped carbon fiber ~5 mm bead size Big area additive manufacturing (BAAM!)
  43. 43. 2.008x
  44. 44. 2.008x
  45. 45. 2.008x
  46. 46. 2.008x
  47. 47. 2.008x Stratasys Mojo = 65 min BAAM ~30 min
  48. 48. 2.008x FDM: other topics § Support criteria and removal § Mechanics (= anisotropy) § Surface finishing Smoothing FDM Images © Shapeways, Inc. Ahn et al., “Anisotropic Material Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) ABS,” 2002. FDM figurine Image © 3D Genius
  49. 49. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 5. Photopolymerization (Stereolithography, SLA)
  50. 50. 2.008x Materialise NV (Belgium): excerpt from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98xG86GKj7A à Material is cured by light-activated polymerization. Stereolithography (SLA)
  51. 51. 2.008x Image © CustomPartNet
  52. 52. 2.008x Prototype parts Applications of SLA Presentation models Personalized products Phidgets FOPAT Production Inc. Tri-Tech 3D Innovated Solutions © Moises Fernandez Acosta Short-run tooling Invisalign
  53. 53. 2.008x
  54. 54. 2.008x
  55. 55. 2.008x SLA vs FDM: layer thickness Form1 (SLA) Stratasys Mojo (FDM)
  56. 56. 2.008x SLA vs FDM: toolpath Form1 (SLA) Stratasys Mojo (FDM)
  57. 57. 2.008x How the flash of light works: photopolymerization (a.k.a photocuring) àà Crosslinked network (thermoset) Yagci Polymer Research Group, Istanbul Technical University Image © Formlabs PI RŸ hv M+RŸ P1Ÿ k1 PnŸ+M Pn+1Ÿ kp PnŸ+PmŸ Mn+m /Mn+Mm ktc initiation propagation termination by combination A photoinitiator (PI) turns into a primary radical (RŸ) through photon excitation. A chain grows by the addition of monomer units (M) to a polymeric radical of length n (Pn), finally forming stable polymer units of length n (Mn).
  58. 58. 2.008x 1. The laser beam scans the surface of the resin 2. Each laser pass cures a parabolic cross-section of the resin 3. Resin properties determine the relationship between light exposure and cure depth (1mil=0.001” =25.4microns) From an example SLA resin Gibson, Rosen and Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies y x v (xstart, ystart) Point i (xi yi) (xend, yend) yi position x Intensity [W/m2]Amplitude of electric field [V/m] Figure 1 (b) from "Epoxy and Acrylate Stereolithography Resins: In-Situ Measurements of Cure Shrinkage and Stress Relaxation" by Guess, et al.
  59. 59. 2.008x Layers The complete scan pattern A ‘Star-weave’ pattern is used to raster the surface Top view Side view à This allows the resin to shrink locally while curing (it happens) while minimizing overall part shrinkage and residual stress. hs 0.01 inch Hatch Border Side view Gibson, Rosen and Stucker, Additive Manufacturing Technologies
  60. 60. 2.008x ?
  61. 61. 2.008x Inside the Form1 Formlabs Laser Andrew (bunnie) Huang (CC BY-SA 3.0)
  62. 62. 2.008x 3D Systems, Inc. May 2016
  63. 63. 2.008x SLA: other topics § Support criteria and removal § Mechanics and durability § Surface finishing
  64. 64. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 6. Powder bed fusion (i.e., Selective Laser Sintering, SLS Selective Laser Melting, SLM)
  65. 65. 2.008x Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Excerpt from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqWOrwBzOjU
  66. 66. 2.008x EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems
  67. 67. 2.008x Applications of SLM parts Aerospace Medical Manufacturing SpaceX EOS (Images © MachineDesign.com) Airbus (Image © BBC) Arcam AB General Electric Company AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group
  68. 68. 2.008x Powder fusion AM applies to many materials Dyson From J.P. Kruth Image © Best Vacuum Cleaners Reviews Image from VintageHoover via YouTube
  69. 69. 2.008x at Nanyang Technological University (Singapore), August 2014
  70. 70. 2.008x Figure 1 from “Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting” by Kruth, et al. 2004 Critical process parameters § Laser power § Laser scan speed § Laser scan pattern § Particle size and packing density § Layer uniformity and thickness § Bed temperature § And more..
