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The WELL Building Standard and the Psychology of Space

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This course will first address the basics of the WELL Standard program and its seven core concept areas. The presenters will then focus on the last concept, Mind, and how the built environment can support the psycho-social and spiritual needs of the occupants. The WELL Building Standard for Mind requires design, technology, and treatment strategies to provide a physical environment that optimizes cognitive and emotional health. A successfully designed space can produce measurable positive effects on occupant performance and outcomes.

Attendees will learn how to design stimulating spaces and implement policies to increase wellness awareness. The course will focus on integrative design, adaptable spaces, and biophilic design principles. A portion of the presentation will also review the concept of alliesthesia and how designing for options allows people to have a more pleasant experience with the built environment. Lastly, the presenters will discuss a case study, which recently earned a WELL Building Standard certification, to support the theory presented.

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The WELL Building Standard and the Psychology of Space

  1. 1. AIA Pittsburgh The WELL Building Standard and the Psychology of Space Christine Mondor, AIA, LEED AP; evolveEA Anna Rosenblum, LEED AP, EcoDistricts AP ; evolveEA Stuart Shell, AIA, WELL, LEED AP; Forte Building Science April 12, 2018
  2. 2. Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. _______________________________________ ____ Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. This course will first address the basics of the WELL Standard program and its seven core concept areas. The presenters will then focus on the last concept, Mind, and how the built environment can support the psycho-social and spiritual needs of the occupants. The WELL Building Standard for Mind requires design, technology, and treatment strategies to provide a physical environment that optimizes cognitive and emotional health. A successfully designed space can produce measurable positive effects on occupant performance and outcomes. Attendees will learn how to design stimulating spaces and implement policies to increase wellness awareness. The course will focus on integrative design, adaptable spaces, and biophilic design principles. A portion of the presentation will also review the concept of alliesthesia and how designing for options allows people to have a more pleasant experience with the built environment. Lastly, the presenters will discuss a case study, which recently earned a WELL Building Standard certification, to support the theory presented. Course Description
  4. 4. Learning Objectives 1. See the structure behind the WELL Standard basics and its benefits on the occupants of WELL Buildings 2. Understand the Mind WELL concept, its relevance to the integrated design process 3. Assimilate and prioritize design strategies that optimize cognitive and emotional health. 4. Become familiar with operational policies that foster a healthier environment and healthier individuals. At the end of the this course, participants will be able to:
  5. 5. ThePsychology ofSpace Christine Mondor
  6. 6. CAN A BUILDING BE A CURE? case study Paimio Sanitorium :: Alvar Aalto
  7. 7. Tuberculosis “Consumption” Attacks the lungs Associated with urban environments Highly contagious Cure or treatment?
  8. 8. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33 Building as “medical instrument”
  9. 9. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  10. 10. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  11. 11. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  12. 12. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  13. 13. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  14. 14. Paimio Sanitorium, 1929-33
  15. 15. WHAT MATTERS MORE…HARDWARE OR SOFTWARE?
  16. 16. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN US AND OUR ENVIRONMENT?
  17. 17. BODY + SENSES PERCEPTION + COGNITION ENVIRONMENT + BEHAVIOR SOCIAL + COMMUNITY Howdo we describe our embodied physical systems? Howdo gather information, learn, & attach meaning? What is the relationship between how we act and where we act? Howdoes ourenvironment relate to the social bonds that we cultivate?
  18. 18. related fields
  19. 19. Psychology isthe study of perceptionand cognition. Different schoolsof psychologyembody unique insightintothe relationshipof behavior+ environment.
  20. 20. Why doweact? Wecanbeencouragedtoactifwearegivenpositive reinforcement. Ourbehaviorisaffectedbyhowwelearnandrecallinformation aboutour environment Ouractionsintheenvironmentresultfromour cultural context. Weactincertainwaysbecausethosebehaviorshaveevolvedtohelpus survive. Ouractionsareaffectedbytheextentandnatureofour motivation. Webehaveincertainwaysbecauseourbrainsarehardwiredtodoso.
  21. 21. behavioral psychology What input can influence behaviors? cognitive psychology Howdo people perceive,think, remember &learn? cross cultural psychology Howdo cultural factors influence behavior? evolutionary psychology Howis behaviorexplained by ourdriveto survive? bioscience psychology Howare we hardwired? humanisticpsychology Howare we internally motivated? (1900-50) (1960’s) (1970’s) (1950’s) (1990’s)
  22. 22. Evidence baseddesign evolvedfrom medicalresearch. Architecturalresearch methods have been based o medicalresearch methods andappliedto human healthin the built environment.
  23. 23. Monday, May 31, 2004 Study links sprawling suburbs, sprawling waistlines By Rob Stein The Washington Post
  24. 24. Organizationaltheoryconnects culturalpractices to spatial practices. The design of organizationsandtheir cultures have a strong effect onthe inhabitants.
