Agile organization design workshop

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这个工作坊的目标是帮助变革者理解组织设计的各个方面以推动敏捷组织转型。敏捷转型是为了提⾼组织的敏捷度。我们会基于星型模型来设计敏捷组织。首先,我们会理解什么是组织敏捷度以及它如何支持组织战略。接着,我们会来看组织架构-基于Scrum团队的架构和扩展,以及相关⾓色和职责。然后,我们会来看如何设计流程和横向能⼒以使组织架构中跨部门能有效合作。最后,我们会来看奖励和⼈员方面的实践,尤其是绩效考评。

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Agile organization design workshop

  1. 1. Agile Organization Design LvYi @ Odd-e
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. What is organization? “An organization is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.” - Wikipedia
  4. 4. Organization Design
  5. 5. Star Model
  6. 6. Strategy • Set the organization’s direction • Encompass company’s vision and mission, as well as its short- and long-term goals • The cornerstone of organization design process
  7. 7. Structure • Determine where formal power and authority are located • It comprises the organizational components, their relationships, and hierarchy • It is what is shown on a typical organization chart, including roles and responsibilities
  8. 8. Processes • Structure alone creates barriers to collaboration • Lateral capabilities to overcome (from informal to formal)
  9. 9. Rewards • Metrics help align individual behaviors and performance with the organizational goals • Reward and recognition system communicates what the company values
  10. 10. People • The people (HR) practices create organizational capability from the many individual abilities resident in the organization • Different strategies require different people practices in the area of selection, performance feedback, and learning and development
  11. 11. Agile Organization
  12. 12. Strategy
  13. 13. Organizational Capabilities
  14. 14. Origin of Scrum
  15. 15. Scrum in the Context Strategy Product Organizational capability Speed and flexibility Organizational design (explicit) Structure and Processes (implicit) Rewards and People
  16. 16. Agile transformation is to increase organizational agility
  17. 17. Exercise: What is Organizational Agility?
  18. 18. Doing and Being Practices Culture
  19. 19. PerfectionVision Create the organizational ability to respond to changes by being able to deliver or change direction at any time without additional cost - Craig Larman - BasVodde
  20. 20. Agility is the ability to create and respond to change in order to profit in the turbulent business environment. An enterprise’s ability to take advantage of opportunities, respond to challenges, and to do so while controlling risk. - Jim Highsmith - Ken Schwaber
  21. 21. Performance • Speed • Flexibility • Value • Quality • Productivity
  22. 22. Begin with the end in mind
  23. 23. M-MGW We believe that fundamental changes needed in our minds to succeed with this journey are as follows: • More people initiative and less top down control • More team players and less individual heroes • More courage and less risk avoidance • More conversations and less one way communication • More personal growth and less comfort zone
  24. 24. My own experience • Quality crisis • Responding to change • “I felt that our organization were like a school where we learned together”
  25. 25. Structure
  26. 26. Organizational Structure Functional Product Customer
  27. 27. Exercise: Understand basic structures
  28. 28. Functional Structure + Knowledge sharing + Specialization + Leverage with vendors + Economies of scale + Standardization - Managing diverse products or service - Cross-functional processes
  29. 29. Product Structure + Product development cycle + Product excellence + Broad operating freedom - Divergence - Duplication - Lost economies of scale - Multiple customer points of contact
  30. 30. Customer Structure + Customization + Relationships + Solutions - Divergence - Duplication - Scale
  31. 31. Scrum Roles Product Owner Team ScrumMaster
  32. 32. Scrum Teams as Organizational Unit
  33. 33. Cross-functional Team • All skills needed to build the product • Balancing specialization with generalization • Close cross-functional collaboration
  34. 34. Self-managing Team Team together has the authority to: ✓Design, plan, and execute their task ✓Monitor and manage their progress ✓Monitor and manage their process
  35. 35. Authority Matrix
  36. 36. Feature team vs. Component team
  37. 37. Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 ... … system comp C Team comp A Work from multiple teams is required to finish a customer-centric feature. These dependencies cause waste such as additional planning and coordination work, hand-offs between teams, and delivery of low-value items. Work scope is narrow. Product Owner comp B Team comp A Team comp B comp C Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 ... … Team Wu Product Owner Team Shu Team Wei system comp A comp B comp C Every team completes customer- centric items. The dependencies between teams are related to shared code. This simplifies planning but causes a need for frequent integration, modern engineering practices, and additional learning. Work scope is broad. Component teams Feature teams www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2010 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Feature team vs. Feature project
  39. 39. Product Project
  40. 40. Exercise: How does Scrum team support your strategy?
  41. 41. Management in Agile organization
  42. 42. Exercise: Where do they fit? Product Owner Team ScrumMaster Others
  43. 43. Product Management
  44. 44. Product Manager as Product Owner
  45. 45. Change!!! ✓ Product Manager is used to “throwing the project over the wall” and holding engineering responsible for meeting needs. ✓ Scrum puts this responsibility back on the Product Owner and customers through the inspect and adapt and the Sprint Review. Make decisions regarding ROI every Sprint end.
  46. 46. Project Management
  47. 47. Distributed Project Management
  48. 48. Avoid or Transform PMO? http://blog.odd-e.com/yilv/2014/10/the-future-of-project-managers.html