  71. 71. 2.008x Lasers: wavelength and absorption Figure from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies" by Gibson, et al. (2010)
  72. 72. 2.008x What’s different for SLM? (vs. FDM, SLA) § Powder = can be ~anything (flexibility, bulk properties!) à Typically ~10-100um diameter (wide size distribution) § Complexity of powder handling (why?) § Flammable § Inhalation risk § Oxidation/contamination à often need inert atmosphere for metals § Energy required = high § SLA: 0.1 W for photopolymerization (at ~1 m/s scan) § FDM: 1-10 W for melting the filament § SLM: 100-1000 W for melting the powder (at ~1-10 m/s scan) § Post-processing: powder removal, machining away metal support
  73. 73. 2.008x SLM: Mechanism Cross-section of SLM part
  74. 74. 2.008x Before and after Figure 5 f) from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014) Advanced Powders and Coatings Inc. 15-45 um 45-106 um0-25 um Advanced Powders and Coatings Inc.
  75. 75. 2.008x Zone%II (subsurface%voids) Zone%I%(fully% dense) Process map: SLM of Ti64 Gong, et al, “Analysis of defect generation in Ti–6Al–4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes,” Additive Manufacturing, 2014. Zone I: Fully dense (few defects) Zone II: Sub-surface porosity due to excess heating (gas bubble generation, trapped, do not appear on surface) Zone III: Insufficient melting OH: Serious surface deformation (jams recoater) Increasing energy density
  76. 76. 2.008x Process map: SLM of Ti64 Gong, et al, “Analysis of defect generation in Ti–6Al–4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes,” Additive Manufacturing, 2014. Zone I: Fully dense (few defects) Zone II: Sub-surface porosity due to excess heating (gas bubble generation, trapped, do not appear on surface) Zone III: Insufficient melting OH: Serious surface deformation (jams recoater) Overheated) Zone)III (underheat)
  77. 77. 2.008x Prof. JP Kruth says… During SLM, the short interaction of powder bed and heat source caused by the high scanning speed of the laser beam leads to rapid heating, melting followed by drastic shrinkage (from 50% powder apparent density to ~100% density in one step), and circulation of the molten metal driven by surface tension gradients coupled with temperature gradients. The resulting heat transfer and fluid flow affect the size and shape of the melt pool, the cooling rate, and the transformation reactions in the melt pool and heat- affected zone. The melt pool geometry, in turn, influences the grain growth and the resulting microstructure of the part.
  78. 78. 2.008x Chaos in the melt pool! à Evaporation and recoil à Ejection of ‘sparks’ (hot droplets) Presented by Dr. Wayne King (LLNL) at ASME AM3D 2015
  79. 79. 2.008x Typical (general) scan patterns Carter et al. J. Alloys and Compounds 2014. Gibson et al. 2015
  80. 80. 2.008x Ti frame = 1400g Renishaw Plc; http://www.core77.com/blog/digital_fabrication/from_the_uk_the_worlds_first_3d- printed_bike_frame_26463.asp Success! Lots of parts in close proximity. Renishaw plc
  81. 81. 2.008x
  82. 82. 2.008x Vrancken, et al. (2012) doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.07.022 Mechanical properties of SLM Ti64 à Fine microstructure = high strength à Small defects = lower ductility than standard (wrought) material à Highly dependent on process parameters including post-print annealing!
  83. 83. 2.008x SLM market dynamics From manufacturer data, 2015. EOS M 400
  84. 84. 2.008x Ti6Al4V hip implant cups § >40,000 acetabular (hip cup) implants in patients (Wohlers 2014); approved in Europe and US. § Surface texture promotes osseointegration (bone attachment). § Arcam (EBM): § “now allows the ability to specify pore geometry, pore size, and density and roughness of structures for trabecular structures and surfaces.” § 16 cups built simultaneously in 8 hours à then post-processing (intensive). EOS/Arcam/Within; orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00377
  85. 85. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 7. Emerging Process Technologies
  86. 86. 2.008x High speed SLA: Carbon3D ‘Continuous liquid interphase production’ (CLIP) Carbon3D, Inc. / Tumbleston et al. Science, 2015. TED talk by Prof. Joe DeSimone: https://www.ted.com/talks/joe_desimone_what_if_3d_printing_was_25x_faster?language=en Legacy effects / carbon3D Ford / carbon3D Dead zone thickness ~20-30 μm
  87. 87. 2.008x Industrial automation of AM Additive Industries: http://additiveindustries.com/Industrial-am-systems/Metalfab1 screenshot from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TssX2JsL0uk
  88. 88. 2.008x MoriHybrid AM and machining
  89. 89. 2.008x
  90. 90. 2.008x
  91. 91. 2.008xFiber composites (Markforged) Integrated electronics (Voxel8) Images © www.3Ders.org, Voxel8 © MarkForged, Inc. © MarkForged, Inc. © MarkForged, Inc. AM of advanced materials
  92. 92. 2.008x Additive Manufacturing: 8. Conclusion
  93. 93. 2.008x RateCost Quality Flexibility
  94. 94. 2.008x Challenges to accelerate AM § Design tools and data management to fully realize the potential of AM. § Process control; higher quality at faster rate and process/part qualification. § Standards. § Education!
