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- 1. The Origin and Fate of the Universe Alberto Mulero
- 2. Preface
- 3. Preface• The general theory of relativity, predicts that space-time began at the big bang singularity and that it will come to an end either at the big crunch singularity (if the whole universe recollapsed), or at a singularity inside a black hole (if a local region, such as a star, were to collapse).• However when quantum effects are taken into account in the study of these singularities results vary.
- 4. “Hot Big Bang Model”• First put forward by: – George Gamov & Ralph Apher (in 1948).• States that: – The universe expanded from a singularity and that it is still expanding today.• It’s supported by: – Hubbles law and the expansion of space – Cosmic microwave background radiation – Abundance of primordial elements – Other
- 5. “Hot Big Bang Model”
- 6. Questions Left Unanswered• Why was the early universe so hot?• Why is the universe so uniform on a large scale?• Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion?• Why, despite the fact that the universe is so uniform and homogeneous on a large scale, it contains local irregularities, such as stars and galaxies?• What were the universe’s initial “boundary conditions”?
- 7. Chaotic Boundary Conditions• Assume that: – Either the universe is spatially infinite or that there are infinitely many universes.
- 8. Anthropic Principle• “We see the universe the way it is because we exist.”
- 9. Fundamental Numbers (Ex. from “Martin Reess Six Numbers”)• N≈1036 - ratio of the fine structure constant to the gravitational coupling constant. N governs the relative importance of gravity and electrostatic attraction/repulsion in matter.• ε≈0.007 - the fraction of the mass of four protons that is released as energy when fused into a helium nucleus.• Ω ≈ 0.3 - the ratio of the actual density of the universe to the critical (minimum) density required for the universe to eventually collapse under its gravity.• λ ≈ 0.7 - The ratio of the energy density of the universe, due to the cosmological constant, to the critical density of the universe.• Q ≈ 10– 5 - The energy required to break up and disperse an instance of the largest known structures in the universe, namely a galactic cluster or supercluster, expressed as a fraction of the energy equivalent to the rest mass m of that structure, namely mc2• D = 3 - the number of macroscopic spatial dimensions.
- 10. Inflation• First put forward by: – Alan Guth (in 1980)• States that: – The universe underwent extremely rapid exponential expansion at an early stage. • Factor of at least 1078 in volume. • It lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds.• It’s supported by (it accounts for): – A model of the universe in which many different initial configurations could have evolved to something like the present universe – The homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe. – The amount of matter and energy in the universe. – Observations in the cosmic microwave background. – Other
- 11. Cosmic Microwave Background
- 12. Corrections to some misconceptions about Inflation• Inflation is not necessarily driven by dark energy. – Guth proposes, it can be driven by a strong energetic state caused by the symmetry of the fundamental forces in the early space-time.• Inflation does not begin or stop with the formation of our universe.
- 13. Inflation(Multiverse)
- 14. The search for a unified field theory• Some features it should incorporate: – Feynman’s proposal to formulate quantum theory in terms of a sum over histories. – Einstein’s idea that the gravitational field is represented by curved space-time
- 15. Hawking’s Proposition• “maybe time and space together form a surface that is finite in size but that does not have any boundary or edge”
- 16. Hawking’s Proposition
- 17. New findings• 1988 – “A Brief History of Time” is published• 1998 – Adam Riess, Saul Perlmutter and others discover the cosmic acceleration.• 2003 – Full-sky detailed pictures of the cosmic microwave background radiation confirm Inflation.• Present – String Theory (notably M-Theory) is being researched and developed.
- 18. Current model debate• Inflationary Big Bang Model• The Steinhardt–Turok model
- 19. Inflationary Big Bang Model
- 20. The Steinhardt–Turok model
- 21. The Steinhardt–Turok model• For more info. check – “Inflationary Cosmology on Trial” – in YouTube • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IcxptIJS7kQ&featur e=g-like&context=G250e6fbALT2EwdgADAA – “The Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang” by Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok

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