Roth IRA Conversions

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The purpose of Roth IRA conversions as it relates to NIIT is to lower modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) below the threshold amount over the long-term. Some benefits of Roth conversions include lower overall taxable income, tax-free compounding, no required minimum distributions at age 70 ½, tax-free withdrawals for beneficiaries, and more effective funding of the “bypass trust”. Converting to a Roth IRA creates opportunities to reduce the overall size of the estate and to take advantage of greater tax-free yields and favorable tax attributes. Bob Keebler walks you through the mathematics of conversion through examples, tactical considerations, and a four-step process for Roth conversion planning.

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Roth IRA Conversions

  1. 1. Year-End Planning: Roth IRA Conversions Presented by: Robert S. Keebler, CPA, MST, AEP Keebler & Associates LLP © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Introduction About the PFP Section & PFS Credential • The AICPA PFP Section provides information, resources, advocacy and guidance for CPAs who specialize in providing estate, tax, retirement, risk management and investment planning advice to individuals and their closely held entities (learn more at aicpa.org/PFP) • The CPA/Personal Financial Specialist (PFS) credential distinguishes CPAs as subject-matter experts who have demonstrated their financial planning knowledge through experience, education and testing (learn more at aicpa.org/PFS) American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 2
  3. 3. Introduction Robert S. Keebler, CPA, MST, AEP Robert.Keebler@KeeblerandAssociates.com 920-593-1700 American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 3
  4. 4. Roth IRA Benefits Lowers overall taxable income long-term Tax-free compounding No RMDs at age 70½ Tax-free withdrawals for beneficiaries More effective funding of the “bypass trust” PURPOSE OF STRATEGY (as it relates to the 3.8% NIIT): To lower MAGI below the “threshold amount” over the long-term. © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  5. 5. Reasons to Convert Taxpayers have special favorable tax attributes including charitable deduction carry-forwards, investment tax credits, net operating losses (NOLs), high basis non-deductible traditional IRAs, etc. Suspension of the minimum distribution rules at age 70½ provides a considerable advantage to the Roth IRA holder. Taxpayers benefit from paying income tax before estate tax (when a Roth IRA election is made) compared to the income tax deduction obtained when a traditional IRA is subject to estate tax. © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 5
  6. 6. Reasons to Convert Taxpayers who can pay the income tax on the IRA from non-IRA funds benefit greatly from the Roth IRA because of the ability to enjoy greater tax-free yields. Taxpayers who need to use IRA assets to fund their Unified Credit bypass trust are well advised to consider making a Roth IRA election for that portion of their overall IRA funds. Taxpayers making the Roth IRA election during their lifetime reduce their overall estate, thereby lowering the effect of higher estate tax rates. © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 6
  7. 7. Roth IRA Conversion Types Strategic conversions – Take advantage of a client’s long‐term wealth transfer objectives Tactical conversions – Take advantage of short‐term client‐specific income tax attributes that are set to expire (e.g., low tax rates, tax credits, charitable contribution carryovers, NOL carryovers, etc.) Opportunistic conversions – Take advantage of short‐term stock market volatility, sector rotation and rotation in asset classes Hedging conversions – Take advantage of projected future events that will result © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  8. 8. Mathematics of Conversion In simplest terms, a traditional IRA will produce the same after-tax result as a Roth IRA provided that • The annual growth rates are the same • The tax rate in the conversion year is the same as the tax rate during the withdrawal years - Ax Bx C =D - Ax C xB =D © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  9. 9. Mathematics of Conversion Current Account Balance Less: Income Taxes @ 40% Net Balance Traditional IRA $ 1,000,000 $ 1,000,000 Growth Until Death Account Balance @ Death $ Less: Income Taxes @ 40% Net Account Balance to Family $ Roth IRA Life Insurance $ 1,000,000 $ 1,000,000 (400,000) (400,000) $ 600,000 $ 600,000 200.00% 3,000,000 $ (1,200,000) 1,800,000 $ 200.00% 1,800,000 1,800,000 300.00% $ $ 1,800,000 1,800,000 (Note: Life Insurance should be held in an ILIT) © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® 9 Personal Financial Planning Section
  10. 10. Mathematics of Conversion Critical decision factors • • • • Tax rate differential (year of conversion vs. withdrawal years) Use of “outside funds” to pay the income tax liability Need for IRA funds to meet annual living expenses Time horizon © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  11. 11. Mathematics of Conversion The key to successful Roth IRA conversions is to keep as much of the conversion income as possible in the current marginal tax bracket • However, there are times when it may make sense to convert more and go into higher tax brackets • Need to take into consideration the following: - The new 3.8% Medicare “surtax” - The impact of AMT - New 39.6% rate - PEP and PEASE adjustments © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 11
  12. 12. Tactical Considerations Unused charitable contribution carryovers Current year ordinary losses Net Operating Loss (NOL) carryovers from prior years Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) Credit carryovers © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  13. 13. Roth IRA Conversions - Married 3.8% Surtax PEP 39.6% tax bracket 35% tax bracket Target Roth IRA conversion amount 33% tax bracket Current taxable income 28% tax bracket 25% tax bracket 15% tax bracket 10% tax bracket © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 13