  95. 95. 2.008x (IBM report) http://www- 935.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/thoughtlead ership/software-defined-supply-chain/ AM will catalyze digital supply chains
  96. 96. 2.008x References 1 Introduction Image of GE fuel nozzle airflow diagram © 2016 General Electric GE leap fuel nozzle image Copyright © 2016 Penton Titanium aircraft brackets produced by conventional manufacturing and additive manufacturing © 2016 Business Wire Aston Martin DB5 prop from the movie "Skyfall" Photo © Voxeljet AG X-ray of a child's airway and a 3D printed bioresorbable airway stent, Image Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. All Rights Reserved. Tooling inserts with internal cooling channels ©Linear AMS All Rights Reserved Tooling mold for sheet metal forming, photo © Dave Pierson. Image in Fast Company & Inc © 2016 Mansueto Ventures, LLC Project Ara modular smartphone components, photo © Google, Inc. Google Ara modular smartphone photo © 2016 AOL Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  97. 97. 2.008x References 3D printed MIT dome © John Hart Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, photo on boisestate.edu by E.L. Skip Knox Cima, Micheal, et al. "Three-dimensional printing techniques: US 5387380 [P]." Photo of first 3D printer at MIT © John Hart Clear printed part: Figure 7 from "Automatic method for fabricating a three-dimensional plastic model with photo-hardening polymer" by Kodama, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52 (11), November 1981, 1770-1773; © 1981 American Institute of Physics Patent schematic: Figure 1 from "Automatic method for fabricating a three-dimensional plastic model with photo-hardening polymer" by Kodama, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52 (11), November 1981, 1770-1773; © 1981 American Institute of Physics Molding Process US Patent 4247508 schematic, figure 15. This work is in the public domain. Photos from slide presentation by Joseph Beaman, University of Texas at Austin. CNC machining photo © Dungarvan Precision Engineering FDM printing with a Solidoodle 3D printer © John Hart Article Copyright by ASTM Int'l (All Rights Reserved).
  98. 98. 2.008x References 2 Importance of Additive Manufacturing Additive manufacturing analytics, Image © Wohlers Associates, Inc. Image of GE fuel nozzle airflow diagram © 2016 General Electric GE leap fuel nozzle image Copyright © 2016 Penton Titanium aircraft brackets produced by conventional manufacturing and additive manufacturing © 2016 Business Wire Aston Martin DB5 prop from the movie "Skyfall" Photo © Voxeljet AG X-ray of a child's airway and a 3D printed bioresorbable airway stent, Image Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. All Rights Reserved. Image of tooling with cooling channels ©Linear AMS All Rights Reserved Photo of tooling mold for sheet metal forming © Dave Pierson. Image in Fast Company & Inc © 2016 Mansueto Ventures, LLC Project Ara modular smartphone components, photo © Google, Inc. Google Ara modular smartphone photo © 2016 AOL Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  99. 99. 2.008x References Image of pie chart © Wohlers Associates, Inc. Invisalign clear dental braces, image © invisalign.com 2016 Titanium hip implant, image © Arcam AB. 3D printing potato chips, video ©1996-2016 TheStreet, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 1.3 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015) © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media iPhone 5, photo by Justin Sullivan © Getty Images. Volvo C30 T5 R-design hatchback, photo © Auto-Power-Girl.com 2006-2015. All Rights Reserved. Water desalination facility, photo © F.D.W.A. All Rights Reserved. Froti-Lay potato chip production, photo by Peter Desilva of the New York Times. © 2016 The New York Times Company. Lays potato chips, image © 2016 Frito-Lay North America, Inc. DePuy hip implant, image © DePuy Synthes 2014-2016. All Rights Reserved. Bathroom sink, photo by User: Tomwsulcer via wikimedia - CC0. This work is in the public domain.
