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Gender Matters in Architecture: The Challenges of 21st Century Design of Toilet, Shower, and Bathing Facilities

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How do we create awareness, advocate for, and create comfort for all individual needs that relate to gender inclusiveness in 21st century facility design? Join this roundtable discussion with architects and code officials on strategies employed and possibilities for meeting the requirements for toilet, shower, and bathing facilities with the goal of creating stress-free zones for all. The case studies presented will include a shower room for a K-12 facility, and toilet and bathing facilities for wellness and other university facilities. The difference between gender equal, neutral, and inclusive facilities will also be explained. Additionally, the presenters will address the role of the design professional as they advocate for equity in design to their community and clients, and through changes in policy.

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Gender Matters in Architecture: The Challenges of 21st Century Design of Toilet, Shower, and Bathing Facilities

  1. 1. AIA PITTSBURGH Provider Number: A217 Gender Matters in Architecture Course Code: Gender_BP17 Jeff Light, AIA; Larry Payne, AIA, LEED AP BD+C - WTW Architects; Andy Grese - Allegheny County Department of Health; Henry Hegerle - Code Reviewer April 5, 2017 2:15-3:15 PM
  2. 2. Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. ___________________________________________ Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  3. 3. This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © WTW Architects 2017 Copyright Materials
  4. 4. How do we create awareness, advocate for, and create comfort for all individual needs that relate to gender inclusiveness in 21st century facility design? Join this roundtable discussion with architects and code officials on strategies employed and possibilities for meeting the requirements for toilet, shower, and bathing facilities with the goal of creating stress-free zones for all. The case studies presented will include shower rooms, toilet and bathing facilities for University and K-12 facilities. The difference between gender equal, neutral, and inclusive facilities will also be explained. Additionally, the presenters will address the role of the design professional as they advocate for equity in design to their community and clients, and through changes in policy. Course Description
  5. 5.  At the end of the this course, participants will be able to:  Recognize which codes and regulations affect toilet and shower facilities in the State of Pennsylvania  Understand the primary strategies for providing comfort to all in toilet, shower, and bathing facilities  Meet the requirements of the plumbing code for two-gender fixture counts while designing for gender inclusiveness  Recognize the opportunities to affect change with regard to gender in the building codes and other advocacy efforts Learning Objectives
  6. 6.  Pennsylvania UCC - Uniform Construction Code  2009 ICC with the exception of: Chapter 11 and Appendix E which are of the 2015 IBC  2009 IPC  Allegheny County Health Department  2009 IPC with Article XV revisions: http://www.achd.net/plumbing/pubs/pdf/plumbingcode15.pdf Relevant Codes & Standards
  7. 7.  Pennsylvania Requirements for Urinals 419.2 Substitutions for water closets. In each bathroom or toilet room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 67% of the required water closets in assembly and educational occupancies. Urinals shall not be substituted for more than 50% of the required water closets in all other occupancies.  Allegheny County Requirements for Urinals Section 419 Urinals IPC 419.2 Delete & Replace with: AC-419.2 Number of Urinals. The number of urinals for males shall be at least 50% of the total number of water closets required for males. The number of water closets may be decreased by the number of urinals which are used, but the number of remaining water closets shall not be less than 50% of the original tabulation total. Meeting Plumbing Code Requirements
  8. 8.  Gender Identity – Is each person’s internal and individual experience of gender. It is their sense of being a woman, a man, both, neither or anywhere along the gender spectrum. A person’s gender identity may be the same as or different from their birth-assigned sex. Gender identity is fundamentally different from a person’s sexual orientation.  Gender Expression – Is how a person publicly presents their gender. This can include behavior and outward appearance such as dress, hair, make- up, body language and voice. A person’s chosen name and pronoun are also common ways of expressing gender.  Gender-Equal/Neutral – Not referring to either sex but only to people in general.  All-Gender/Gender-Inclusive – Accessible to and usable by as many people as reasonably possible... without the need for special adaptation or specialized design. Definitions
  9. 9. Residence Hall Shower/ Toilet Room Plan
  10. 10. Shower/ Toilet Pod Centralized Private Bathrooms
  11. 11. Gender Neutral vs. Inclusive
  12. 12. FEASIBILITY REVIEW accommodations within existing facilities requiring minimal plan modifications
  13. 13.  2013  March – Oregon high school retrofits toilet rooms for transgender students.  July – Department of Justice and the Arcadia Unified School District in California reached a resolution agreement.  2014  April – Ontario Human Rights Commission released policy amendments to the Human Rights Code of 1962 on preventing discrimination because of gender identity and gender expression.  2016  May – Obama Administration issues guidence to allow transgender students to use bathrooms matching their gender identity.  September – Pine Richland School District rejects mandate to permit students to use facilities they identify with.  2017  February – Trump Administration notes it will not defend the Obama Admin. mandate and puts responsibility to establish laws back on individual states.  March – Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision to hear the case following the Trump administration’s repeal of Title IX guidance for transgender students citing there were not sufficient grounds for the case to be argued. Recent History
  14. 14. Influencers
  15. 15. How can we modify existing toilet, shower and locker room facilities to be more inclusive and offer the same level of privacy for all? The Question
