Workshop6.mental toughness


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Mental Toughness slides from AHDS 'Culture of Leadership' conference

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Workshop6.mental toughness

  2. 2. The Road Travelled (so far) Sport Teams Organisations & Individuals Education - Students & Staff Performance Health & Wellbeing Social - Students & Staff
  3. 3. Mental Toughness <ul><li>What is Mental Toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Mental Toughness – MTQ48 </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Mental Toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Mental Toughness? <ul><li>“ The quality which determines in large part how people deal with challenge, stressors and pressure .... irrespective of prevailing circumstances” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s universal – it’s applicable in many walks of life . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Is Mental Toughness Important? <ul><li>Mental Toughness is directly related to </li></ul><ul><li>Performance – explains up to 25% of the variation in individual performance </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour – more engaged, more positive, more “can do” </li></ul><ul><li>Wellbeing – more contentment, better stress management , less bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirations - more ambitious, prepared to manage more risk </li></ul>
  6. 6. Origins <ul><li>Resilience - Commitment, control – a passive concept </li></ul><ul><li>Hardiness - Commitment, control, challenge – becoming proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Dienstbier - Physiological toughening = psychological toughening </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Psychology - Often mentioned but poorly defined </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr Peter Clough @ The University of Hull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Added sub scales & fourth dimension – Confidence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Four C’s <ul><li>Mental Toughness has 4 components: </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Which can be combined to provide an overall measure of Mental Toughness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mental toughness vs Mentale Stärke
  9. 9. Commitment <ul><li>Identifies the extent to which someone commits to delivering what has been promised – “stick-ability”. Describes an individual’s orientation to “making promises” which are clearly assessable and to keeping those promises. </li></ul><ul><li>Those promises can be made to others or to themselves. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Control <ul><li>Identifies the extent to which an individual feels in control of their life and their emotions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Control - Sub Scales
  12. 12. Resilience <ul><li>Resilience is often defined as a function of Control & Commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience represents the ability to deal with an adverse situation and still complete some or all of what you had set out to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Toughness broadens this concept by adding two more components – Challenge and Confidence . This introduces a more pro-active element. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenge <ul><li>Identifies the extent to which people see challenges, variety, problems & changes as opportunities - or see these as threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who score highly here may enjoy or like dealing with difficult or challenging situations – for them it’s an opportunity. They will respond positively to change. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Confidence <ul><li>Identifies the extent to which people have self belief in their abilities and the confidence to deal with setbacks and challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that this has two significant components. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Confidence - Sub Scales
  16. 16. THE MODEL <ul><li>Independent factor analysis confirms that these 4 components are valid – University of Western Ontario 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>ANY QUESTIONS? </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Four C’s – a summary <ul><li>Control - I really believe I can do it </li></ul><ul><li>- I can keep my emotions in check when doing it </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment - I promise to do it </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge - I am motivated to do it – I can see the benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence - I have the ability to do it </li></ul><ul><li>- I can do it even if things get difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Together these give rise to Mental Toughness </li></ul><ul><li>ANY QUESTIONS? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Applications of Mental Toughness <ul><li>Leadership & Management </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and counselling </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Development </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation Development </li></ul><ul><li>Stress Management </li></ul>
  19. 19. Resilient Leadership – reflecting today's reality <ul><li>Leadership is about motivating others to give up their discretionary effort – the contribution they can make but won’t necessarily make unless that “button is pressed”. </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective leaders (at all levels) need to show 3 qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership – Determination to achieve, engagement with individuals and engagement with teams/organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Toughness – the ability to shrug off challenges, problems & setbacks & maintain a positive attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence – a sensitivity to how others are responding to you and to other factors. </li></ul>
  20. 20. A Model Of Stress 1 STRESSORS Individual Level Group Level Organisational Level Extra-organisational STRESS THE INDIVIDUAL Personality ; Mental Toughness ; Age, Self Belief, Gender, Social Support, Physical Fitness CONSEQUENCES Psychological Behavioural Cognitive Physiological Challenges Special effort Peak Performance Stress is the result of the impact of stressors and the way the individual responds to that stressor
