Bartram’S Ppt

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A presentation on the history of Bartram\'s Garden in historic Philidelphia, PA including an overview of the archaeological artifacts that were found at this location.

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Bartram’S Ppt

  1. 1. By Addie Heyer Bartram’s Garden PA Archaeology Spring 2009 Kutztown University
  2. 2. John Bartram <ul><li>Born on a farm in 1699 to immigrant Quakers </li></ul><ul><li>Never received more than 4-5 years of formal education </li></ul><ul><li>Hired himself a Latin tutor - within three months he was able to read books borrowed from his friends </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded his botanical knowledge through observations and correspondences </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Collinson, a merchant in London </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintained communication for 35 years, becoming close friends in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus called him “greatest natural botanist in the world” </li></ul>
  3. 3. John Bartram <ul><li>Concentrated on native plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Studied as far south as Florida, as far north as Lake Ontario, and as far west as the Ohio River. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought back a variety of seeds, cuttings, and roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Exported 200 new species to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>King George III honored him as Royal Botanist </li></ul><ul><li>Studied soil fertilization, soil erosion, reclaimed marsh lands, and improved crops and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>He also studied the important medicinal properties of plants, often helping neighbors who could not afford to pay for medical treatment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Original Study Common Flower Garden Upper Kitchen Garden Lower Kitchen Gardens Walks, 150 yards long, moderate descent
  5. 5. Bartram’s Home <ul><li>Bartram added additions to the house in apparently two stages </li></ul><ul><li>The first renovation in 1731 included the addition of a large kitchen with an overhead chamber on the north side of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1770 renovations gave the house its “unusual” features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A classical façade with a centered, recessed porch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three columns with Ionic capitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone window frames carved in the baroque style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is said that the columns are similar to those of the Villa Sarego in Verona, Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio in the 16th century </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bartram’s Home <ul><li>Bartram added additions to the house in apparently two stages </li></ul><ul><li>The first renovation in 1731 included the addition of a large kitchen with an overhead chamber on the north side of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1770 renovations gave the house its “unusual” features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A classical façade with a centered, recessed porch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three columns with Ionic capitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone window frames carved in the baroque style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is said that the columns are similar to those of the Villa Sarego in Verona, Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio in the 16th century </li></ul>
  7. 8. Villa Sarego in Verona, Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio in the 16 th century.
  8. 10. What happened next? <ul><li>Bartram had 11 children </li></ul><ul><li>His 7th child, William, accompanied him on many trips </li></ul><ul><li>William gained fame for his botanical expeditions, nature illustrations and writings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travels (1791), about his 4 year journey through the South </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The land was left to his son John Jr. in 1777 </li></ul><ul><li>William and John Jr. transformed the garden into a commercial nursery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Bartram and Son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published the first catalogue of American plants in 1783 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied plants for Independence Hall, Mount Vernon, and Monticello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propagated more than 4,000 species of native and exotic plants. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. What happened next? <ul><li>The property was sold in 1850 to Andrew East wick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a “self-made” man who made his fortune in the railroad industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a child played in the garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determined that it be preserved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastwick prevented the garden from being destroyed by the industrial sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>After his death in 1879,Thomas Meehan, persuaded the city to buy Bartram’s garden and to have it maintained as an historic site and park </li></ul><ul><li>John Bartram Association, organized in 1893, oversees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical interpretation of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the garden, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the John Bartram House, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the surviving outbuildings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. The Archaeology! <ul><li>T he site is an excellent location for understanding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical facets related to John Bartram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 th and 19 th century botanic studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in Philadelphia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excavations from the 1970’s through the 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated that over 20,000 artfacts have been uncovered including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jasper flakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowerpots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century pewter shoe buckle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First in 1975 by Museum Historic Research Center of the University Museum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for “subsurface traces” of a central path in front of the house </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second in 1977 by John Dickey and Associates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-scale architectural analysis of the house. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopes of finding information for the restoration of the house. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncovered some artifacts, BUT they only focused on the horizontal provenience without taking the stratigraphic positions into consideration, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus the artifacts’ archaeological significance was indeterminable </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. The Archaeology! <ul><li>1979, Museum Institute for Conservation Archaeology of the University Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study the seedhouse to uncover the plants that Bartram was studying and cultivating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What was uncovered was a 87 glass bottles from the 1800 to 1900s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses such as: ink, liquor, perfume, salad oil, soda, jelly, root beer extract, and medicine bottles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>35 were identified as medicine bottles which included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Dr. Jayne’s Expectorant bottles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound bottles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Munyon’s Paw-Paw bottles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Bromo-Seltzer bottles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Oxomulsion bottles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Dr. Kilmer’s Swamp-Root Kidney, Liver and Bladder Cure bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While this does not tell us anything about Bartram or his garden, it does show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the variety of items that were used by the residents of the estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the possible inflictions from which they might have suffered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, it would be a difficult to pin point the exact ailment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the variety of medications that were just becoming available at the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the increase in demand for medications </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Artifacts – Examples of Bottles Dr. Jayne’s Expectorant Lydia E. Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound Munyon’s Paw-Paw Bromo-Seltzer Dr. Kilmer’s Swamp-Root Kidney, Liver and Bladder Cure
  13. 15. Common Medicine Ad
  14. 16. <ul><li>1980 by Robert L. Schuyler and students from the University of Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on two locations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of Bartram’s original office, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an open field where greenhouses were supposed to have stood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excavation of the study revealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the possible foundation along with several garden features and post holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “most striking” feature was an eastward path that ran towards the river </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The field excavation uncovered parts of three structures </li></ul><ul><li>The third location, clearly showed evidence of a greenhouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructed of brick and stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of a sloping wooden wall that would have held glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the floor had been made out of stone that was heated by stoves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An interesting artifacts to be uncovered at this site was a plate from a Franklin stove that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The front plate was only the second of its kind to be found.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other artifacts from the greenhouse included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fragments of flowerpots, bell jars, greenhouse benches, watering devices, and other assorted gardening supplies and tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstructed flowerpots demonstrated that some aspects had not changed </li></ul></ul>The Archaeology!
  15. 17. Artifacts – Franklin Stove
  16. 18. ONE OF A KIND “ This foundation carved in bedrock formed the base of John Bartram's cider press. Apples were placed in the circular trench and crushed by a revolving wooden wheel. A small hole allowed juice to drain into a round reservoir. Pomace was gathered from the trench and drawn into a wooden press that sat on the square foundation carved in the bedrock. Still intact today, it may be the only one of its kind in North America.” http:// www.bartramsgarden.org/see/press.html
  17. 20. References <ul><li>Cotter, John L.; Roberts, Daniel G.; Parrington, Michael 1992. Bartram’s Garden: An Early Botanical Venture . The Buried Past, University of Pennsylvania Press. </li></ul><ul><li>DiGirolamo, Michele 2000. Historic Bartram's Garden . http://www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_bartram.htm. </li></ul><ul><li>John Bartram Association 2004. John Bartram – America’s Pioneering Naturalist . http://www.bartramsgarden.org/index.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Parrington, Michael 1981. Medical Archaeology in Philadelphia . Expedition, Volume 23(3), pp.34-38 </li></ul>
  18. 21. Image links <ul><li>http://www.ipass.net/rlynch/bottles/pics/DrDJaynesExp.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.glswrk-auction.com/WebPics-MORE/mc15.02.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/michaeltill/8833914/sizes/o/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/puddleboy/2146684205/sizes/m/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://sjtreasurehunters.com/images/bottles/bigkilmer3.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://sln2.fi.edu/franklin/inventor/images/franklinstove.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://j-walkblog.com/images/froginthroat.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bartramsgarden.org/see/press.html </li></ul>

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