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  2. 2. OBJECTIVES •Differentiate the kind of variables and their uses. •Describes different kinds of quantitative research.
  3. 3. VARIABLES Root word= vary means can change Fundamental concepts of research Measure Validated and Tested Cause and Effect
  4. 4. •According to Bernard (1994) as cited by Prieto, et. al, (2017) Something that can take more than one value, and values can be words or numbers.
  5. 5. VARIABLES •Unit of analysis •Characteristics •Attributes which can be organized, measured and observed.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES Numeric Variables Categorical Variables Experimental Variables Non- Experimental Variables Numbers of Variables
  7. 7. 1. NUMERIC VARIABLES It’s a type of variable that describe measurable numerical quantities and answers the questions how many or how much.
  8. 8. TYPES OF NUMERICAL VARIABLES a. Interval Variables- have constant or equal distances between values. * time, temperature in Celsius, Intelligence. Score Interval (Mean) Evaluation Criteria 1.00-1.79 Very low level 1.80- 2.59 Low level 2.60-3.39 Medium Level 3.40-4.19 High Level 4.20-5.00 Very high level
  9. 9. TYPES OF NUMERICAL VARIABLES b. Ratio Variables- have all the properties of interval variables, but it has true zero point. Zero point value= absence of the variable of interest. Height, Age, Weight and temperature in Kelvin
  10. 10. 2. CATEGORICAL VARIABLES It describe a quality or characteristic of a data unit like What type or Which category. Types of Categorical Variables a. Ordinal Variables b. Nominal Variables
  11. 11. A. ORDINAL VARIABLES •Variables that can be organized or logically ordered or can be ranked. Academic Grades, Clothing Sizes, Scales in the Attributes, Income and Grade Levels
  12. 12. B. NOMINAL VARIABLES •Variables that cannot be organized or logically ordered or cannot be ranked. Types, eye colors, religions, languages, type of learners, sex and affiliations.
  13. 13. SCALE OF MEASUREMENT DATA NOMINAL ORDINAL INTERVAL RATIO Labeled √ √ √ √ Meaningful Order Х √ √ √ Measurable diffence Х Х √ √ True Zero Starting Point Х Х Х √
  14. 14. 3. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES • It is the major variables Types of Experimental Variables a. Independent variables b. Dependent variables c. Extraneous variables d. Control variables e. Confounding variables
  15. 15. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES a. Independent variables- are usually subject for manipulation. CAUSE b. Dependent variables- are usually affected by the manipulation of I.V. EFFECTS. c. Extraneous variables-vare already existing during the conduct of an experiment and could influence the result of the study. INTERVENING OR MEDIATING VARIABLES
  16. 16. An experiment on the methods of teaching and languare achievement among elementary pupils. •Independent Variable: •Dependent Variable: •Extraneous Variable:
  17. 17. An experiment on the methods of teaching and languare achievement among elementary pupils. • Independent Variable: Method of teaching • Dependent Variable: Language achievement • Extraneous Variable: Physical Ambiance, Facilities, Ventilations
  18. 18. EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES d. Control variables- special type of independent variables that are measured in a study because they potentially influence the dependent variable. e. Confounding variables- these are the variables that are not actually measured or observed in a study.
  19. 19. 4. NON- EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES • These are variables in a non- experimental research. Types of Non- Experimental Variables a. Predictor variables b. Criterion variables
  20. 20. NON- EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES a. Predictor Variables- these are changes the other variables. A.K.A. Independent variable
  21. 21. NON- EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES b. Criterion Variables- these are variables usually influenced by predictor variables. A. K. A. Dependent Variables
  22. 22. Competencies of teachers and student’s behavior in selected private schools. •Predictor Variable: •Criterion Variable:
  23. 23. Competencies of teachers and student’s behavior in selected private schools. Predictor Variable: Competencies of Teachers Criterion Variable: Student’s Behavior
  24. 24. Numbers of Variables
  25. 25. NUMBERS OF VARIABLES • There are variables classify according to the number being studied. Types of numbers of variables: a. Univariate Study b. Bivariate Study c. Polyvariate Study
  26. 26. NUMBERS OF VARIABLES a. Univariate study- only one variable is being studied. b. Bivariate study- two variables are being studied. c. Polyvariate study- two or more variables are being studied.
