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Society automotive engineering


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Society automotive engineering

  1. 1. West Beacon Energy Farm<br /> Our home<br />HYDRO<br />BIOMASS<br />PUMP<br />STORE<br />WIND<br />PV<br />PV<br />H2<br />HEAT<br />PUMP<br />WATER<br />COLLECT<br />CHP<br />
  2. 2. Society Automotive Engineers<br />“Where will our energy come<br /> from in 2015”<br />Air Fuel Synthesis Ltd<br /> 20th January 2011<br /> Tony Marmont<br />
  3. 3. CLIMATE CHAOS<br />AND<br />ENERGY<br />
  4. 4. Gone up<br />20% IN<br />2 DECADES<br />DEITER HELM <br />DEFRA<br />Since 1970<br />CO2 emissions + 70 %<br />Largest is Energy +145 %<br />Transport + 120%<br />Industry + 65 %<br />Grams of CO2 per passenger kilometre<br />Air Short haul 148/300<br />Car 106/150<br />Bus 95/130 <br />Rail 36/100 options > capacity>double deck/cost<br />Source Hansard/DFT fuel source green?<br />
  5. 5. Cities in peril as <br />Andean glaciers melt<br />Ice sheets expected to <br />last centuries could <br />disappear in 25 years,<br />threatening water supplies<br />View from the top ... Two images of <br />the Upsala glacier in Argentina show<br /> the retreat of the ice <br />(top: 1928; bottom: 2004).<br /> Photograph: Greenpeace/Reuters<br />The Himalayan ice in <br />retreat<br />Further glacial lake collapse such as <br />Bhutan<br />Will lead to terrible loss of life<br />GLACIER RETREAT IN THE HIMALAYAS<br />
  6. 6. Larson Ice Sheet Collapses<br />renewable energy comes of age<br />Climate change?<br />
  7. 7. AS<br />
  8. 8. renewable energy in the new millennium<br />Global Temperatures and Disasters<br />+1.8 DEG IN 1900’S , <br />+1.2 2020,+2.5 2050,+4.0 2080,+5.8 2100<br />, NOW +2 DEG, CRITICAL AT +3 DEG THEN<br />IRREVERSIBLE.<br />
  9. 9. CLIMATE CHANGE<br />(OR IS IT CLIMATE CHAOS ?)<br />“some ideas on synthetic fuel and why”<br /> Ningbo(Nottingham) University<br /> HOW WILL WE BE POWERED in 2015 ?<br /> Sept 28th China<br /> Tony Marmont<br />
  10. 10. renewable energy in the new millennium<br />Prof Chris Rapley, hd of Antarctic Survey , BBC 2 161006, 6 mt rise in sea level with Iceland melt , Antarctic a further 60 mt,= + 200ft<br />THIS SHOWS A 6 MT RISE<br />Every 1 cm sea level rise = floods , drought , fire, crops loss = 1 million eco refugees Mohamed Mathir bbc 190608<br />
  11. 11. trend<br />Opened 1984….. now looking to rebuild ! <br /> LONDON will be flooded by 2017<br />
  12. 12. 1 calorie food needs 10 calorie of fossil<br />1 pint Milk needs 1 pint oil<br />How sustainable are we?<br />OPEC says $200<br /> I say $500<br />Price $146 @July 08<br />ASPO the proof<br />AS<br /> China has 41 m cars , we have 41m , 1000m / 60 m population<br />
  13. 13. Barrels / year<br />Mn barrels / day<br />The world needs to find more oil to cope with this<br />Oil consumption per capita:<br />Japan<br />Korea<br />15<br />15<br />China<br />CHINA<br />Barrels / year<br />10<br />10<br />KOREA<br /> 5<br /> 5<br />JAPAN<br />China:<br />Petroleum consumption<br />Petroleum output*<br />6<br />6<br />4<br />4<br />Mn barrels / day<br />2<br />2<br />1960<br />1965<br />1970<br />1975<br />1980<br />1985<br />1990<br />1995<br />2000<br />2005<br />*Smoothed<br />Note the changes in ocpc ( oil consumption per capita ) when Japan went “industrial” ‘60 to ‘75 , and then Korea ‘87 to ‘97 , now watch for China still at the bottom of the graph !!<br />Note: US consumes 26 barrels / year per capita<br />Source: BCA Research<br />KLEINWORT BENSON<br />One ton of fossil oil /300 gallons = 12 Mwhr<br />
  14. 14. GLOBAL PRODUCTION 85.4 MILLION BARRELS A DAY <br />GLOBAL CONSUMPTION 85.8 “ “ “ “<br />UK PRODUCTION 1.5 “ “ “ “<br />UK CONSUMPTION 1.7 “ “ “ “<br />