  100. 100. 2.008x References "Making sense of 3-D printing: Creating a map of additive manufacturing products and services" Figures 2 and 6, by Conner, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). © Elsevier B.V. Photo of Harvard Business Review Cover by Bruce Peterson. Copyright © 2016 Harvard Business School Publishing. All Rights Reserved. 3 Overview Rocket air duct printed by FDM image copyright © 2016 Stratasys Direct, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Video if Solidoodle FDM printer, © John Hart Stereolithography process, image © www.C3plasticdesign.co.uk Large scale stereolithography, Video by Materialise NV © 2016 SLS diagram Figure 1 from Title: Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting; Authors: P. Kruth, P. Mercelis, L. Froyen, Marleen Rombouts; Journal: SSF 2004 Proceedings; Year: August 4, 2004; Pages: 44-59. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited Photo of EOS selective laser sintered parts © John Hart
  101. 101. 2.008x References Inkjet droplet impact on a glass sheet, image Copyright © Shimadzu Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Objet digital material composition, image Copyright © 2016 Stratasys Direct, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fabrisonic lamintated object manufacturing sample, photo © Fabrisonic 2016 Laminated object manufacturing printing head, photo Copyright © 2016 ENGINEERING.com, Inc. Photo oF Optomec LENS metal laser deposition copyright 2016 Optomec. All Rights Reserved Directed energy deposition schematic, image © Oerlikon Corporation AG, Metco Electron beam additive manufacturing of a metal bowl, photo © 2016 Sciaky Inc. All Rights Reserved. Schematic of the vat photopolymerization process, image © 2016 Loughborough University. All Rights Reserved. Schematic of the fused deposition modeling process, image © 2016 Loughborough University. All Rights Reserved. Material jetting combined with photopolymerization, image Copyright © 2009 CustomPartNet. All Rights Reserved.
  102. 102. 2.008x References Sheet lamination schematic. image © 2016 Loughborough University. All rights reserved. Selective laser sintering schematic, image © 2016 Loughborough University. All Rights Reserved. Directed energy deposition schematic, image © 2016 Loughborough University. All Rights Reserved. CAD to part process, Figure 1.2 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media FDM process diagram © John Hart 3D printed Poseidon sculpture, photo © Gilles-Alexandre Deschaud. Selective laser melting in action, video © John Hart Binder jetting process schematic, image Copyright © 2016 Penton Sand mold core made by binder jetting and cast part, photo © Voxeljet AG Soft polymer heart printed by binder jetting © John Hart Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, image © Copyright 2016, Peerless Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved
  103. 103. 2.008x References Laminated object manufacturing process schematic, image by User: Laurens van Lieshout (LaurensvanLieshout) via Wikimedia. (CC BY-SA) 3.0 4 Extrusion Processes FDM printing using the Solidoodle printer, video © John Hart FDM process diagram © John Hart Ultimaker FDM printer, image © 2016 Ultimaker B.V. 3D printed iPhone 5 dock, image by Matt Haughey (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) Stratasys Fortus 400mc printer, image Copyright © 2016 Stratasys Direct, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Aircraft air duct, image Copyright © 2016 · All Rights Reserved WTWH Media LLC Fused deposition modeling, video Copyright © 2016 Stratasys Direct, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stratasys FDM materials list, image Copyright © 2016 Stratasys Direct, Inc. All Rights Reserved. UP Mini time lapse video © John Hart 3D printed ship wheel, image © John Hart
  104. 104. 2.008x References CAD rendering of a Yo-Yo assembly © MIT FDM filament path, Figures 6.3 and 6.5 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media Amorphous polymer network, Figure 1.2 from "Plastic Part Design Injection Molding (2nd edition)" by Malloy (1994). © Hanser Publishers (1994) Photo of FDM printed part on a Solidoodle printer © John Hart Injection molding machine diagram, Figure 13.21 from Title: Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing; Author: Mikell P. Groover; © Wiley; (2010); Tensile stress and strain as a function of temperature for an amorphous thermoplastic, Figure 2.26 from "International Plastics Handbook" by Osswald et al. © Hanser Publishers (2006). Photograph of dual nozzle extruder © John Hart Extrusion force versus feed rate, Image by Jamison Go © MIT. All Rights Reserved. Pinch wheel teeth and shear area CAD schematic, image by Jamison Go © MIT. All Rights Reserved. Picture of sheared filament, image by Jamison Go © MIT. All Rights Reserved.