  16. 16.  Presently, there is no guidance, rules or regulations regarding toilet rooms for other than male, female and family assist toilet rooms. Therefore any decision to use these facilities for other use would be the decision and responsibility of the building owners and should not be considered as recommended by the Allegheny County Health Department Plumbing Division.  The Plumbing Board and the Board of Health need to review and approve future code revisions regarding this issue.  Codes have to be fair to individuals on both sides of the issue.  This issue will likely be considered for the 2018 Codes, then there will be additional time before the State adopts future codes. Allegheny County Health Department
  17. 17.  Fixtures: Recessed more than 24” into an alcove need to have an alcove width of 36” minimum (ANSI A117.1-2009: 305.7).  Compartment: would need to provide a clear width of 36”.  Door: an ambulatory water closet compartment may be a similar condition.  An out swinging door is permitted on an ambulatory stall and shall provide 32” of clear width when opened at 90 degrees (ANSI A117.1-2009: 604.10).  The section does not state a water closet is the fixture required in this type of compartment, although IBC 2015: 1109.2.2 may infer that direction.  Grab Bars: may be required for an ambulatory compartment even though it may serve a urinal. Code Consultant
  18. 18.  Seeing a movement towards more single-use toilet rooms.  2009 IBC still has gender designations.  Accessible urinal partition enclosure use must provide maneuvering area i.e. 60” turning radius.  Future Codes should provide more paths for compliance.  Recommend discussing further w/ICC. Pennsylvania Dept. of Labor & Industry
  19. 19.  Accessible wall hung urinal must be fully accessible per ANSI A117.1-2009:  Depth – minimum of 13½” from outer face of rim to wall  Rim – maximum of 17” above the floor  Clear Floor Space – 30”w. x 48”d. clear floor space for forward approach  Flush Controls – hand-operated or automatic  Ambulatory stalls do not provide adequate maneuvering area.  If all urinals are in compartments then the accessible urinal should be within a compartment that provides a 60” turning radius.  Staff code opinions issued by ICC technical staff do not represent the official position of the International Code Council. The final authority of code opinions is the responsibility of the local code official. Staff opinion is not intended to influence the local code official. International Code Council
  20. 20.  Base Line Square Footage  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines Toilet Room
  21. 21.  Square Footage Unchanged  Question UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Moves Towards Gender-Neutral  Elevated Privacy  Accessory Relocation Modified Toilet Room
  22. 22.  Square Footage Unchanged  Question UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Gender-Neutral  Elevated Privacy  Maintenance Concerns Modified Toilet Room
  23. 23.  Square Footage Unchanged  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  All-Gender  Full Privacy  Maintenance Concerns  Increased HVAC  Increased Plumbing All-Gender Design
  24. 24.  Square Footage Unchanged  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Elevated Privacy  Separate Usage Areas All-Gender Design
  25. 25.  Square Footage Unchanged  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Elevated Privacy  Separate Usage Areas All-Gender Design
  26. 26.  Base Line Square Footage  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Not Gender-Neutral  Standard Privacy Locker/Toilet/Shower Room
  27. 27.  Square Footage Unchanged  Question UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Moves Towards Gender-Neutral  Decreased Locker Count: 29%  Fixtures Locations Shift  Changing Remote from Locker  Elevated Privacy Modified Locker/Toilet/Shower Room
  28. 28.  Expanded Square Footage: 9% Larger  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Gender-Neutral  Decreased Locker Count: 29%  Fixtures Locations Unchanged  Changing Remote from Locker  Elevated Privacy Gender-Neutral Design
  29. 29.  Base Line Square Footage  Meets UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Gender-Neutral  Changing at Lockers  Standard Privacy Locker Room Suite
  30. 30.  Expanded Square Footage: 3% Larger  UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Maintains Locker Count  Gender-Neutral  Private Changing Remote from Lockers  Enhanced Privacy Gender-Neutral Locker Room Suite
  31. 31.  Expanded Square Footage: 13% Larger  UCC Accessibility & ADA Guidelines  Maintains Locker Count  Gender-Neutral  All Private Changing Remote from Lockers 3:1 Ratio  Full Privacy for Everyone Gender-Neutral Locker Room Suite
  32. 32.  Design – Align w/Policy  Options – Discuss w/Owners to Educate  Owner’s Risk/Reward – Indemnification  Code Officials – Engage Early  Compliance – Review Alternative Compliance Paths  Single-use Toilet Rooms Available to All  Gender-Neutral vs All-Gender  Gender-Neutral vs Dedicated Toilet & Changing Facilities  Alternative Compliance Paths Not Defined Yet  Toilet Room Modifications: SF Neutral  Locker Room Modifications: SF Increase or Locker Decrease  Shower Room Modifications: SF Increase Considerations & Findings
  33. 33.  Architects – Educate Ourselves  Clients – Emphasize the Advantages of Everyone Being Comfortable in their Environment  Code Entities – Communicate How it is Important for People To Feel Comfortable in their Environment Over Separate Fixture Counts  Code Officials – Entities Defer to Local Code Officials, Review Options Early to get Buy-in  Legislators – Review How it is Time to End Separate but Equal Considerations in Toilet Facilities in Favor of Creative Solutions for Comfort Opportunities to Affect Change
  34. 34. This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course Gender Matters in Architecture: The Challenges of 21st Century Design of Toilet, Shower, and Bathing Facilities Larry Payne, AIA, LEED AP BD+C – WTW Architects lpayne@wtwarch.com Jeff Light, AIA jefflight2010@yahoo.com Andy Grese – Allegheny County Department of Health andy.grese@alleghenycounty.us Henry Hegerle – Code Reviewer hegerle@alumni.carnegiemellon.edu AIA PITTSBURGH
  35. 35.  The Williams Institute – UCLA School of Law williamsinstitute@law.ucla.edu  The Society Pages – Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota www.thesocietypages.org  National Center for Lesbian Rights www.nclrights.org  Gender Spectrum Think Tank www.genderspectrumthinktank.org  American Civil Liberties Union www.aclu.org/safeschools  National Education Association www.nea.org  GLAAD www.glaad.org References

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