  15. 15. COST OF THE FUEL (WIND ) NEVER GOES UP !!<br />
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  24. 24. “one acre grassland = 320 Gallons of<br />Bio Ethanol<br />540% more energy<br />Than used”<br />US Nat Academy Sciences<br />Cost $45 a barrel !<br />landfill mining<br />
  25. 25. Why are AFS hydrocarbons better than other fuels, eg batteries, H2?<br />Energy density<br />Conventional car carries 500KWh<br />Equiv electric car would need 150KWh<br /> Battery cost (optimistic) £60K<br />Only fuel for Jet Aviation<br />747 carries 50,000 Lrs = 500MWh<br />Existing infrastructure<br />Drop in replacement<br />Petrol<br />Deisel<br />Jet-A<br />Methanol<br />Basis for sustainable petreochemicals<br />25<br />AFS- Review<br />
  26. 26. DENSITY OF ENERGY CARRIERS from Prof Zuttel’s PRESENTATION <br />fusion<br />coal<br />fission<br />hydrides<br />3<br />hydrogen<br />storage<br />oil<br />biomass<br />ultimate<br />battery<br />flywheel<br />Li-ion<br />battery<br />hot <br />water<br />Pb-acid<br />battery<br />natural gas<br />mag. coil<br />hydro-<br />power<br />comp. air<br />EDLC<br />hydrogen<br />capacitor<br />26<br />AFS- Review<br />Andreas Züttel, Switzerland, 3/22/2011<br />26<br />
  27. 27. H3 ON THE MOON ?<br />
  28. 28. From Concept to Realization<br />Questions?<br />Steve Atkins, PE<br />Research Engineer<br />Northern Arizona University<br />P.O. Box 15600<br />Flagstaff, AZ 86011<br /><br />(928) 523-5875<br />
  29. 29. Gussing<br />Biomas<br />FT GTL<br />Either <br />Electricity<br />Or Crude<br />Oil<br />8 mw input<br />2 mw electricity<br />4.5 mw heat<br />Pilot plant<br />Energy efficiencies<br />of 81% biomas to <br />Electricity AND heat<br />Energy efficiencies<br />Of 60% biomass to <br />Oil with reforming<br />
  30. 30. SyntheticOil Production (process raw CO2/H2)<br />Grass , Straw, Forestry, (any crop Gasification, FT . GTL)<br />Algae + CO2<br />CO2 from Air + H2<br />Nuclear Hydrogen (thermo separation of H20)<br />Renewable Hydrogen (wind + electrolysis)<br />Separation CO2 from air , ( membrane or centrifuge)<br />Ion exchange membranes with air flowing past on one side and low pressure water vapour on the other (water boiled at ambient temperature, partially solar heated or heating by the compressor). CO2 is drawn through to the water vapour side. The steam/CO2 mixture is compressed and cooled until the CO2 is a nearly pure stream.<br />
  31. 31. Exciting recent developments<br /> in CO2 separation from air<br />(process CO2 + H2 = liquid fuels)<br /> Global Research Technologies LLC. <br /><br /> Klaus Lackner, Wally Broecker <br /> Prof Keith and Richard Monkhouse<br /> Air Fuel Synthesis Ltd Developed a low-energy <br /> CO2 capture method Uses caustic soda spray<br /> tower in air, NaOH + CO2= NaCO3 strip CO2 <br />for combining with H2, return NaOH to spray tower <br /> = Creation of a continuous process <br />and low cost CO2 removal rates<br />
  32. 32. Atmospheric CO2 Extraction methods:<br />Nb only 0.2gms of carbon in every m3 of air<br />(0,2g when burnt gives 1/500th of a KWh equal to a Hoover for 10 seconds!!!)<br />Our current favourite:<br /><ul><li>NaOH absorber followed by ‘Pletcher cell’ recovery</li></ul>Others:<br /><ul><li>K2CO3/KHCO3 (Benfield process) favoured by Los Alamos
  33. 33. CO2 absorbing polymer (Klaus Lackner)
  34. 34. NaOH absorber followed by Ca(OH)2/CaCO3 recovery
  35. 35. Molecular sieves/Zeolites plus pressure swing or temp swing
  36. 36. Gas diffusion membranes
  37. 37. More methods in research phase</li></ul>32<br />AFS- Review<br />
  38. 38. AFS atmospheric fuel synthesis<br /> HYDROGEN CARRIER Output designer liquid fuels <br /> diesel, petrol ,Jet A1, open patent . and given free raw<br /> materials it is carbon neutral, any country can make<br />