  27. 27. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH A. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH- it allows the researcher to control the situation. - it identify the cause and effect relationship. B. NON- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH- observes the phenomena. - no manipulation or controlling of the variables.
  28. 28. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH TRUE EXPERIMENTAL QUASI EXPERIMENTAL PRE- EXPERIMENTAL • Pretest design • Posttest design • Posttest only/control group design • Non equivalent control group design • Time series design • One shot case study • One group pretest and posttest design
  29. 29. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH •A method wherein the conditions are controlled; so that 1 or more variable can be manipulated to test a hypothesis. •It evaluates causal relationships among variables. Whether its is eliminated or controlled.
  30. 30. •Independent Variable- any variable that can be manipulated or altered, independently of only other variable. •Dependent Variable- a criterion by which the result of the experiment are judge.
  32. 32. DEFINITION OF TERMS • Experimental Treatments- alternative manipulations/interventions of the independent variable being investigated. • Experimental Group- group of subjects exposed to the experimental treatment. • Control Group- group of subjects not exposed to the experimental treatment. • Test Unit- an entity whose responses to experimental treatments are being observed or measured. • Randomization-random assignment allows the asumption that the groups are identical with respect to all variables except the experimental treatment.
  33. 33. SYMBOLISM FOR EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS • X=exposure of a group to an experimental treatment. • O= observation or measurement of the dependent variable. If multiple observations or measurements are taken, subscripts indicate temporal order- I.e. O1 ,O2, etc. *R= random assignment of test units, individuals selected as subjects for the experiment are randomly assigned to the experimental groups.
  34. 34. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN •Does not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity. •Cannot be classified as true experiments •Often used in exploratory research
  35. 35. 3 EXAMPLES OF PRE- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 1. One-Shot Design- a.k.a. often only design - a single measure is recorded after the treatment as administered. -study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous influences. - no measure of test units not exposed to the experimental treatment. Represented as: X O1
  36. 36. SAMPLE PROBLEM • A group of cyclist riders were given a brochure to read about safe biking and an aptitude test was administered after giving the brochure. Represented as: X O1
  37. 37. 3 EXAMPLES OF PRE- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 2. One- Group Pretest-Posttest Design- subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered. - no controlled group - offers comparison of the same individuals before and after the treatment (e.g., training) Represented as: O1 X O2
  38. 38. SAMPLE PROBLEM • Students in a homogenous section were given a diagnostic test in Practical Research 2. Then, they designed a software to improve learning outcomes in this subject.Afterwards, they were given an achievement test to show how technology can be successfully implemented in schools. Represented as: O1 X O2
  39. 39. 3 EXAMPLES OF PRE- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 3. Static Group Design- a.k.a. after only design with control group - experimental group is measured after being exposed to the experimental treatment. -control group is measured without having been exposed to the experimental treatment. - no pre- measure is taken - major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment. Represented as: Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2
  40. 40. SAMPLE PROBLEM • The first group of psychologist students received the pamphlet and then administered the attitude survey. The second group of psychologist students was given the attitude survey but not the pamphlet. Represented as: Experimental Group X O1 Control Group O2
  41. 41. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN • It can establish cause and effect relationships. Supports or refutes a hypothesis using statistical analysis. 3 Criteria: a. a control group and an experimental group b. researcher manipulated variable c. random assignment Examples: a. Pretest- posttest control group design b. Posttest only control group design c. Solomon four group design
  42. 42. 1. PRETEST-POSTTEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN • A.k.a. Before-after with control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested before and after treatment exposure. • Control group tested at the same two times without exposure to experimental treatment. • Includes random assignment to groups
  43. 43. SAMPLE PROBLEM • Pretest-Posttest control group design Researcher wants to monitor the effect of a new teaching method upon two groups of children, both with pretest and posttest. Only the second ground has the treatment. Other areas include evaluating the effects of counselling, testing ,medical treatments, and measuring psychological constructs. The only stipulation is that the subjects must be randomly assigned to groups, in a true experimental design. Represented as: Experimental group: O1 X O2 Control group: O3 O4
  44. 44. 2. POSTTEST- ONLY WITH CONTROL • A.k.a After- only with control • True experimental design • Experimental group tested after treatment exposure • Control group tested at the same time without exposure to experimental treatment. • Includes random assignment to groups • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups • Does not run the risk of testing effect • Use in situations when cannot pretest
  45. 45. SAMPLE PROBLEM • One group is given a medicine, whereas the control group is given none, and this allow the researchers to determine if the drug really works by administering a laboratory tests on both groups. • This type of design, while commonly using two groups, can be slightly more complex. Represented as: Experimental group: X O1 Control group: O2
  46. 46. 3. SOLOMON FOUR-GROUP DESIGN •True experimental design •Combines pretest-posttest with control group design and the posttest-only with control group design •Provides means for controlling the interactive testing effect and othe sources of extraneous variation.
