Preventing Violenceand PromotingSafety in HigherEducation SettingsOverview of aComprehensive Approach         The Higher E...
Preventing Violence and Promoting Safety in                  Higher Education Settings: Overview of a                     ...
Preventing Violencerestrict their activities out of concern for      enforcement of federal, state, and                 Fa...
to violence through education, skill                                              concrete actions that individual cam-   ...
Preventing Violenceof intervention strategies. A thorough         community and youth violence pre-             ed to deve...
responsibilities; concrete goals and           officials might create a new data system,      campus and community stakeho...
Preventing Violence                                  What Campuses Are DoingGiven that no single approach to         coord...
serve on this team regularly share      Violence Against Women. The cen-         for the Prevention of Violence    informa...
Preventing Violence          eating disorders, self-harm,                     motion, academic advising, and other        ...
16     Security On Campus, Inc. Complying with the Jeanne Clery Act.     Retrieved February 2, 2004, from                 ...
Preventing ViolenceNational Organizations                                                           Non-Campus Best Practi...
Ed                     ucation                       Our Mission            r                               C             ...
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Prevention violence & promoting safety overview of a comprehensive approach - higher education center

  1. 1. Preventing Violenceand PromotingSafety in HigherEducation SettingsOverview of aComprehensive Approach The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention Funded by the U.S. Department of Education
  2. 2. Preventing Violence and Promoting Safety in Higher Education Settings: Overview of a Comprehensive Approach by Linda Langford, Sc.D.Institutions of higher education array of factors that cause and con- study, 13 percent of college women(IHEs) are often regarded as sanctuar- tribute to violence, outlines a compre- reported they had been stalked duringies, protected environments where hensive approach to reducing violence the seven-month period.2 Other stud-young people explore great ideas in a and promoting safety on campus, and ies, using varying definitions, estimatecollegial atmosphere and make lifelong lists specific recommendations that that from 20 to 50 percent of studentsfriendships. Consequently, incidents of administrators, students, faculty, staff, experience dating violence by the endviolence on campus are particularly and community members can follow to of college.3, 4 In addition, 13.2 percentshocking for the extended campus review and improve their policies and of college students report having beencommunity, evoking questions about strengthen their programs and services. in a physical fight in the past 12whether there is any safe haven. An The document concludes with vignettes months,5 8.5 percent report carrying aabundance of evidence indicates that describing initiatives specific campuses weapon in the past 30 days,5 and 4.3in fact campuses are not immune from have undertaken to reduce violence and percent report “having a workingsuch incidents. There are many types promote a safe environment. firearm with them at college.” 6of campus violence—including rape,assault, fighting, hazing, dating vio- Hazing is also a common concern. Of Scope of the Problem the 25 percent of National Collegiatelence, sexual harassment, hate andbias-related violence, stalking, rioting, Estimates of campus violence range Athletic Association (NCAA) athletesdisorderly conduct, property crime, widely due to both the underreporting who responded to a 1999 Alfredand even self-harm and suicide. While that skews official statistics and the use University survey, 79 percent hadgrappling with these complex prob- of differing definitions and data collec- experienced some form of hazing, andlems is challenging, lessons learned tion methodologies in surveys. Exist- 51 percent of respondents had beenfrom community-based prevention ing data indicate, however, that a required to participate in drinkingresearch point to a set of best practices substantial minority of college students contests or alcohol-related guide the development, implemen- experience some type of violence and Approximately 20 percent of thetation, and evaluation of interventions related consequences. According to respondents reported what the authorsto improve campus health and safety. one nationally representative survey called “unacceptable and potentially of college students, approximately illegal” hazing.7This publication was developed to help 17 percent of students reportedcampuses prevent violence and promote Hate and bias crimes occur all too experiencing some form of violence frequently on campus. A 1998 studysafety. It reviews the scope of campus or harassment in the previous year.1violence problems, describes the wide estimated that an average of 3.8 hate Common forms of campus