  39. 39. Atmospheric CO2 recovery using NaOH absorber<br />2NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O<br />Advantages:<br /><ul><li>Short transit time - 10s of seconds
  40. 40. Low energy for air transit and absorber pump
  41. 41. Cheap simple chemicals
  42. 42. Air humidity maintained</li></ul>Calgary 2008<br />Prof David Keith, Calgary 2005<br />Rotary electrostatic atomiser for paint<br />Rotary atomiser<br />For small scale, absorber can be in tower<br />Air processing rate:<br />25 litre per day plant requires 1m3 per sec<br />100 Ton per day plant requires 5000m3/sec<br />Cheap Large absorber building<br />34<br />AFS- Review<br />
  43. 43. Pletcher cell recovery of CO2 from Na2CO3<br />CO3-- + 2H+ -> H2O + CO2<br />Prof Derek Pletcher<br />Southampton Uni<br />Chlor-Alkali plant<br />35<br />AFS- Review<br />
  44. 44. Hydrogen production by electrolysis<br /><ul><li> Current efficiency 70%
  45. 45. Future efficiency 80%
  46. 46. Price £300-£800 per KW
  47. 47. AFS very sensitive to ‘e cost</li></ul>Future improvements:<br /><ul><li> High pressure electrolysis
  48. 48. High temperature electrolysis
  49. 49. Solid Oxide electrolysis
  50. 50. Special nanoporous electrodes
  51. 51. Cheaper construction</li></ul>High pressure electrolyser<br />Solid oxide electrolyser<br />36<br />AFS- Review<br />
  52. 52. Fuel synthesis from CO2 and H2<br />Common chemist’s misconception: <br />Carbon dioxide is an un-reactive gas and won’t react with hydrogen<br />“At Castrol Research labs in Pangbourne in the 1970’s,<br /> a Fischer-Tropch plant using a feedstock of CO and H2 went wrong.<br />The CO feed scrubber broke and started feeding CO2 into the process<br />– to our amazement the reaction went forward many times faster”<br />The late Prof Reginald Mann<br />37<br />AFS- Review<br />
  53. 53. Fuel synthesis from CO2 and H2<br />Option 1<br />Stage 1 - Methanol<br />CO2 + 3H2 -> CH3OH + 2H2O (exothermic)<br />Stage 2 – Methanol to Hydrocarbon – ‘Mobil Process’<br />CO2 + 3H2 -> CH3OH + 2H2O<br />Option 2<br />Stage 1 – Reverse water gas shift reaction<br />CO2 + H2 -> CO + H2O (slightly endothermic)<br />Stage 2 – Carbon monoxide to hydrocarbon – ‘Fischer Tropch Process’<br />n(CO) + (2n+2)H2 -> CH3-(n-2)CH2-CH3 + n(H2O)<br />Typical operating temp <200C<br />Operating pressure ~50bar<br />Special catalysts are required<br />Better catalysts can make 10x smaller plant, and lower temp/pressure<br />38<br />AFS- Review<br />
  54. 54. Energy Analysis<br /> <br /> NB 1 PCU = energy fom 1Lr petrol = 9.7KWh<br />Possible reduction with process improvements<br />39<br />AFS- Review<br />
  55. 55. Financial Analysis<br />SHORT SUMMARY of AFS financial analysis Mk 5 <br />This shows the broad predictions derived from the <br />AFS-5.xls financial model for a 100Ton per day fuel synthesis plant.<br />Input values used:<br />Cost of land per hectare (=100mx100m) 1£M<br />Capital depreciation per year (inc service) 10%<br />Interest cost 5%<br />Electrolyser cost per kW  300£<br />ROCs,LECs,carbon credits 55£/MWh<br />Cost of site buildings 1000£/m2<br />Wind turbine build cost 0.95£/W rp<br />Capacity factor of wind turbines 28%<br />Capital cost<br />£641M of this, £431M is for the wind farm, £210M for process plant.<br />Summary for a 100 Ton per day<br />(a typical petrol tanker holds 31 Tons or about 40000 litres)<br />Total capital cost 641£M<br />Capital dep' +staff+interest pa 97£M<br />Less grant aid - ROCs etc 36£M<br />Yearly output 44M litres<br />Daily output 121K litres<br />Factory outlet cost per litre 82p /litre<br />With slightly improved input figures, cost can be 12p /litre<br />40<br />AFS- Review<br />