  47. 47. SAMPLE PROBLEM • A researcher would like to find out the effect of reading intervention in the student’s English academic grade. All groups undergo randomization. • First group, students with intervention, pretest and posttest .Second group, students with pretest and posttest only. Third group, students with intervention and posttest. Fourth group, students were given posttest only. Represented as: Experimental group 1: O1 x O2 Control group 1: O3 O4 Experimental group 2: X O5 Control group 2: O6
  48. 48. QUASI- EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN • More realistic than true experiments • Researchers lack full control over the scheduling of experimental treatments or • They are unable to randomize • Includes: Time Series Design Multiple Time Series Design except Same as time series design except that a control group is added.
  49. 49. 1. TIME SERIES DESIGN • Involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable for a group of test units (one group only) • After multiple measurements, experimental treatment is administered (or occurs naturally) • After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued in order to determine the treatment effect. Represented as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
  50. 50. SAMPLE PROBLEM • To examine the effect of a new, government-funded meal program on school children, a nutritional scale is administered to a sample of school children receiving this program. The nutritional scale is measured once before the program, and then 3 months after the program, and at the end of one year following program implementation. the outcomes at different time points are compared to assess the program effect. Represented as: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O6 O7 O8
  51. 51. 2 MULTIPLE TIME SERIES DESIGN • A series of periodic measurements is taken from two groups of units (an experimental group and a control). • The experimental group is exposed to a treatment and then another series of periodic measurements is taken from both groups. Represent as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
  52. 52. SAMPLE PROBLEM • Suppose that a weight loss study used different follow up procedures for experimental and control group participants. The researchers assess weight data after one year by telephoning control group participants, but they have the intervention participants come in to the clinic to be weighed. Then the weight differences between the groups could be due to differing assessment procedures, rather than to the intervention. Represented as: O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
  54. 54. 1. SURVEY • It intends to provide a quantitative or numeric descriptions of trends,attitudes or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population (Cresswell, 2003). SAMPLE: Determining customer satisfactions Attitudes or opinions towards situation Guidance and counselling services.
  55. 55. 2. CORRELATION a. BIVARIATE- obtain scores from two variables for each of the subjects. * ECG. Children of wealthier, better education, parents earn higher salaries as adults. b. PREDICTION STUDIES-use correlation and coefficient to show how one variable (predictor variable). * ECG. Which high school applications should be admitted to college? • Multiple Regression Prediction Studies • Multiple variables are used in predicting a situation.
  56. 56. 3. EX- POST FACTO •Used to investigate causal relationships. •It examine one or more conditions could possibly caused subsequent differences in groups of subjects. •It identifies differences between groups have results in an observed difference in I.V.
  57. 57. 4. COMPARATIVE DESIGN • It involves comparing and contrasting two or more samples of study subjects on one or more variables, often at a single point of time. • Used to compare two distinct groups on the basis of selected attributes. • Knowledge level, perceptions, attitudes, physical or psychological problems. SAMPLE: Comparative study on the health problems among rural and urban older people from a specific district/city.
  58. 58. 5. EVALUATION RESEARCH • Seeks to assess or judge in some way providing information about something other than might be gleaned in mere observation or investigation of relationships. • It can be formative and summative evaluation. Formative Evaluation- determines the quality of implementation of projects, efficient and effectiveness. Summative Evaluation- determines the holistic attributes of situations.
  59. 59. 6. METHODOLOGICAL •It analyze and investigate the implementation of variety of methodologies forms a critical part of achieving the goal of developing a scale-matched approach.
  60. 60. THANK YOU!