violence crimes per campus occurred that year,This publication was funded by the Office of Safe and include sexual and interpersonal vio- 80 percent of them motivated by theDrug-Free Schools at the U.S. Department of Education victim’s race or sexual orientation.8 Inunder contract number ED-04-CO-0137 with Education lence. A 1997 national telephone sur-Development Center, Inc. The contracting officer’s repre- vey found that 1.7 percent of college a study of gay and lesbian students,sentative was Richard Lucey, Jr. The content of this publi- 42 percent reported experiencing somecation does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of women had experienced a completedthe U.S. Department of Education, nor does the mention rape and 1.1 percent an attempted level of physical aggression due to theirof trade names, commercial products, or organizations sexual orientation.9imply endorsement by the U.S. government. This publi- rape in the seven months prior to thecation also contains hyperlinks and URLs for informa- study. Projecting these figures over antion created and maintained by private organizations. Victims of violence experience a wideThis information is provided for the reader’s convenience. entire calendar year, the survey’s variety of physical and emotional conse-The U.S. Department of Education is not responsible for authors concluded that nearly 5 per- quences, often leading to social and aca-controlling or guaranteeing the accuracy, relevance,timeliness, or completeness of this outside information. cent of college women might be vic- demic difficulties.10 Violence can lowerFurther, the inclusion of information or a hyperlink or timized annually and that up to 25 the quality of life for all campus con-URL does not reflect the importance of the organization,nor is it intended to endorse any views expressed, or percent might be assaulted by the end stituents, who may become fearful andproducts or services offered. of their college years. In the same2
  3. 3. Preventing Violencerestrict their activities out of concern for enforcement of federal, state, and Failure to institute basic measures suchsafety. In addition, violence affects the local laws and statutes; cultural as educating students about commonbottom line for colleges by increasing contributors such as male gender types of violence, creating and enforc-costs, lowering retention, and absorbing role socialization and media images ing strong policies, implementing com-resources that could otherwise be used that glamorize violence. prehensive alcohol prevention efforts,to further the academic mission. Any given violent event typically results and reviewing incidents with the aim from a convergence of some or all of of preventing future problems may What Causes Violence? the above factors. The National expose institutions to legal action. By Research Council concluded: “A violent identifying and adequately addressingStudies have found that no single fac- local conditions that contribute to vio-tor causes violence. Researchers have event requires the conjunction of a person with some (high or low) predis- lence, individual campuses reduce bothidentified many determinants, includ- the probability of harm and the likeli-ing both individual characteristics and posing potential for violent behavior, a situation with elements that create some hood of a successful lawsuit, while alsoattributes of campus and community enhancing the learning environment.environments.11 These factors can be risk of violent events, and usually aorganized according to a “social eco- triggering event” (emphasis added).*, 11 While avoiding liability is desirable,logical framework,” a commonly used The complexity of violence suggests recent legal and scientific work urgespublic health model. This model rec- that efforts to reduce violence will administrators to broaden their viewognizes that health- and safety-related require multicomponent initiatives beyond a “rules and regulations” orien-behaviors are shaped through multiple designed to address the array of con- tation in order to foster a safe, healthy,levels of influence—individual, group, tributing factors. In addition, efforts and civil campus environment.14, 15institutional, and community as well should take into account the typical Violence prevention and safety promo-as public policy and societal factors.12, 13 dynamics of campus violence. For tion should be seen as part of theThe nature and strength of these fac- example, most incidents of campus broader mission of any institution oftors will vary across settings and by sexual assault are perpetrated not by a higher education, namely, to create atype of violence.11 stranger who jumps out of the bushes context in which all campus con- but by someone known to the victim.2 stituents flourish both academicallyIn a campus community, the following and personally.are examples of possible influences ateach level: Addressing Campus Violence The Need for Prevention• Individual factors, such as student, Campus administrators understandably faculty, and staff attitudes and struggle with their roles and responsi- Often, responses to violence focus on beliefs