RDA and Hebraica: Applying RDA in one cataloging community
RDA and Hebraica: Applying RDA in One Cataloging Community <ul><li>Joan Biella </li></ul><ul><li>Israel/Judaica Section </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress, Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>Heidi G. Lerner </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford University Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>June 21, 2011 </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is RDA? </li></ul><ul><li>What Is the RDA Toolkit and What’s in it? </li></ul><ul><li>Dates and Scope of the RDA Test </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford and the Library of Congress during the Test </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribing Title Pages According to RDA and the LCPSs </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization </li></ul><ul><li>Statements of Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Introductory Words (Preferred Titles) </li></ul><ul><li>Shelflisting Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Dates of Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Compilations </li></ul><ul><li>Several Works </li></ul><ul><li>Translations </li></ul><ul><li>Authority Records </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing Latin-Script Form </li></ul><ul><li>Title or Other Designation Associated with the Person </li></ul><ul><li>Romanization </li></ul>
What is RDA? (from Wikipedia) Resource Description and Access or RDA is a set of instructions for the cataloguing of books and other materials held in libraries and other cultural organizations such as museums and galleries. RDA is the successor to the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), the current standard set of cataloguing guidelines for English language libraries. It was initially released in summer 2010, and in the United States, following widespread controversy amongst cataloguers, the three national libraries (Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and the National Agricultural Library) organized a nation-wide test of the new standards.
What Is the RDA Toolkit? A commercial product sold by the American Library Association The online RDA Toolkit subscription provides a one-stop resource for evaluating and implementing RDA, and is the most effective way to interact with the new standard. What’s in it? <ul><li>RDA instructions that are searchable and browseable </li></ul><ul><li>AACR2 Rule Number Search of RDA instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Workflows, mappings, examples: tools to customize the RDA instruction set to support organizational training and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Two views of RDA content—by table of contents and by RDA element set view </li></ul><ul><li>What you need to evaluate and implement RDA; to make cataloging decisions based on principles; to increase efficiency; to facilitate collaboration; and to help position the community for the future by making bibliographic data accessible on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Full text of AACR2 with links to RDA </li></ul><ul><li>LCPSs (Library of Congress Policy Statements) </li></ul>
Dates and Scope of the RDA Test <ul><li>July 1-September 30, 2010: Test partners use this three-month period to become familiar with the content of RDA and with navigating the RDA Toolkit. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1-December 31, 2010: Test partners produce records in the test and share them with the US RDA Test Coordinating Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>January 1-March 31, 2011: The US RDA Test Coordinating Committee analyzes the results of the test and prepares its report to the management of the three national libraries. </li></ul><ul><li>June 14, 2011 : Library of Congress announces its decision to implement RDA no sooner than January 1, 2013 . </li></ul><ul><li>25 Test Partners: includes Library of Congress (selected staff) and Stanford (all Metadata Dept. original catalogers) who cataloged all materials according to RDA during test period. </li></ul><ul><li>LC Documentation for the RDA Test can be found at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/RDAtest/rdatest.html </li></ul>
Executive Summary http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/cataloging/ RDA_report_executive_summary.pdf Full Report (184 pages) http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/rda/rdatesting-finalreport-20june2011.pdf
Stanford (SUL) and the Library of Congress (LC) during the Test <ul><li>Chose different RDA options and so encountered different cataloging problems </li></ul><ul><li>For both, the resources cataloged were mostly print and monographic in Hebrew script </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford collects many art exhibition catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>LC’s original cataloging during Test consisted mostly of Jewish religious, liturgical and sacred texts </li></ul>
Transcribing Title Pages according to RDA and the LCPSs
A Quick Trip Around the Block with RDA: Capitalization
RDA 1.7 The guidelines for capitalization are detailed under 1.7.2
RDA 1.7.2 Apply the instructions on capitalization given in appendix A .