  25. 25. LabsatAlliedChemical,1967. PhotoElliot Erwit “Aphysicist on hisway tolunch in the cafeteria was like a magnet rolling past iron filings.”
  26. 26. "Creativitycomes fromspontaneous meetings, fromrandomdiscussions.“ Steve Jobs Jonah Lehrer, Fostering Creativity PixarHeadquarters, PaloAlto, CA
  27. 27. HOW HAVE WE ADOPTED HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN?
  28. 28. RETHINK sensory modality
  29. 29. OlafurEliasson
  30. 30. Phillipe Rahm
  31. 31. three sensory modalities exteroceptive interoceptive proprioception vision sound touch smell taste
  32. 32. three sensory modalities exteroceptive interoceptive proprioception Internal organ pain and movement
  33. 33. three sensory modalities exteroceptive interoceptive proprioception A sense of relative position of parts of the body and body strength Kinesthesia
  34. 34. RETHINK ability
  35. 35. MAN IS THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS. R Protagoras
  36. 36. Le Modular,LeCorbusier
  37. 37. 1/24 1/61/2 1/2 4 THE MEASURE OF US
  38. 38. anthropometrics ergonomics the study of human physical dimensions, capabilities and limitations the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use
  39. 39. abilitydis Where does the accommodation occur? Is the gap in our environment or in our bodies? Prosthetic devices or prosthetic spaces?
  40. 40. RETHINK productivity
  41. 41. IndustrialProduction
  42. 42. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) www.osha.gov Also http://www.cpwrconstructionsolutions.org Making the business case for safety http://safecalc.org/
  43. 43. TAYLORISM Frederick Winslow Taylor What are the optimum or most efficient ways to perform a task?
  44. 44. HOW DO WE INCORPORATE SPATIAL PSYCHOLOGY, EVIDENCE BASED DESIGN, AND ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY INTO OUR DESIGN PRACTICES?
  45. 45. MIND & THEWELL BUILDING STANDARD Build Pittsburgh | 12April 2018 AnnaRosenblum,ProjectManager,evolveEA
  46. 46. What is the WELL BUILDING STANDARD?
  47. 47.  Is a performance-based system to measure impact of built environment on human health.  Requires on-site performance testing to ensure that performance thresholds are met. WELLBUILDING STANDARD
  48. 48. DEVELOPMENT OF WELL IWBI undertook a comprehensive expert peer review process, which included three phases – a scientific, medical, and building expert review – and culminated in the release of the WELL Building Standard.
  49. 49. WELLOGRAPHIES Comprehensive scientific and medical research-based documents describing the rationale for each of the WELL concepts.
  50. 50. 90%Of employees admitted that their attitude about work is affected by the quality of their workplace environment. – The U.S. Workplace Survey 2006
  51. 51. Promote clean indoor air by reducing or minimizing sources of indoor air pollution, requiring optimal indoor air quality to support the healthand wellbeing of building occupants. materialselection • ventilation• filtration• moisturecontrol maintenance&operations• sourceofconcernprotection constructionprotocol AIR
  52. 52. WATER Promote safe and cleanwater through proper filtration and regular testing in order for building occupants to receive optimal quality of water. performancetesting • treatment• maintenance& operations hydrationpromotion
  53. 53. NOURISHMENT Require the availabilityof fresh, wholesome foods, limit unhealthy ingredients and encourage better eating habits and food culture. healthyportions• mindful eating• foodproduction accesstohealthyfoods• foodpreparation• allergies & alternatives transparency• environmentalcues&influences
  54. 54. LIGHT Promotes illuminationthat minimizes disruption to the body’s circadian system, enhancesproductivity, supports good sleep quality, and provides appropriate visualacuity. circadiandesign • daylighting• glarecontrol• colorquality activity-basedlighting levels • visual acuity
  55. 55. FITNESS Integrate physical activity into everyday life by providing opportunities and support for an active lifestyle and discouraging sedentary behaviors. exterioractivedesign • interioractive design • activity-basedworking physicalactivityspaces• awarenessandhabits physicalactivityprograms
  56. 56. COMFORT Create a distraction-free, productive, and comfortable indoor environment. ergonomic • acoustic• thermal• olfactory• accessibility
  57. 57. MINDUse design, technology, and treatment strategies to provide a physical environment thatoptimizes cognitive and emotional health. stakeholderengagement • transparency• wellness awareness& protocols• connectiontonature• adaptablespaces altruism
  58. 58. WELL FEATURES New and Existing Buildings 41 preconditions (required!!!) 59 optimizations (optional) = 100 Features total precondition
  59. 59. Levels of WELL Certification SILVER GOLD PLATINUM ALL preconditions NO optimizations ALL preconditions 40% of applicable optimizations ALL preconditions 80% of applicable optimizations
  60. 60.  There are currently 86 WELL certified projects worldwide.  There are more than 145 million square feet of registered and certified space. WELLPROJECTS ARE EVERYWHERE
  61. 61. What does MIND have to do with BUILDINGS?