about violence; skills for bilities with respect to influencing stu- reacting to specific incidents, typically negotiating conflict. dent behavior. While some incidents of relying on disciplinary measures or the violence are unpredictable, it is possible criminal justice system. Such efforts• Interpersonal or group processes, are essential to maintain a safe envi- to identify and reduce the factors that such as group norms regarding ronment, and strong enforcement make violence more likely. Recent appropriate behavior; responses of sends a clear message about an institu- court decisions reflect a growing expec- bystanders to violence. tion’s intolerance for violent behavior. tation that campuses will deal proac-• Institutional factors, such as campus tively with these foreseeable risks to A comprehensive approach to violence, policies and procedures; existence students.14 Thus, campuses must con- however, also includes complementary of high-risk settings that contribute sider whether there are factors within measures aimed at early intervention to violence; high levels of alcohol their control that might contribute to and prevention. As the social ecologi- consumption in the campus envi- the likelihood of violence or injury. cal model suggests, campuses must ronment. seek to minimize the broad spectrum *A “triggering event” is a description of the of factors that contribute to violence,• Community factors, such as high immediate circumstances surrounding an act of as identified through a local assessment rates of violence and drug selling in violence and is not intended to convey a lack of of campus conditions. A comprehen- the surrounding community; extent agency or responsibility by perpetrators. A trig- sive program will include approaches of community law enforcement. gering event can occur at a social level, e.g., the such as the following:• Public policy and societal influences football game that precedes a riot, or within an that influence campus life and stu- individual, e.g., a cognitive error in informa- • Addressing attitudes, beliefs, per- dents, including the existence and tion processing that impairs decision-making. ceptions, and skills that contribute 3
  4. 4. to violence through education, skill concrete actions that individual cam- Recommendations building, curriculum infusion, and pus and community teams can use to other efforts. In recent years a consensus has assess their campus and community• Supporting healthy group norms emerged from community-based pre- conditions, set priorities, and imple- and promoting bystander interven- vention research about the best prac- ment well-designed strategies. tion. tices for developing, implementing, Campus and community teams should and evaluating interventions designed• Conveying clear expectations for do the following: to reduce health and safety problems. conduct among students, faculty, Taken together, these lessons from pre- 1. Use multiple, coordinated, and staff, and visitors. vention science suggest a number of sustained intervention approaches• Creating and disseminating com- clear principles that should govern designed to achieve synergy among prehensive policies and procedures efforts to address campus violence. program components. addressing each type of violent Most campuses already have some pro- behavior, and instituting training grams, policies, and systems in place to programs to ensure that policies are Principles for Designing address violence. However, many edu- followed and enforced. Effective Campus Violence cational efforts are one-time programs,• Providing a range of support ser- Interventions and they are rarely coordinated with vices for students, including mental other policies or services. Some may Interventions should be even present conflicting or confusing health services, crisis management, and comprehensive and compas- • prevention-focused in addition to messages. Prevention research shows sionate services for victims. response-focused that coordinated and sustained activi- ties are more effective than one-time• Helping students to avoid harm • comprehensive, addressing multi- programs. Ensuring that multiple through such measures as escort ple types of violence, all campus efforts are coordinated and synergistic services and self-defense classes. constituents, and on- and off-cam- is the single most important way in pus settings• Establishing comprehensive alcohol which practitioners can improve their and other drug prevention programs. • planned and evaluated, using a initiatives against violence. For exam- systematic process to design, imple- ple, programs such as staff training onSome of these approaches, such as ment, and evaluate the initiative policies and procedures, student edu-escort services and self-defense classes, • strategic and targeted, addressing cational programs, and disciplinaryare already common on campuses. priority problems (and their risk actions for policy violations should allWhile such risk reduction efforts can and protective factors) identified be examined to ensure that their mes-be an important part of an overall through an assessment of local sages are consistent. The