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  1. 1. 1<br />Class 7: Differential reinforcement and punishment<br />Chapter 7, 3 (p. 39-44), 19 (p. 312-313) and 20 (p. 328-329)<br />
  2. 2. Outline <br />2<br />Differential reinforcement and differential punishment<br />Task analysis, response dimensions, and response class<br />Differential reinforcement and differential punishment<br />Differential reinforcement techniques<br />DRA, DRI, and DRL<br />When to use differential reinforcement and differential punishment<br />
  3. 3. Terrible tennis (Chapter 7, p. 124-125)<br />3<br />What was Coach Craigflower doing?<br />Contingencies<br />Did not reinforce behavior<br />
  4. 4. Task analysis before intervention <br />4<br />Task analysis<br />An analysis of complex behavior and sequences of behavior into their component responses<br />2 components<br />Pivot and steep with left foot forward<br />Transfer weight from right foot to left foot<br />
  5. 5. Intervention contingency<br />5<br />Positve reinforcement<br />Frequency increases<br />Before<br />No praise<br />After<br />No praise<br />After<br />praise<br />Behavior<br />Sherry steps towarde the net with her left foot forward<br />Behavior<br />Sherry steps toward the net with her right foot forward<br />Extinction<br />Frequency decreases<br />The second behavior should not be sherry does nto step toward the net with her left foot forward as it doesn’t pass the dead man test<br />
  6. 6. Compare differential reinforcement and simple positive reinforcement<br />6<br />Similarities<br />Increase the frequency of the behavior<br />Differences<br />Involves two different contingencies<br />
  7. 7. Back to task analysis<br />7<br />Dimensions of behavior<br />Dimensions = physical properties of the response<br />They have to be relevant to the task at hand<br />Topography: how response is performed<br />Force, loudness, pitch, etc<br />Duration (time from the beginning to the end of the reponse<br />Latency (time between the opportunity for a response and the beginning of that response)<br />
  8. 8. Practice time: Problem 1<br />8<br />Imagine that you want to teach a little boy Byron how to wash his hands. Perform task analysis on hands-washing behavior breaking down this behavior into components.<br />1. Stand in front of sink<br />2. turn on water<br />3. Wet the hands<br />4. pump the soap<br />5. Rub hands under water for 20 seconds<br />6. rinse <br />7. Turn off water<br />8. Dry off hands<br />
  9. 9. Task analysis is done: What’s next?<br />Teaching how to dry hands on towel<br />Identify response dimension<br />Physical properties that distinguish correct response from incorrect response<br />All responses are reinforced (or not reinforced) will form a response class<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Practice time: Problem 2<br />When Rudolph the rat presses the lever down at least 1 inch, he receives a drop of water.<br />Rudolph might press the lever with his right paw, left paw, or his nose. Are this behaviors in the same response class?<br />Rudolph might press the lever down slowly or quickly. Are these behaviors in the same response class?<br />Rudolph might press the lever down 0.5 inch or 1.5 inch. Are these behaviors in the same response class?<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Teaching classical ballet (Chapter 7, p. 136-138)<br />11<br />When Bunny does exercise incorrectly, the instructor tells her: “Freeze, don’t move!” Buddy stays in this uncomfortable position while the instructor explains her mistake and demonstrates the correct form. Only then is Bunny allowed to repeat the exercise correctly.<br />
  12. 12. Contingency<br />12<br />Before<br />No freezing<br />After<br />No freezing<br />(Extinction, behavior increases)<br />After<br />Freezing<br />(Positve Punishment)<br />Behavior<br />Performs exercise incorrectly<br />Behavior<br />Performs exercise correctly<br />
  13. 13. Differential punishment<br />13<br />Punishing one set of responses and extinguishing another set of responses<br />
  14. 14. Practice time: Problem 3<br />Whenever a client describes a situation in a clear and positive way, a therapist responds with a warmth and affirmation. A therapist does not respond to confused and self-deprecating statements.<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Practice time: Problem 4<br />15<br />Bob hates writing assignments. When he has to do writing assignment in class, he makes one or two smart-aleck remarks but his teacher ignores him. If, however, Bob makes many remarks that annoy the teacher, then the teacher sends Bob to principal’s office (which of course means that Bob no longer needs to work on aversive assignment).<br />
  16. 16. Practice time: Problem 5<br />16<br />Sid is building a wooden planter. He looks at the hammer and hits his finger. When he looks at the nail, he hits his nail and not his finger.<br />
  17. 17. Differential reinforcement<br />17<br />After<br />Jummy has no comfortingattention<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy Distrupts<br />Jimmy has no comforting attention<br />After<br />Jimmy has comforting attention<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy asks “Am I doing googdowrk”<br />Reinforce on class of behaviors<br />Extinguish another class of behavior<br />
  18. 18. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)<br />18<br />18<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy distrupts<br />After<br />Jimmy has comforting attention<br />Before<br />Jimmy has no comforting action<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy asks, “am I doing good work<br />Reinforce an atleternad undesirable behavir<br />No extinctio<br />
  19. 19. Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)<br />19<br />19<br />After<br />Jimmy has no comforting attention<br />Before<br />Jimmy has no comforting attention<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy disrupts <br />After<br />Jimmy has 1 point<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy studies continuously for 30 s<br />Before<br />Jimmy does not have points<br />Reinforce a behaviroimcpmpatible with undsirablebehavior<br />Usually a different reinforcer<br />No extinction<br />No need to do anything with undesirable behavior<br />
  20. 20. Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL)<br />20<br />20<br />After<br />Jimmy has no comforting attention<br />Before<br />Jimmy has no comforting attention<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy disrupts every 30 s <br />After<br />Jimmy has 1 point<br />Behavior<br />Jimmy distrupts after one minute<br />Before<br />Jimmy does not have points<br />Reinforce lower rate of behavior<br />Keep reducing the rate of behavior until it dissapears<br />
  21. 21. Practice time: Problem 6<br />21<br />My dog Buddy barks vigorously when he meets other dogs. I give him a small treat when he barks 5 times or less in 30 sec.<br />DRL, because if she tried to teach her dog not to bark at all, it wouldn’t be possible<br />Alan is very shy and he normally walks away when unfamiliar people join his group. Alan’s teacher gives him an M&M when Alan initiates conversation by asking “How are you?”<br />DRI, because we don’t have extinction, so it cant be DRA, and you can’t do those two things at the same time<br />When my dog Buddy picks up the sock and brings it to me, I ignore him. When he picks up his rope toy and brings it to me, we play tug-a-war.<br />DR, extinction for Sock, Positive Reinforcement for rope<br />Jill frequently disrupts when she is tired and in a need of break. A therapist teaches her to raise her hand and ask for a break when she is tired.<br />DRA, there is the outcome that repeats<br />
  22. 22. What to use to increase frequency of behavior?<br />22<br />Low frequency of behavior among the desired dimension<br />Simple positive reinforcement<br />High frequency of behavior along the desired dimension<br />Differential reinforcement<br />
  23. 23. What to use to decrease frequency of behavior?<br />23<br />Frequency is a relevant dimension, and it is too high<br />DRL<br />There is an incompatible behavior and/or the reinforcer maintaining undesirable behavior is unknown<br />DRI<br />The reinforcer maintning undesirable behavior is known and/or there is no truly incompatible behavior<br />DRA<br />