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HEURISTIC SEARCH
AI Frontiers 2018
St. Louis
Indianapolis
Columbus
Louisville
Nashville
Chicago
Cleveland
Pittsburgh
297
309
261
243
183
346
133
144
185
176
...
UNINFORMED SEARCH
Generic uninformed search pseudo-code:
(1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state
(2) Pick...
BREADTH-FIRST SEARCH
Breadth-first search pseudo-code:
(1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state
(2) Pick a ...
DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH
Depth-first search pseudo-code:
(1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state
(2) Pick a frin...
UNIFORM-COST SEARCH
Uniform-cost search pseudo-code:
(1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state
(2) Pick a f...
Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials a...
Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials a...
St. Louis
(0)
Indianapolis (120)
Columbus
(210)
Louisville
(130)
Nashville
(150)
Chicago
(150)
Cleveland (280)
Pittsburgh
...
A* SEARCH
A* search pseudo-code:
(1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state
(2) Pick a fringe node n with th...
Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials a...
Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials a...
HEURISTICS
• Heuristics are admissible if they do not over-estimate the true
distances
h(n) ≤ c(n, goal)
• Heuristics are ...
HEURISTICS
• Heuristics need to be computed very quickly
• Typically computed by relaxing the problem: add some states or
...
PROPERTIES OF A*
• Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics
• Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics
PROPERTIES OF A*
• Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics
• Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics
• If A* use...
PROPERTIES OF A*
• Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics
• Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics
• If A* use...
PROPERTIES OF A*
• If A* uses consistent heuristics, then it is efficient
No other search algorithm that uses the same heur...
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Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 1 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 2 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 3 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 4 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 5 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 6 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 7 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 8 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 9 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 10 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 11 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 12 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 13 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 14 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 15 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 16 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 17 Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search Slide 18
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Topic:Heuristic Search and how does it apply to self-driving cars? (for Beginners)
Outline:
1. Technologies behind self-driving vehicles
- Motion Planning
- Decision Making

2. Graph Search Algorithms
- Depth-First Search
- Breadth-First Search
- A* Search

3. Incremental Heuristic Search Algorithms
- Repeated A* Search
- Adaptive A*
- Generalized Fringe-Retrieving A*

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Training at AI Frontiers 2018 - LaiOffer Self-Driving-Car-Lecture 1: Heuristic Search

  1. 1. HEURISTIC SEARCH AI Frontiers 2018
  2. 2. St. Louis Indianapolis Columbus Louisville Nashville Chicago Cleveland Pittsburgh 297 309 261 243 183 346 133 144 185 176 206114 175
  3. 3. UNINFORMED SEARCH Generic uninformed search pseudo-code: (1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state (2) Pick a fringe node n (3) If fringe node n represents a goal state, then stop (4) Expand fringe node n* (5) Go to (2) *generate neighboring nodes that aren’t ancestors
  4. 4. BREADTH-FIRST SEARCH Breadth-first search pseudo-code: (1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state (2) Pick a fringe node n with the smallest depth (3) If fringe node n represents a goal state, then stop (4) Expand fringe node n* (5) Go to (2) *generate neighboring nodes that aren’t ancestors
  5. 5. DEPTH-FIRST SEARCH Depth-first search pseudo-code: (1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state (2) Pick a fringe node n with the largest depth (3) If fringe node n represents a goal state, then stop (4) Expand fringe node n* (5) Go to (2) *generate neighboring nodes that aren’t ancestors
  6. 6. UNIFORM-COST SEARCH Uniform-cost search pseudo-code: (1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state (2) Pick a fringe node n with the smallest g(n) (3) If fringe node n represents a goal state, then stop (4) Expand fringe node n* (5) Go to (2) *generate neighboring nodes that aren’t ancestors
  7. 7. Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials are available at http://ai.berkeley.edu.
  8. 8. Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials are available at http://ai.berkeley.edu. BFS DFS UCS COMPARISONS
  9. 9. St. Louis (0) Indianapolis (120) Columbus (210) Louisville (130) Nashville (150) Chicago (150) Cleveland (280) Pittsburgh (300) 297 309 261 243 183 346 133 144 185 176 206114 175
  10. 10. A* SEARCH A* search pseudo-code: (1) Start with a tree that contains only the start state (2) Pick a fringe node n with the smallest g(n) + h(n) (3) If fringe node n represents a goal state, then stop (4) Expand fringe node n* (5) Go to (2) *generate neighboring nodes that aren’t ancestors
  11. 11. Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials are available at http://ai.berkeley.edu.
  12. 12. Videos are from slides created by Dan Klein and Pieter Abbeel for CS188 Intro to AI at UC Berkeley.  All CS188 materials are available at http://ai.berkeley.edu. BFS DFS A* UCS
  13. 13. HEURISTICS • Heuristics are admissible if they do not over-estimate the true distances h(n) ≤ c(n, goal) • Heuristics are consistent if they satisfy the triangle inequality h(n) ≤ c(n, n’) + h(n’)
 h(goal) = 0 n n’ goal c(n, n’) h(n) h(n’)
  14. 14. HEURISTICS • Heuristics need to be computed very quickly • Typically computed by relaxing the problem: add some states or actions. • Examples: • Zero heuristics • Straight-line heuristics • Manhattan heuristics
  15. 15. PROPERTIES OF A* • Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics • Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics
  16. 16. PROPERTIES OF A* • Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics • Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics • If A* uses consistent heuristics, then it is correct
  17. 17. PROPERTIES OF A* • Consistent heuristics Admissible heuristics • Consistent heuristics ⇍ Admissible heuristics • If A* uses consistent heuristics, then it is correct • If A* uses admissible but inconsistent heuristics, then it is correct if it re-expand states
  18. 18. PROPERTIES OF A* • If A* uses consistent heuristics, then it is efficient No other search algorithm that uses the same heuristics, which is correct and complete, can expand fewer nodes than A* (except for breaking ties at nodes n with f(n) = f(goal)) • If h1(n) ≥ h2(n) for all states n, then A* using h1(n) is at least as efficient as using h2(n) A* using h1(n) expands at most the same number of states as A* using h2(n) (except for breaking ties at nodes n with f(n) = f(goal))
  • WaqarAhmed226

    Dec. 12, 2018

Topic:Heuristic Search and how does it apply to self-driving cars? (for Beginners) Outline: 1. Technologies behind self-driving vehicles - Motion Planning - Decision Making 2. Graph Search Algorithms - Depth-First Search - Breadth-First Search - A* Search 3. Incremental Heuristic Search Algorithms - Repeated A* Search - Adaptive A* - Generalized Fringe-Retrieving A*

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