  56. 56. Air Capture 0.44 kwhr/l<br /> CO2 release from Na2CO3 4.6 kwhr/l <br />Electrolysis 14.6 kwhr/l<br />Gas Compression 0.74 kwhr/l<br />Fuel Synthesis exothermic<br />Electronics and start up heat 1.0 kwhr/l<br />Total energy per litre fuel 21.38 kwhr/l <br />Energy content of Petrol is 9.7 kwhr/l <br />Energy in/ energy out ratio is 21,38/9.7 = 2.2<br />
  57. 57. AFS (Atmospheric Fuel Synthesis)<br />World first carbon neutral drop <br />Petrol, diesel, Jet A1<br />Oxyegn<br />Air<br />CO2<br />CO2 Filter<br />Diesel reactor<br />Diesel<br />Hydrogen<br />Energy<br />Hydrogen manufacture<br />Energy<br />Water<br />
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  63. 63. UK needs 140,000 tons per day of OIL ( 1.7m Mwhrs ! )<br />If we made 200,000 tons per day we could put 60 tpd back down the empty oil wells in the North Sea.<br />One advantage is we can sequester CO2 securely without <br />chance of escape. This would allow us to reduce CO2 ppm<br /> to a DESIRED LEVEL say 300 ppm ,<br /> and maintain at the level we wished !! <br />And so maintain the Earth Temperature at the optimum level.<br />This would also create strategic reserves and <br /> energy security in a massive way<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>What is AFS?</li></ul>AFS is a method of making fuels, ranging from petrol to diesel and Jet-A, using renewable energy together with raw materials of water, and the carbon dioxide from the air.<br /><ul><li>AFS in more detail:</li></ul>Carbon dioxide is removed from the air, concentrated, and reacted with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water. The extraction is done with a powerful absorber that is recycled in a continuous process. The final fuel bearing reaction uses a catalytic process that has been proven over decades.<br /><ul><li>What are the advantages of AFS fuel?</li></ul>AFS fuel is fully carbon neutral, since its carbon content is extracted from the atmosphere, its carbon is ‘borrowed’ from the atmosphere, so the net effect of its combustion does not increase atmospheric CO2 levels. AFS provides a drop in replacement for oil based fuels. Any nation can make AFS fuel, since the essentially limitless raw materials are available globally. <br />What about the renewable energy required?<br />AFS does not require grid connection for its renewable power source. This way the electricity cost is far less than that from the grid. Dedicated renewable energy farms can be built specifically to supply the electricity required.<br />
  65. 65. Does the technology exist?<br />AFS uses existing technologies that will be brought together for the purpose of making fuel. That means we can build AFS plants right now. Do you remember the Apollo mission to land man on the moon? That used existing technologies and reached its goal in a decade.<br />What are the energetics?<br />Petrol, and similar fuels contain a lot of energy, that is why they are useful for transport. One litre of petrol, when burnt in air releases 10kWh of heat, or the energy of twenty fully charged car batteries.Our energy analysis, taking into account practical losses, shows that one unit of fuel requires approximately 22 kWh of electricity for its manufacture. This is a 45% efficiency of energy out versus energy in, and is higher than that of a coal power station.<br />What are the economics?<br />Our financial analysis of a medium scale AFS plant (100 ton per day output), shows the factory gate fuel price to be between 12p to 50p pence litre($1.20 GALL )depending on the design and location of the energy farm and continued fiscal support.<br />Where to now?<br />We are to build a small-scale plant to demonstrate the practicality of the concept. This will make a gallon of fuel per day. We intend to build this into a mini container so that it can be demonstrated all over the country. We are looking for support to fund this proof of concept<br /><br />