Appendix A.1 Unless there are specific guidelines under A.2–A.9 , capitalize words according to the guidelines for the language involved. See A.10–A.55 for more information about specific languages; for other languages, consult style manuals for the language concerned. Record any words not covered by the guidelines in this appendix in lower case
Alternative When recording the attributes of a manifestation or item (see chapters 1 –4 ), if the agency creating the data has established in-house guidelines on capitalization, or has designated a published style manual, etc., as its preferred guide, use those guidelines or that style manual in place of the instructions given in this appendix
LCPS [Alternative] LC practice for Alternative : For capitalization of transcribed elements, either “take what you see” on the resource or follow this appendix. For other elements, follow this appendix. If supplying information in brackets, or providing a romanized form, apply cataloger’s judgment to follow this appendix or not
Stanford applied the first part of the LCPS, i.e., catalogers transcribed what they saw on the resource as found At the Library of Congress, testers were free to apply their own judgment (following the LCPS) SUL vs. LC Policy on Title Transcription
Resource Described added title page title page
SUL Transcription LC catalogers had the option to record the subtitle on the added title page as “a smile, a cat, a cut”
By the way, what is the title-on-added-title-page doing in the 245?
MARC Does Not Always Fit RDA <ul><li>RDA 126.96.36.199 Take parallel titles proper from any source within the resource </li></ul><ul><li>How do you fit that into MARC? </li></ul><ul><li>MARC 246 stores variant title information </li></ul><ul><li>PSD said “Take parallel titles proper from any source within the resource. In this example, code the 246 as “246 15”, i.e “title from added t.p.” </li></ul>This suggestion was probably not recorded in an LCPS since RDA was designed to be applied across all formats—not just those with title pages
The Hebraica cataloging community should recommend an LCPS practice for abbreviating lengthy statements of responsibility of the sort found in rabbinic literature
RDA 188.8.131.52 Recording Statements of Responsibility Transcribe a statement of responsibility in the form in which it appears on the source of information … by Sir Richard Acklund Optional Omission Abridge a statement of responsibility only if it can be abridged without loss of essential information. Do not use a mark of omission (…) to indicate such an omission. Always record the first name appearing in the statement … by Harry Smith Source of information reads: by Dr. Harry Smith Charles F. Hoban, Jr. Source of information reads: Charles F. Hoban, Jr., Special Assistant, Division of Visual Education, Philadelphia Public Schools LC practice for Optional omission : Generally do not abridge a statement of responsibility
Stanford’s policy during the Test was to transcribe everything in the first statement of responsibility in accordance with instruction 184.108.40.206 Me menu ḥ ot / ǂc nilḳaṭim ṿe-nidpasim me-amtaḥat ha-ketavim shel hai tsorev, she-ʻoseḳ be-ḥuḳe ḥorev, yomam ṿa-lailah beli ḥeraf, h.h. aḥinu ha-rav, he-ḥ. u-v. muflag ṿe-naʻaleh be-Torah ṿe-yirʼah, la-Shem ule-tifʼeret, mi-yeḥide segulah, mi-gezaʻ ḳedushah , k. sh. T., mo. ha-R. Mosheh Yirmey. Ṭaiṭelboim, z.l.h.h., ben a. mo. r. le-hib. le-ḥ.l. ha-g. ha-ts., mo. ha-R. Shemuʼel, sheliṭa, r. a. ha-k. me-ʻorer ha-shaḥar u-ṿ.m. s.b., y. ts. ṿ.
The Hebraica cataloging community should recommend revised wording for RDA to reflect the desired outcome vis à vis the recording of terms such as "Sefer …" at the beginning of a title proper (RDA Ch. 2 ) and in the preferred title (RDA Ch. 6 ).