  49. 49. People Management
  50. 50. Manager as ScrumMaster? Experience report from Nokia Siemens Networks
  51. 51. Fewer Managers? • Probably yes, with flatter organization • “My ideal is to have one supervisor for every one hundred workers” - Ishikawa • My experience: 3-5 teams for experienced manager, 2-3 teams for new manager
  52. 52. Processes
  53. 53. New Product Development
  54. 54. Iteration (Processes around Scrum)
  55. 55. Scrum in a Nutshell
  56. 56. From Ready to Done • Sprint, from Ready to Done • What happens before Ready? • What happens after Done?
  57. 57. Exercise: “Value Stream Mapping”
  58. 58. Before Ready
  59. 59. Is Release Planning predictive or adaptive?
  60. 60. Stop Contract Game
  61. 61. release N release N+1 repeat cross-functional Scrum feature teams do all work so that product can potentially be released each iteration a 2-4 week iteration true release potential release potential release continuous product development eliminates projects in product development; there is simply an ʻendlessʼ series of iterations, each of which is similar in activities and each of which ends in a potentially shippable product increment Product Backlog www.craiglarman.com www.odd-e.com Copyright © 2009 C.Larman & B. Vodde All rights reserved.
  62. 62. Dual-track Scrum
  63. 63. Discovery Delivery Opportunity backlog Product backlog Discovery team Delivery team Collaborative Self-organizing Continuous Scrum flow Getting Ready Getting Done
  64. 64. After Done
  65. 65. “Undone” work Plan Review Plan Review Plan Review Plan Review Release? Undone Undone Undone Undone Plan Review Delay Risk Release Stabilization Sprint
  66. 66. “Undone” unit is a trap!
  67. 67. Extending “Done” Planning Analysis Architecture, Infrastructure Coding Design Testing Performance User Acceptance Pilot Live
  68. 68. Continuous Delivery • From sprint-based delivery to continuous delivery • Customer impact assessment
  69. 69. Flow (Processes around Kanban)
  70. 70. Kanban in a Nutshell Visualize Limit WIP Manage flow Explicit polices Feedback loops Improvements
  71. 71. Kanban System
  72. 72. Maintenance
  73. 73. Exercise: Maintenance Models
  74. 74. Challenge with Scrum
  75. 75. Kanban in a Nutshell Visualize Limit WIP Manage flow Explicit polices Feedback loops Improvements
  76. 76. Continuous Improvement
  77. 77. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly
  78. 78. Sprint Retrospective
  79. 79. Release Retrospective
  80. 80. ImprovementVision • Emerging - The most painful problems from the past • Envisioning - What is the perfection?
  81. 81. Rewards & People
  82. 82. Performance Evaluation
  83. 83. Exercise: Why Performance Evaluation?
  84. 84. Functions of Performance Evaluation Feedback and Communication Staffing and Development Coaching and Guidance Improvement Compensation Legal Document
  85. 85. Rewards
  86. 86. “I hate my work, I only do it for the money, i don’t want to think for myself, indeed, I’d rather just do as little as I can.” “I like to work, it’s part of my life, i want to do well, and I will work hard if given the responsibility and recognition I deserve.”
  87. 87. Video: Drive by Dan Pink
  88. 88. 1. 2.
  89. 89. Compensation • Make sure the promotion system is unassailable • De-emphasize the merit pay system • Tie profit sharing to economic drivers
  90. 90. Autonomy Mastery Purpose
  91. 91. Exercise: How does Agile help “drive”?
  92. 92. Improvement
  93. 93. Management By Objectives
  94. 94. “Improving systems and processes improves the performance of the organization.” “Individual improvement initiatives are most effective when they are combined with serious efforts toward improving the work climate, systems, and processes.” “Improving individuals’ performance improves organizational performance.”
  95. 95. “Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride in workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objective” W. Edwards Deming
  96. 96. Performance Metrics
  97. 97. Performance • Speed • Flexibility • Value • Quality • Productivity
  98. 98. Metrics for Agile Adoption • The ratio of fixing work to feature work • Cycle time • Number of defects escaping to production http://www.estherderby.com/2011/10/metrics-for-agile.html
  99. 99. Measure Organizational Agility • Frequency of releases (months) • Stabilization time for releases • # of customers on current release • Time to get small change to customer • Maintenance as % of development budget • Total defects • Customer satisfaction • Employee satisfaction
  100. 100. Exercise: Leading vs. Lagging metrics
  101. 101. Measurement Dysfunction
  102. 102. Span of Control Span of Influence
  103. 103. Team Goal • Give all of the members of an Agile team the same performance goals • “How did you help achieve the team goal?”
  104. 104. Values and Behaviors
  105. 105. Culture • Behavior is the manifestation of an organization’s culture • No matter how clearly the organization’s values are stated, it is the way that people act that defines the culture
  106. 106. Exercise: Vital behaviors
  107. 107. Development
  108. 108. Team Development Goals • Baseline current team skill profile • Define team development goals • Align individual development goals
  109. 109. Individual Development Goals • Set individual goals for individual development • Make sure individual goals are aligned with team goals
  110. 110. Generalizing Specialist • Avoid job titles and job descriptions • Try simple general job descriptions
  111. 111. Manager as Coach • Teach at work • Toyota coaching Kata • Mentor/Mentee dialogue • Supported by A3 report
  112. 112. Staffing
  113. 113. Self-organizing into teams
  114. 114. Team Behaviors Value highly the personal traits, characteristics, and behaviors of good team members
  115. 115. Team hiring
  116. 116. Reference

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