  105. 105. 2.008x References Diagram of filament material flow, mage by Jamison Go © MIT. All Rights Reserved. Big Area Additive Manufacturing system printing a chair, video © John Hart Big Area Additive Manufacturing feedstock, image © John Hart Layering in 3D printed chair with measuring tape reference, image © John Hart Big Area Additive Manufacturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, image © John Hart Willys Jeep 3D printed model, image © John Hart Scale model of 3D printed chair, printed on the Mojo FDM printer, © John Hart Chair printed by Big Area Additive Manufacturing, © John Hart FDM overhang angle illustration, image © John Hart Image © 2015 3D Genius – The Home of 3D Printing. Fracture surface SEM image of FDM ABS specimen, figure 11 from Title: Anisotropic Material Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) ABS; Authors: S. H. Ahn, M. Montero, D. Odell, S. Roundy, and P. K. Wright; Journal: Rapid Prototyping Journal; Volume: 8; Number: 4; Year: 2002; Pages: 248-257. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
  106. 106. 2.008x References SEM images showing the effect of Stratasys vapor smoothing on FDM part surfaces, photo © 2016 Shapeways, Inc. 5 Photopolymerization Materialise large scale SLA, video by Materialise NV © 2016 Prototype SLA enclosure, image © 2016 Phidgets Short-run SLA tooling, image © 2016 FOPAT Engine block printed by binder jetting, Image © Tri-Tech3D SLA city scape, image © Copyright - Innovated Solutions Invisalign clear braces, image © invisalign.com 2016 Stereolithography process diagram, image Copyright © 2009 CustomPartNet. All Rights Reserved. Materialise large scale SLA, still from video by Materialise NV © 2016 3D printed prototype hamster and hamster wheel, image © John Hart SLA and FDM printed salt shakers, photo © John Hart
  107. 107. 2.008x References Photopolymerization, diagram by Dr. Yusuf Yagci of Istanbul Technical University. Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved. Thermoset polymer structure, Figure 7.5d from Title: Manufacturing Engineering & Technology (6th Edition); Authors: Serope Kalpakjian, Steven Schmid; © Prentice Hall; (2009) Light exposure intensity distribution, © MIT. All Rights Reserved. Cure depth in photopolymerization, Figures 4.6 and 4.7 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media Laser scanning patterns, Figures 4.10 b) and 4.12 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media Time lapse of 3D printing using a Form 1, video © John Hart Formlabs photoresin, photo © Formlabs 2016, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exposure at a point in SLA, © MIT. All Rights Reserved. Cured resin cross-section, figure 1 (b) from Title: Epoxy and Acrylate Stereolithography Resins: In-Situ Property Measurements; Authors: T. R. Guess, R. S. Chambers, T. D. Hinnerichs; Year: January 1996; Journal: Sandia Report SAND95-2871. This work is in the public domain.
  108. 108. 2.008x References SEM image and turbine blade photo, image © John Hart Formlabs Form 1 printer specifications, article © Formlabs 2016, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Formlabs Form 1 teardown, photo by (bunnie) Andrew Huang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 3D Systems ProX 950 specifications, article © 2014 by 3D Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 Powder Bed Fusion EOS tooling, video © EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems EOS rook made by selective laser sintering, image © EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Jet engine cross-section, image ©AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group, 2010 All Rights Reserved. GE LEAP fuel nozzle, image © 2016 General Electric Low pressure turbine blade, photo © Arcam A.B. SpaceX inconel rocket chamber, photo © Elon Musk via Twitter.