AACR2 25.3A. Use the title or form of title in the original language by which a work created after 1500 has become known through use in manifestations of the work or in reference sources. RDA 220.127.116.11 For works created after 1500, choose as the preferred title the title in the original language by which the work has become known through use in resources embodying the work or in reference sources … 25.3B. If no title in the original language is established as being the one by which the work is best known, or in case of doubt, use the title proper of the original edition. Omit from such titles: 1) introductory phrases Example: Treatyse of a galaunt Here begynneth a Treatyse of a galaũt
Response from [email_address] about this situation under RDA: Because the instructions for title proper are the same in AACR2 and RDA, we don't see the need for you to change your practice under RDA for the 245 field. Under RDA, you could decide that Sefer etc. …, is not how the works are commonly known and drop it from the preferred title-- not because it is an “introductory word” necessarily, but because the works are more commonly known without it. If the community could agree on the treatment of Sefer, Kitāb, etc., we could document this in the LCPSs if seen as desirable .
So we come up with the following, under both AACR2 and RDA:
Sefer Meḳor ha-ḥayim ḥibro Hayim Ḳrokhmal Sefer ‘ Inve ha-gefen ḥibro Avigdor Kats Sefer Oryan telitai ḥibro Mosheh Hibner
So here’s the AACR2 for that: 3 works published together, with 3 different authors and no collective title. Entry under author of 1 st work; name-title added entries for the works by the other 2 authors ( 21.7B1 )
And here’s the RDA ( 18.104.22.168 ). Isn’t something missing? Where is the 130 uniform title? How can a 245 00 begin with “Sefer”? THREE name-title added entries?
Welcome to RDA! Is this your first compilation?
In RDA terms, this is a work composed of three works. In AACR2, such a compilation is entered under the name and title of the first work it contains. In RDA, the compilation has no preferred title of its own, and access points must be created for each of the works in the compilation.
So how do we Cutter this? It’s another question we asked PSD. They suggested (you guessed it!) we might want to propose an LCPS.
It’s a bit odd, Cuttering by the 246, but it could be done.
RDA 22.214.171.124 Alternative Instead of (or in addition to) constructing access points for each of the works in the compilation, construct an authorized access point representing the compilation using a devised title formulated according to the instructions given under 2.3.11. So we could give our compilation a devised title like “ Three commentaries on the book of Ruth” and Cutter it by the “T.”
Here’s another variant on the “compilation” story: a publication that contains the Haggadah in Hebrew and in English. In AACR2 we’d have a 130 Haggadah. ‡l English & Hebrew Here’s a rather full RDA record:
<ul><li>If we follow the minimum requirement our record will have this “related expression” access point: </li></ul><ul><li>730 02 Haggadah. ‡l English. </li></ul><ul><li>No access point for the Hebrew language expression? But isn’t the whole point of this book that both are present? </li></ul>LCPS for 26.1 RELATED EXPRESSION—LC CORE ELEMENT. Related expression is a core element for LC for compilations: give a contents note (no limit on number of expressions in the contents note unless burdensome). Give an analytical authorized access point for the predominant or first expression in the compilation (see 17.10 ); the number of additional analytical authorized access points is cataloger’s judgment.
730 02 ‡i Contains (expression): ‡l English. 730 02 ‡i Contains (expression): ‡l Hebrew. Yes, if you wish to exceed the core requirements, you may add another 730 for the other text in the resource. And you should add the “relationship designators” too ( i-subfield ) which we don’t have time to explain now.
The Hebraica cataloging community should recommend an LCPS practice for recording dates of publication expressed in Hebrew characters when recording date of publication in non-Latin script fields.
AACR2 C.5D. Use Western-style arabic numerals in the following elements of the bibliographic description: 1) in an edition statement 2) in the material (or type of publication) specific details area … 3) in the date of publication, distribution, etc., element 4) in the physical description area 5) in the series numbering RDA 1.8.2 Form of numerals Record numerals in the form preferred by the agency creating the data, unless the substitution would make the numbering less clear. Alternative 1 Record numerals in the form in which they appear on the source of information. LCPS on Alternative 1 Apply the alternative.