  66. 66. H<br />TOKAMAK<br />3<br /> He<br />M<br />O<br />O<br />N<br />DEUTERIUM AND TRITIUM FUSION<br /> FUSION AS IN THE SUN <br />“D + T = He + neutron + energy “<br />
  67. 67. ITER PROJECT<br />
  68. 68. The Fourth Revolution<br />The First Revolution was the change from Hunter /Gatherer<br />to Farming and Land Management.<br />The Second Revolution was the Industrial Revolution., <br />and was10,000 years later in the change from individual manufacture<br /> to mass production techniques <br />The Third Revolution was the dot comm. Revolution<br /> 200 years later in the Computer / Internet revolution , the large <br />corporations did not want to know it at first, now you cant find a company without a web site.<br />The Fourth Revolution The Green Revolution<br /> is now under way, only 20 years later, at first the large corporations <br />did not want to know or be associated with it, now you can’t find a company not rightly or wrongly proclaiming its green products.<br />It is unstoppable now. Tony Marmont June ‘08<br />
  70. 70. AND NOW……….<br />OUR BIOMASS IS<br />IOO TIMES HEAVIER<br />THAN ANY ANIMAL <br />THAT HAS EVER<br />EXISTED…..!!!<br />
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  73. 73. air<br />water<br /> Global water and air volume. Conceptual computer artwork of the total <br />volume of water on Earth (above) and of air in the Earth's atmosphere <br />(below) shown as spheres (blue and pink). The spheres show how finite<br /> water and air supplies are. The water sphere measures 1390 kilometers<br /> across and has a volume of 1.4 billion cubic kilometers. This includes <br />all the water in the oceans, seas, ice caps, lakes and rivers as well as<br /> ground water, and that in the atmosphere. The air sphere measures <br />1999 kilometers across and weighs 5140 trillion tonnes. As the <br />atmosphere extends from Earth it becomes less dense. <br />Half of the air lies within the first 5 kilometers of the atmosphere <br />Global water and air volume. Conceptual computer artwork of the total volume of water on Earth (above) and of air in the Earth's atmosphere (below) shown as spheres (blue and pink). The spheres show how finite water and air supplies are. The water sphere measures 1390 kilometers across and has a volume of 1.4 billion cubic kilometers. This includes all the water in the oceans, seas, ice caps, lakes and rivers as well as ground water, and that in the atmosphere. The air sphere measures 1999 kilometers across and weighs 5140 trillion tonnes. As the atmosphere extends from Earth it becomes less dense. Half of the air lies within the first 5 kilometers of the atmosphere.<br />
  74. 74. If we are wrong and CC is not <br />due to mans activities:-<br />If we are right :-<br />We will have created a whole new industry and cleaned up the pollution in the Atmosphere<br />We will permit the continuation of our species on the planet.<br />IT IS A NO BRAINER !!, <br />EVEN FOR THE FLAT EARTH SOCIETY<br />
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  76. 76. ‘Treat the earth well<br />It was not given to us<br />By our parents,<br />It was loaned to us<br />By our children’<br /> - Proverb<br />
  77. 77. MAKE A CHANGE<br />BUY GREEN ELECTRICITY AT HOME AND AT WORK<br />Merced, Boulder-Colorado, British Columbia, Loughborough, Leicester dmu <br />Nottingham Universities, Natural History & Science Museums London, <br />Environment Agency UK.<br />
  78. 78. SOLAR POWER<br /> in half an hour<br /> THE EARTH<br /> receives enough energy<br />TO POWER<br /> all the activities of mankind<br />FOR A WHOLE YEAR<br />