  109. 109. 2.008x References Airbus bracket manufactured by conventional manufacturing and 3D printing, photo Copyright © 2016 BBC. EOS tooling with integrated cooling channels, image Copyright © 2016 Penton Hip implant, image Copyright ©1995-2016 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Arcam 3D printed implant, image © Arcam AB. Arcam skull remodeling implant, image © Arcam AB. Polyamide, steel, titanium, composite and ceramic parts, image © Prof. Dr. Ir. Jean-Pierre Kruth; KU Leuven university, Belgium Dyson DC25, image Copyright © 2011-2014 Best Vacuum Cleaners Reviews Dyson rapid prototype SLS, image from www.vintagehooveremporium.com © 2005 All Rights Reserved. SLM solutions 250HL printer, image © John Hart SLS diagram figure 1 from Title: Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting; Authors: P. Kruth, P. Mercelis, L. Froyen, Marleen Rombouts; Journal: SSF 2004 Proceedings; Year: August 4, 2004; Pages: 44-59. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
  110. 110. 2.008x References Absorptivity of various metals, Figure 5.10 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies" by Gibson, et al. (2010). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media Side view of an SLM micrograph figure 15 c) from Title: Part and material properties in selective laser melting of metals; Authors: J.-P. Kruth, M. Badrossamay, E.Yasa, J. Deckers, L. Thijs, J. Van Humbeeck; Journal: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Electromachining; Year: 19-23 April, 2010. © Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, Shang Hai, 2010 Epitaxial growth during selective laser sintering, Figure 2 from "Physical Aspects of Process Control in Selective Laser Sintering of Metals" by Das, Advanced Engineering Materials 5(10), 2003. © Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, Shang Hai SLM processed Ti-6Al-4V powder, Figure 5 f) from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti- 6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. SEM images of SLM processed Ti-6Al-4V powder, Figure 5 a) and f) from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. SLM process window, Figure 4 from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
  111. 111. 2.008x References SEM images of Ti-6Al-4V powder, Figure 5 d) and k) from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al-4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Schematic of the laser melt pool, Figure 16 from "Analysis of defect generation in Ti-6Al- 4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes" by Gong, et al., Additive Manufacturing (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Title crop of paper: Part and material properties in selective laser melting of metals; Authors: J.-P. Kruth, M. Badrossamay, E.Yasa, J. Deckers, L. Thijs, J. Van Humbeeck; Journal: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Electromachining; Year: 19- 23 April, 2010. © Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, Shang Hai Prof. J.P. Kruth, Photo Copyright © KU Leuven Video by A.J. Hart, of Wayne King at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy. This work is in the public domain. Island scan strategy in SLM, Figure 3 from "The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy" by Carter, et al., Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2014). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Scanning path for powder bed fusion, Figure 5.7 from "Additive Manufacturing Technologies (2nd Edition)" by Gibson, et al. (2015). © Springer International Publishing AG, Part of Springer Science+Business Media
  112. 112. 2.008x References Empire 3D printed bicycle frame, Photo © 2001-2016 Renishaw plc. All Rights Reserved. Picture of Tim Simpson, Photo © Tim Simpson. Mechanical test of SLM printed specimens before and after heat treating, Figure 8 from "Heat treatment of Ti6Al4V produced by Selective Laser Melting: Microstructure and Mechanical properties" by Vrancken, et al., Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2012). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors EOS M400 printer, photo © EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems Machine cost versus build volume, image © John Hart Titanium hip implant, image © Arcam AB. 7 Emerging Technologies Continuous liquid interface printing of an Eifel Tower model, video © Carbon Continuous Liquid Interface Production, Figure 1 (A) and (C 3) from "Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects" by Tumbleston, et al., Science Magazine 347(6228), March 20, 2015. © 2016 EBSCO Industries, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Rapid prototype of oil fill tube, Photo © Carbon 3D printed "Iron Man" articles Image Copyright © 2016. 3DR Holdings, LLC, All Rights Reserved.
  113. 113. 2.008x References Rendering of Additive Industries MetalFAB1 copyright © Additive Industries Still of Additive Industries MetalFAB1 copyright © Additive Industries DMG Mori Lasertec 65 additive and subtractive manufacturing machine, Video Copyright © 2016 DMG MORI All Rights Reserved. DMG Mori Research Facility, image © John Hart Turbine blades manufactured by DMG MORI © John Hart Mark One composite 3D printer, photo Copyright ©2016 - 3D Printing Blog - FDM printed bike crank with continuous carbon fiber reinforcement, image ©2016 Markforged, Inc. Kevlar reinforced 3D printed pipe bender, Image ©2016 Markforged, Inc. Volex 8 quadrotor photo and X-ray image Copyright © 2011-2016. www.3Ders.org All Rights Reserved. 8 Conclusion Part printed on a Solidoodle FDM printer © John Hart Supply chain of the future article © IBM

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