  62. 62. “Withinthecontextof theWELLBuildingStandard, “mind” is considered “a product” of the brain and it’s functions…which influencesour mentalhealth.The term “mind” is used abstractly in our discussion of mentalhealth,the healtheffectsassociated with various states of mentalhealth,and thepotentialsolutions presented as part of the Standard.” Mind WELLography, pg. 18
  63. 63. MIND is influenced by… ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 1. Acoustics 2. Light 3. Thermal Comfort 4. Smells 5. Crowdingandprivacy 6. Locus ofcontrol 7. Restorative spaces 8. Health literacy PERSONALFACTORS 1. Physical activity 2. Affect andmood 3. Chronic stress 4. Diet andnutrition 5. Sleep SOCIALCONDITIONS 1. Social interactions 2. Attachment toplace 3. Organizationalattachment BUILDINGDESIGNCANDIRECTLY INFLUENCE BUILDINGDESIGNCANINDIRECTLY INFLUENCE
  64. 64. MIND is influenced by… ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS 1. Acoustics 2. Light 3. Thermal Comfort 4. Smells 5. Crowdingandprivacy 6. Locus ofcontrol 7. Restorative spaces 8. Health literacy PERSONALFACTORS 1. Physical activity 2. Affect andmood 3. Chronic stress 4. Diet andnutrition 5. Sleep SOCIALCONDITIONS 1. Social interactions 2. Attachment toplace 3. Organizationalattachment BUILDINGDESIGNCANDIRECTLY INFLUENCE BUILDINGDESIGNCANINDIRECTLY INFLUENCE
  65. 65. MINDisinfluenced by… ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS PERSONAL FACTORS SOCIAL CONDITIONS MINDis supportedbythe building design… DESIGN  Artwork  Color  Architectural design  Light  Circulation NATURE  Artwork/Photography  Sounds  Plants andplant walls  Water features  Windows, Daylight, and Views ADJUSTMENT  Acoustics  Ergonomics  Flexibility  Private space INPUT  Input intodesign  Occupant feedback
  66. 66. MINDisinfluenced by… ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS PERSONAL FACTORS SOCIAL CONDITIONS ALTRUISM HEALTHY SLEEP HABITS DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY-SUPPORTED COMPONENTS BUSINESS TRAVEL POLICIES STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS HEALTHCARE PROVISION WORKPLACE EQUITY MINDis indirectlysupportedbythe building design…
  67. 67. MIND Features PRECONDITION(required)BUILDINGDESIGNCANDIRECTLY INFLUENCE BUILDINGDESIGNCANINDIRECTLY INFLUENCE MINDis supportedby… Design Nature Adjustment Input Altruism HealthySleep Education Technology Businesstravelpolicies Stressmanagement Healthcare Workplaceequity
  68. 68. Case Study: CLEVELAND CLINIC FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE DEPARTMENT
  69. 69. Cleveland Clinic Functional Medicine Suite Cleveland, OH  Functional Medicine Suite in Q building  The first WELL certification pursued by Cleveland Clinic  Second WELL certified project in Ohio  One of the first healthcare companies to certify a medical office  17,000 sf  Project cost: $7M  Dr. Michael Roizen, Chief Wellness Officer of the Cleveland Clinic, helped create the standard.
  70. 70.  Dedicated to constructing healthy and environmentally sustainable buildings  Functional Medicine assesses how lifestyle and environmental factors affect wellbeing (preventative approach)  Facets of our environment interact with personal, genetic and behavioral factors to shape our overall health and wellbeing  Interactions between humans and the built environment shape both our physical health and our behavior WELL &FUNCTIONAL MEDICINE
  71. 71. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  72. 72. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  73. 73. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  74. 74. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  75. 75. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  76. 76. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  77. 77. 84 Healthand Wellness Awareness Intent: To promote a deeper understanding of factors that impact health and wellness.
  78. 78. 84 Healthand Wellness Awareness Intent: To promote a deeper understanding of factors that impact health and wellness.