  21. 21. Peak Performance <ul><li>Flip side of the same coin… </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t achieve peak performance without effective stress management!! </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of peak performance include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing challenge as an opportunity for personal/ professional growth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling in control of environment and self </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being assertive & having confidence in abilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working hard & committing to goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of self and your impact on others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The next level of validation of the MTQ48 <ul><li>Behavioural genetic studies (e.g. University of Western Ontario) have indicated individual differences in MT may be, at least in part, genetically determined </li></ul><ul><li>To date, no study has investigated neuro-psychological links to MT </li></ul><ul><li>This has now been done </li></ul>
  23. 23. Method <ul><li>T1-weighted 3D MRI images were obtained from 80 participants (36 male, 44 female) </li></ul><ul><li>Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to regress MTQ48 total scores against the grey matter density values extracted from our participants’ 3D MRI brain images </li></ul>
  24. 24. Results <ul><li>Higher MTQ48 scores were positively correlated with larger grey matter volumes in the right frontal lobe, particularly the precentral & middle frontal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral associations were also found in the parietal lobes where higher MTQ48 scores were associated with greater grey matter volumes in the precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Additional positive associations were also evident in the ventral occipital regions bilaterally </li></ul>
  25. 25. Side view
  26. 26. Rear view
  27. 27. <ul><li>How do you measure Mental Toughness and what can you do about it? </li></ul>
  28. 28. MTQ48 Questionnaire <ul><li>Normative, valid and reliable measure </li></ul><ul><li>On-line format (can print off questionnaires) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely easy to administer </li></ul><ul><li>Only takes about 7 – 8 minutes to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Results and reports are immediately available </li></ul><ul><li>On-line facility also helps to manage data </li></ul><ul><li>Short licensed user training (1 day and 2 day options ) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Mental Toughness Development <ul><li>Mental toughness capability can be developed in many individuals (but maybe not all) </li></ul><ul><li>The process: </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are my issues? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are their implications? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will I seek to develop/improve? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mental Toughness Development <ul><li>Interventions fall into 7 broad areas: </li></ul><ul><li>1 Positive thinking – affirmations, think three positives, turning negatives into positives, etc </li></ul><ul><li>2 Visualisation – guided imaging, using your head to practice, etc </li></ul><ul><li>3 Anxiety Control – relaxation techniques, breathing, etc </li></ul><ul><li>4 Attentional Control – focus, dealing with interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>5 Goal setting – SMART, balancing goals, how to deal with big goals, etc </li></ul><ul><li>6 The test itself + feedback – people respond to the feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Plus Biofeedback – monitoring self, guiding selection and adoption of tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>These all help to develop the capability to deal with stress, pressure and challenge and, where appropriate, to cope with these. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mental Toughness Development <ul><li>The tools and techniques described are known to many coaches & trainers (CBT,NLP, Psychology, Sports) </li></ul><ul><li>There are new ideas - but most are very easily accessible </li></ul><ul><li>The MTQ48 report is emerging as an intervention in its own right. Those who score high respond by performing better with little or no further intervention! The opposite can be true too </li></ul><ul><li>The feedback discussion is also an effective intervention. Careful feedback also produces very good results </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mental Toughness Development Feb 2012 Kogan Page
  33. 33. How does Mental Toughness fit with current thinking? <ul><li>Surprisingly well! </li></ul><ul><li>The last 15 years or so have seen a number of ideas and concepts emerge which have their champions and have gained ground. </li></ul><ul><li>All focus on performance and since the global economic crisis they have received far more attention. Amongst these are: </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Dweck – Fixed & Growth Mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Seligman – Learned optimism & learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew Syed – Mindset and choking </li></ul><ul><li>They all say the same thing! - and in leadership: </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Collins & Warren Bennis – still going strong </li></ul>
  34. 34. Jim Collins <ul><li>Business Consultant and author of “Good to Great” </li></ul><ul><li>Past lecturer at Stanford and expert on business sustainability and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders who reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders who deal positively with failure </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders are “geniuses” with a thousand helpers </li></ul>Warren Bennis “ Great leaders don't set out to be leaders – they are just doing what they love doing”
  35. 35. Mental Toughness Training - the evidence <ul><li>Training on overall Mental Toughness and on specific scales does work – there are now formal studies </li></ul><ul><li>Footstool or Growing Taller? </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that coaching and/or training can develop Mental Toughness & through this can improve performance, wellbeing and aspiration </li></ul>
  36. 36. Benefits of MTQ48 & the Mental Toughness Concept <ul><li>Creates understanding of an important concept </li></ul><ul><li>User friendly model - easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Learning for everyone (low & high scores) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical, no nonsense approach </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used at every stage of a person and an organisation’s development </li></ul><ul><li>…… and produces real, measurable, sustainable results </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Any Questions? </li></ul>