remainder ofapproach, they focus on protection problems and assets these recommendations provide addi-against assaults by strangers and target tional guidance for coordinating andonly potential victims. Therefore, these • research-based, informed by cur- integrating multiple strategies.measures must be supplemented with rent research literature and theoryother programs and policies targeting 2. Engage in a “problem analysis” toviolence among acquaintances, friends, • multicomponent, using multiple assess local problems and resources,and intimates and addressing potential strategies which will inform specific goals andperpetrators and bystanders. • coordinated and synergistic, objectives. ensuring that efforts complement To be effective, programs must beGiven the complexity of violent behav- and reinforce one another based on data that reveal the most seri-ior and the diversity of settings, struc- • multisectoral and collaborative, ous local problems and the factors thattures, cultures, and students among involving key campus stakeholders contribute to them. For example, onecampuses, there is no simple, one-size- and disciplines campus may experience problems withfits-all solution for violence in higher fights outside bars in the local commu-education settings. Officials at each • supported by infrastructure, insti- nity, whereas another may be facedinstitution must design a program that tutional commitment, and systems with high rates of sexual assault in on-meets their particular circumstances The following recommendations build campus fraternity houses. Such dissimi-and needs. upon the above principles, providing lar problems require very different sets4
  5. 5. Preventing Violenceof intervention strategies. A thorough community and youth violence pre- ed to develop, implement, and evaluatereview of campus conditions also can vention compiled by federal agencies interventions. While developing infras-help college administrators identify may provide programs, policies, and tructure will not by itself reduce vio-campus assets and existing initiatives services that can be adapted to campus lence, these components are critical forthat can be mobilized as part of a coor- settings (see “Non-Campus Best creating the strategic changes needed todinated and comprehensive campus Practice Reviews” in the Resources sec- improve campus safety. Important typesresponse. Helpful sources for the prob- tion of this publication). In the of infrastructure for such efforts includelem analysis include statistics, policies, absence of evaluated strategies, inter- partnerships and collaborations, institu-and programs compiled to comply vention approaches may be based on tional support, and systems.with the Clery Act16 and the Drug-Free behavioral or other theories.21, 22Schools and Communities Act Partnerships and Collaborations.(DFSCA).17 Additionally, campuses While practitioners at other campuses Because violence is a multifacetedmay (1) survey students to obtain can be an invaluable source of informa- problem, solutions must engage multi-information about behaviors, knowl- tion to help generate ideas and avoid ple campus and community stakehold-edge, norms, and skills; (2) perform stumbling blocks, it is advisable not to ers. Most violence-related issues willenvironmental scans;18 (3) conduct adopt programs and policies from require consultation with numerousregular safety audits;19, 20 and (4) collect other campuses uncritically. Planners stakeholders, including representativesinformation from key campus stake- should examine any strategy under from campus law enforcement, cam-holders to document existing efforts consideration to determine whether it pus judicial or disciplinary systems,and priority concerns. The planning has empirical or theoretical support student affairs, health services, coun-team should analyze the collected data and whether it is a match for their own seling, health education, victim advo-to identify specific problems and their local problems and conditions. cacy, students, faculty, and parents.contributors, articulate the conditions Campus legal counsel and risk man- 4. Create a logic model and program agers should ensure that policies andthat need to be changed, and translate plan.the campus’s needs into concrete goals programs comply with federal, state, Regardless of the source of program- and local laws. Other departments thatand objectives. ming ideas, planners should choose may be involved include equity, diver-3. Draw on existing research, theory, programs and policies based on the sity, or social justice offices; residenceand logic to decide what strategies likelihood of their achieving the life; admissions; fraternities and sorori-might work to solve the targeted defined goals and objectives. There ties; athletics departments; and humanproblems. should be a logical connection resources. Some initiatives, such asKeeping in mind the specific problems between program activities and desired those involving threat assessment orand their contributors identified in step results. Many campus teams find it crisis management teams, also might2, planners should examine existing useful to