Wouldn’t you think these RDA instructions would mean: 260 ǂa Bruḳlin : ǂb Mosheh ben Yeḳuti’el Zalman Ḥayim Hibner, ǂc 5769 [2008 or 2009] 880 ǂa ברוקלין : ǂb משה בן יקותיאל זלמן חיים היבנר , ǂc תשס " ט [2008 or 2009] But for the Test we did: 880 ǂa ברוקלין : ǂb משה בן יקותיאל זלמן חיים היבנר , ǂc 5769 [2008 or 2009] just as we do in AACR2
The Hebraica cataloging community should recommend changes to the LCPS for 126.96.36.199.3 regarding selecting the best Latin script form of preferred names .
LCPS for 188.8.131.52.3 Names Written in a Non- Preferred Script (Hebraic Alphabet)
AACR2: In the absence of found romanization or encyclopedia articles, standard romanization is the choice RDA/LCPS: In the absence of found romanization or encyclopedia articles, Facebook is the choice
ha-Kohen = הכהן Title or Other Designation Associated with the Person
AACR2 22.12 TITLES OF NOBILITY 22.12A. Add, to the name of a nobleman or noblewoman not entered under title (see 22.6 ), the title of nobility in the vernacular if the title or part of the title or a substitute for the title commonly appears with the name in works by the person or in reference sources. In case of doubt, add the title.
<ul><li>from “Guidelines for Rabbinic Names Entered Under Forename” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If the name being established is entered under a surname and includes a forename, words or phrases as ╪c qualifiers are forbidden by rule 22.15C , ‘unless they are required to distinguish between two or more persons with the same name and neither dates nor fuller forms of name are available.’ Note that an exception is made for terms like Kohen , ha-Kohen , ha-Leṿi , and sometimes Segal and Kats , which are added to names under the provisions of rule 22.12 (i.e., they are treated as inherited titles of nobility).” </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>184.108.40.206 Title or Other Designation Associated with the Person—NOT A CORE ELEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Add to the name one or more of the following elements (in this order), as applicable: </li></ul><ul><li>a title of royalty (see 220.127.116.11 ) or nobility (see 18.104.22.168 ) </li></ul><ul><li>the term Saint (see 22.214.171.124 ) </li></ul><ul><li>title of religious rank (see 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52 ) </li></ul><ul><li>the term Spirit (see 184.108.40.206 ) </li></ul><ul><li>e) a term indicating profession or occupation (see 9.16 ) or field of activity of the person (see 9.15 ), in that order of preference, for a person whose name consists of a phrase or appellation not conveying the idea of a person. </li></ul>
220.127.116.11 Titles of Nobility—CORE ELEMENT For a nobleman or noblewoman whose title has not been recorded as the first element in the preferred name (see 9.2.2. 14 – 18.104.22.168 ), record the title of nobility in the language in which it was conferred.
E.1.2.2. Access Points Representing Persons Precede a title of nobility by a comma and a space. Precede the term Saint by a comma and a space. Enclose the term Spirit in parentheses. Precede a title of royalty or religious rank, or a term of address for a person of religious vocation by a comma and a space. Precede a date or range of dates by a comma and a space. Separate a date of birth and a date of death by a hyphen. If a date of birth is not followed by a date of death, follow it with a hyphen. If a date of death is not preceded by a date of birth, precede it by a hyphen. Enclose a fuller form of name in parentheses. Enclose a distinguishing term in parentheses.