  79. 79. Intent: To promote a deeper understanding of factors that impact health and wellness. 84 Healthand Wellness Awareness Floyd D. Loop Alumni Library  Online and physical location  Accessible to all Cleveland Clinic employees  Over 9,000 texts in medicine, nursing, and basic sciences and access to thousands of
  80. 80. 85 IntegrativeDesign Intent: To facilitate a collaborative development process and ensure adherence to collective wellness goals. Development Plan  Integrative Design Charrette  Occupant Wellness Needs and Organizational Values Assessment  WELL Mission Statement  WELL Workplan
  81. 81. 85 IntegrativeDesign Intent: To facilitate a collaborative development process and ensure adherence to collective wellness goals. Stakeholder Orientation  Presentation  Tour  Ongoing Operations & Maintenance
  82. 82. 86 Post Occupancy Surveys Intent: To allow occupants to provide feedback to building owners and management, and help further develop the WELL Building Standard.  The 2017 survey was created by UC Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment, it was managed by evolveEA, and it was distributed by the Functional Medicine Department.  The survey was open from July 17 – 31, 2017.  The survey had 44 respondents, a 100% response rate.  The survey included questions regarding  Overall satisfaction with the Suite  Acoustics  Thermal comfort  Furnishings  Light levels and quality  Odors and air quality  Cleanliness and maintenance  Layout  Design
  83. 83. Areas of Excellence  The Suite overall  Their workplace overall  The office layout  Office furnishings  Air quality and odors  Cleanliness and maintenance On average, survey respondents are satisfied/very satisfied with: “This is the best place I have ever worked.” [Survey respondent] “Overall it is a pleasure to work in this environment. I think patients feel good when they enter our space, which is important to our mission.” [Survey respondent]
  84. 84. Areas for Improvement  Thermal comfort (too cold)  Acoustic quality (too noisy)  Color and texture of the flooring, furniture, and finishes (too sterile) Many survey respondents identified the following for improvement: “Being in a space with no possibility for privacy is difficult. I have to find it elsewhere for a confidential conversation.” [Survey respondent] “It is freezing in all areas of the Suite except the Virtual Visit rooms.” [Survey respondent]
  85. 85. 87 Beauty and DesignI Intent: To thoughtfully create unique and culturally-rich spaces. Beauty and Mindful Design Features  Human delight  Celebration of culture  Celebration of spirit  Celebration of place  Meaningful integration of public art Photos: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership
  86. 86. 88 Biophilia I - Qualitative Intent: To nurture the innate human-nature connection within the project. Biophilic Design Features  Materials palette (patterns and textures)  Nature-inspired artwork  Visual connection to nature  Circadian lighting design
  87. 87. Photo: Daniel Kruk, Bostwick Design Partnership Thank you!
  88. 88. Stuart Shell, AIA, EDAC, WELL, LEED AP Project Manager at Forte Building Science
  89. 89. When the five organs of perception become still, together with the mind, and the intellect ceases to be active: that is called the highest state. Katha Upanishad transl. Swami Paramananda
  90. 90. Daniel Kahneman Thinking Fast and
  91. 91. Paul Nasca
  92. 92. Flat World Knowledge, Introduction to Psychology, v1.0, CC-BY- NC-SA Exploratorium Teacher Institute pain
  93. 93. Body without organs Agency Time Familiarity Beginning Psychology v. 1.0 CC-BY-NC- SA
  94. 94. kiki bouba Monochrome, Wikimedia Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0
  95. 95. Getty Images
  96. 96. Heinzerling, D., Schiavon, S., Webster, T., & Arens, E. (2013). Indoor environmental quality assessment models: A literature review and a proposed weighting and classification scheme. Building and environment, 70, 210-222.
  97. 97. Heinzerling, D., Schiavon, S., Webster, T., & Arens, E. (2013). Indoor environmental quality assessment models: A literature review and a proposed weighting and classification scheme. Building and environment, 70, 210-222.
  98. 98. Thermal Comfort Jia, S., Lai, D., Kang, J., Li, J., & Liu, J. (2018). Evaluation of relative weights for temperature, CO 2, and noise in the aircraft cabin environment. Building and
  99. 99. Alliesthesia Organism internal
  100. 100. Occupant as integrator Gordon Brown, M. (2008). Proximity and collaboration: measuring workplace configuration. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 10(1), 5-26.
  101. 101. Occupant as integrator
  102. 102. Feature 86 - Precondition
  103. 103. How satisfied are you with the temperature in your workspace?
  104. 104. Brager, G., & Baker, L. (2009). Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings. Building Research & Information, 37(4), 369-380.
  105. 105. Random, stochastic patterns
  106. 106. Feature 100 - Optimization
  107. 107. Becoming Occupant • Occupants prefer control, even if not exercised (Toftum, 2010) • Agency in space is the ability to shape habitat • The designer can be the agent for occupants
  108. 108. Perkins Eastman, photographer. Google Bakery Square
  109. 109. Neurodiversity
  110. 110. Adults reporting social limitations
  111. 111. Autism prevalence per 1000
  112. 112. Feature 89 - Optimization
  113. 113. Schools? Shopping? Dining?
  114. 114. Sample Last Slide This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course

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