create a “logic model,” a dia- draw on multiple departments.research and theory to determine how gram illustrating how each planned Because many violent offenses on cam-best to make changes. The key is to activity will contribute to the long- puses involve alcohol, some campusesremain focused on local problems term goal of reducing campus vio- have developed task forces specificallyrather than to adopt initiatives that lence.23 In addition, to ensure that the to coordinate violence interventionsseem generally promising but do not initiative stays on track, it is helpful to with alcohol and other drug preven-address the locally identified issues. For create a detailed work plan that lists tion efforts. In addition, becauseexample, if the problem analysis found specific tasks, states who is responsible problems are rarely confined withinthat fights in residence halls usually for each, and sets out a timeline for campus boundaries, campus officialsinvolved unaccompanied outside visi- completing those tasks. will need to engage members of thetors, the planning team would look for 5. Build infrastructure to support surrounding community in order toprograms, policies, and procedures that planning and implementation make systematic and lasting changes.have been effective in monitoring and efforts, including partnerships andsupervising visitors to campus. Research suggests that successful part- collaborations, institutional support, nerships share such qualities as anGood sources for such promising and systems. inclusive and broad-based membership;strategies are evaluations of efforts In order to succeed, planned initiatives a strong core of committed partners; adesigned to address similar problems require supportive infrastructure, shared vision for the group’s work;in both campus and community set- defined here as the broad range of effective and stable leadership; adequatetings. Reviews of “best practices” for resources, systems, and processes need- staff support; clearly defined roles and 5
  6. 6. responsibilities; concrete goals and officials might create a new data system, campus and community stakeholdersobjectives; and avoidance or resolution shared between campus security and can use to guide their work. Seniorof severe conflict.24, 25 There is, however, judicial systems, to facilitate the collec- administrators must exercise leadershipno one partnership structure that will tion and use of crime and disciplinary by establishing and supporting a long-work for every campus at all times, and data by both departments. Other strate- term, collaborative process to create andcampus officials are encouraged to gies may require creation of specialized sustain a comprehensive, strategic, mul-think strategically about which struc- infrastructure, for example, cross- ticomponent, coordinated approach toture best meets their current needs. For departmental teams devoted to crisis preventing violence and promotingexample, an institution addressing off- management or threat assessment. safety on campus. This process willcampus student riots would need to bring together multiple partners inwork with a broadly inclusive campus 6. Evaluate programs, policies, and order to examine local data; identifyand community coalition from the services, and use results for improve- and prioritize local problems; targetstart, whereas a campus that is revising ment. those problems with an appropriate mixthe student conduct code may start Given that resources are scarce, it is of strategies; construct a logic model,with a campus-based task force, imperative to use them both efficiently work plan, and evaluation plan; createexpanding the group’s membership or and effectively. The key to ensuring infrastructure to support implementa-consulting community representatives accountability is to evaluate whether tion; and evaluate the effectiveness ofto address off-campus issues. To facili- initiatives are achieving their intended these efforts. This strategic planningtate cooperative working relationships outcomes. Long-term financial support process can be used to formulate inte-and information sharing across depart- for violence intervention, whether it grated initiatives addressing specificments and agencies, campuses should comes from outside sources or is part of subtypes of violence and to coordinateconsider creating formal and informal a college’s regular budget, will be avail- efforts across different types of violence.interagency agreements. able only if evaluation results warrant it. While this process may seem burden-Institutional Support. Without high- Because most program planners associ- some, ultimately there is no other waylevel support, efforts to address vio- ate evaluation with measuring results, to ensure that scarce campus resourceslence will languish. College presidents they often delay thinking about it until are well spent. Despite the challenges,must establish campus violence pre- after a program is up and running. To many campus communities havevention as a priority and to that end be most effective and useful, however, begun to establish long-term initiativesprovide support and funding for plan- the