Israel Meir, ╪c ha-Kohen, ╪ d 1838-1933 Kagan, Israel Meir, ╪ d 1838-1933 Poupko, Israel Meir, ╪d 1838-1933
Personal Name Headings – Qualifiers AACR2 22.19, LCRI 22.19 Johannes (Notary) Thomas (Anglo-Norman poet) Smith, John, Sir Brown, George, Captain Brown, George, F.I.P.S. Brown, George, Rev. Brown, George, Ph. D. Brown, George, flutist RDA 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52 Johannes (Notary) Thomas (Anglo-Norman poet) Smith, John ( [Profession or Occupation] ) or Smith, John ( [Field of activity] ) or Smith, John [undifferentiated] Brown, George (Soldier) or Brown, George [undifferentiated] Brown, George ( [Profession or Occupation] ) or Brown, George ( [Field of activity] ) or Brown, George [undifferentiated] Brown, George (Clergyman) Brown, George ( [Profession or Occupation] ) or Brown, George ( [Field of activity] ) or Brown, George [undifferentiated] Brown, George (F lutist )
So what about “Rabbi”? “ It seems that RDA considers ‘Rabbi’ to be a title of religious vocation (RDA 184.108.40.206) and only used as an addition when the preferred form of the name is entered under given name and ‘Rabbi’ is preceded by a comma. A rabbi entered under surname may need to be treated as a ‘Clergyman’ with parentheses for occupation on either side. The issue of Rabbi is confusing in RDA. In A2 it is considered a title of address (HCM, under 1.1F7) and can serve as an addition to names entered under surname as per A2 22.19B1. We may want to bring this up with PSD.” --Heidi Lerner, June 19, 2011.
A 17 th -century rabbi by Rembrandt possibly Ḳrokhmal, Ḥayim ╪ c (Clergyman) Just a joke! Not the real heading!
New fields in authority records for persons <ul><li>046: Special coded dates: ‡f 1626 ‡g 1666 </li></ul><ul><li>370: Associated place: ‡e Kraków, Poland </li></ul><ul><li>371: Address </li></ul><ul><li>372: Field of activity: ‡a biblical commentary </li></ul><ul><li>373: Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>374: Occupation: ‡a clergyman </li></ul><ul><li>375: Gender: ‡a male </li></ul><ul><li>377: Associated language: ‡a Hebrew </li></ul>
<ul><li>100: Lebovics, Aharon Dovid </li></ul><ul><li>370: Associated place: ‡e Cleveland Heights, Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>371: Address: ‡a 3485 Shannon Rd ‡b Cleveland ‡c OH ‡e 44118-1924 </li></ul><ul><li>372: Field of activity: ‡a Talmudic commentary </li></ul><ul><li>373: Affiliation: ‡a Young Israel of Greater Cleveland </li></ul><ul><li>374: Occupation: ‡a clergyman </li></ul><ul><li>375: Gender: ‡a male </li></ul><ul><li>377: Associated language: ‡a Hebrew </li></ul>
Yerushala[y]im shel Zahav a tale of the RDA Test Heidi and Joan were cataloging a book for the RDA Test.
The book was published in: ירושלם = Y R W Sh L M Heidi and Joan wanted to romanize it as: Yerushala[y]im the way they did it in AACR2. Hebraica Cataloging said that would be okay (p. 38).
Heidi and Joan knew, though, that RDA doesn’t like brackets much, but that it also says: If information taken from a source outside the resource itself is supplied … indicate that fact either by means of a note or by some other means (e.g., through coding or the use of square brackets)— Instruction 2.2.4 . Did that mean they could put the “y” that isn’t there יושל > ? < ם in brackets or not??
The Policy & Standards Office told them they could use the brackets “ for the duration of the Test.” Heidi and Joan were happy because the solution was so easy. “ Romanization table trumps ‘take what you see.’” They danced for joy!
But afterwards, PSD got back to them and said, “Romanization table does NOT trump ‘take what you see.’” “ The stated problem is with the ALA-LC romanization table.” Wait a minute what do you mean who said there was a problem?
Heidi and Joan were so sad! They hadn’t known their romanization table was bad! They didn’t know how to fix it!
They thought about early retirement. All because of brackets on p. 38.
Research and academic libraries worldwide have substantial collections of materials in non-Western languages. Communities cataloging such exotic materials expected that RDA would move away from the English/Anglo-American focus of AACR2 and provide guidance for handling non-Western bibliographic and publishing practices. Two official Test catalogers who work with materials in Hebrew script sought to fit their materials into the standard RDA format, but learned that “internationalization” lies mainly in the future. It’s the experience of the community and its active contributions which will expand RDA beyond its present Anglo-centric boundaries.