  14. 14. Recharacterization Taxpayers may “recharacterize” (i.e. undo) the Roth IRA conversion in current year or by the filing date of the current year’s tax return • Recharacterization can take place as late as 10/15 in the year following the year of conversion Taxpayers may choose to “reconvert” their recharacterization • Reconversion may only take place at the later of the following two dates: - The tax year following the original conversion OR - 30 days after the recharacterization © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® 14 Personal Financial Planning Section
  15. 15. Recharacterization Cannot recharacterize a portion of a Roth conversion by “cherry picking” only those stocks that decline in value All gains and losses to the entire Roth IRA must be pro-rated Therefore, set up a separate Roth IRA for each asset class • Allowing you to recharacterize only those Roth IRAs that asset class declined © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  16. 16. Recharacterization Timeline Conversion Period Recharacterization Period 2013 1/1/2013 – First day conversion can take place 2014 12/31/2013 – Last day conversion can take place 4/15/2014 – Normal filing date for 2013 tax return 10/15/2014 – 12/31/2014 Latest filing date for 2013 tax return / last day to recharacterize 2013 Roth IRA conversion © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 16
  17. 17. Steps to Planning Step 1: Develop a 10 to 15 year projection of income and deductions and compare these projections to the various taxes Step 2: Develop an analysis to determine the client’s “permanent tax bracket.” Analysis will test whether an “intra-bracket” conversions increase the 3.8% surtax, the AMT, impact of PEP/Pease, or the 39.6% tax rate © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  18. 18. Steps to Planning Step 3: Develop a series of “bracket-crossing conversions” analysis. Each analysis must be measured autonomously standing on its own and take into account the various taxes. Step 4: Repeat the above taking into account changes in value and the opportunity to recharacterize © 2013 Prepared by Keebler & Associates, LLP All Rights Reserved American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section
  19. 19. Required Disclosure Under Circular 230 Pursuant to the rules of professional conduct set forth in Circular 230, as promulgated by the United States Department of the Treasury, nothing contained in this communication was intended or written to be used by any taxpayer for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed on the taxpayer by the Internal Revenue Service, and it cannot be used by any taxpayer for such purpose. No one, without our express prior written permission, may use or refer to any tax advice in this communication in promoting, marketing, or recommending a partnership or other entity, investment plan or arrangement to any other party. For discussion purposes only. This work is intended to provide general information about the tax and other laws applicable to retirement benefits. The author, his firm or anyone forwarding or reproducing this work shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the information contained in this work. This work does not represent tax, accounting, or legal advice. The individual taxpayer is advised to and should rely on their own advisors. American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 19
  20. 20. PFP Section Resources (aicpa.org/PFP) The CPA’s Guide to Financial & Estate Planning– 1000-page, 4 volume, in-depth guide for practitioners (updated for ATRA) Forefield Advisor (aicpa.org/pfp/forefield) • Client education and communication tool • Written by CPAs, attorneys and other subject matter experts • More than 3,000 resources covering personal financial planning, including estate, tax, retirement, investment and risk management planning • Keyword searches: American Taxpayer Relief Act, net investment income tax American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 20
  21. 21. Resources for Post-ATRA & NIIT Planning Planning After ATRA and the Net Investment Income Tax Toolkit • • aicpa.org/pfp/proactiveplanning Complimentary PFP Section member/PFS credential holder benefit Other Resources for Purchase from Bob Keebler (www.cpa2biz.com) • • • • Tax Planning After the Healthcare Surtax: Tools, Tips, and Tactics* The Small Business Jobs Act of 2010: Tools, Tips, and Tactics The Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2010: Tools, Tips, and Tactics The Rebirth of Roth: A CPA's Ultimate Guide for Client Care* Coming soon! More Resources for Purchase from Bob Keebler* • • Planning Opportunities After ATRA: Tools, Tips, and Tactics Tax Rate Evaluator: A Graphical Calculator for Tax Planning After ATRA Visit aicpa.org/pfp/join to become a member *discounts available for PFP/PFS members American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 21
  22. 22. Proactive Year-End Financial and Tax Planning Where to Find More Education 10/25/2013 1:00-2:00p.m. ET Year-End Financial and Tax Planning Strategies to Address ATRA and the Net Investment Income Tax (Overview)* 11/11/2013 1:00-2:45p.m. ET Top Estate and Income Tax Planning Strategies* 11/12/2013 1:00-2:45p.m. ET Investment Tax Planning – Creating Tax Alpha* 1/20-22/2014 Las Vegas AICPA Advanced Personal Financial Planning Conference (cpa2biz.com/PFP) • Advanced education covering tax, estate, retirement, investments and risk management planning to be ready for 2014 and beyond • 2-day pre-conference workshop on implementing a PFP practice, Jan 18-19 To register and to view the full calendar of upcoming PFP Section events, visit aicpa.org/PFP and click on CPE & Events. *To access the archives, visit aicpa.org/pfp/webseminars. American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 22
  23. 23. Contact AICPA PFP Team Staff with Questions financialplanning@aicpa.org American Institute of CPAs® Personal Financial Planning Section 23

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