evaluation should be planned as the and share lessons they have learned.ning, implementation, and evaluation program is being developed. Building Ongoing efforts to prevent violence andprocesses. Administrators also should this component into the process from promote campus safety require dedica-assist program directors in their efforts the outset will sharpen everyone’s tion, commitment, resources, andto obtain external funding. thinking about the program—its mis- persistence, but they are a necessary sion, goals, objectives, and tactics. investment if all campus constituents areA common barrier to implementing Additionally, planning teams can use to reach their full potential. This view isproposed initiatives is lack of staff evaluation results to revise and improve summarized eloquently by the Nationaltime. Simply put, efforts that are their programs to maximize their effec- Association of Student Personnelinadequately staffed are unlikely to tiveness. Including a professional evalu- Administrators: “A safe campus environ-succeed. It is essential for planning ator on a project team helps to ensure ment is one in which students, faculty,teams to specify whose staff will imple- that outcome-based thinking is an inte- and staff are free to conduct their dailyment each effort and to create a system gral part of the project’s design and affairs, both inside and outside the class-of accountability for follow-through. implementation.26 room, without fear of physical, emo-Ideally, every campus should have a tional, or psychological harm. Personaldedicated office or staff person to Conclusion safety is a basic human need that mustcoordinate programs, policies, and be preserved if the mission of the uni-services addressing violence. Campus violence is a complex problem, versity is to be pursued.” 27 and there are no easy answers. It cannotSystems. In some cases, institutional be solved by a one-time program or a Linda Langford, Sc.D., is associatesystems may actually hinder violence single department, nor is there a one- director for violence prevention initia-intervention efforts. For example, the size-fits-all blueprint for successful tives at the Higher Education Center forproblem analysis may reveal that data efforts. Rather, prevention science sug- Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse andsharing is difficult. In this case, campus gests a set of principles and a process that Violence Prevention.6
  7. 7. Preventing Violence What Campuses Are DoingGiven that no single approach to coordinated alcohol and violence Additional personal safety, sexualviolence and safety will work for reduction efforts, and a strong assault prevention, and alcohol pre-every campus, the following emphasis on victim support. vention education programs arevignettes illustrate targeted inter- held throughout the year. Theseventions implemented by individu- UNC’s efforts are based on firm educational efforts include informa-al campuses in response to an policies combined with rapid and tion about advocacy services avail-identified need or problem. Each of consistent enforcement. All campus able to victims.these programs follows the princi- constituents are urged to reportples and process described above incidents. Campus policy requires Other initiatives address the physi-for developing successful initiatives. all alleged sexual offenses to be cal environment. Each year, campus investigated; when appropriate, police conduct visual security sur-Multicomponent Approach to cases also are referred to the local veys and facility audits to scan forCampus Violence district attorney. Graduated admin- physical hazards and unsafe areas.University of Northern Colorado istrative sanctions are based on the An array of measures has been principle of student accountability, instituted as a result: emergencyThe University of Northern and penalties provide for potential telephones, electronic alarm sys-Colorado’s (UNC) approach to vio- removal of problem individuals if tems, a high-security lock/keylence includes complementary and deemed appropriate. Emphasis is system, regular trimming of veget-coordinated initiatives designed to placed on supporting and protect- ation, and registration for bicyclessupport victims, hold perpetrators ing victims during the disciplinary and other items of value. Walkingaccountable, and minimize violent process. A cross-departmental com- and golf cart escort services areincidents. The university has intro- mittee meets regularly to ensure available.duced strong administrative policies that policies and procedures areand procedures, rigorous admissions appropriate, to locate loopholes in UNC police take a proactivestandards, crime prevention and existing policies, and to revise and approach to crime prevention.awareness programs, proactive polic- initiate policies as needed. Campus areas are actively patrolleding, management of the physical by police officers, and officers par-environment (lighting, vegetation, UNC holds a variety of prevention ticipate in the ongoing safety auditsemergency telephones), and other education programs throughout the and educational programs describedprevention and intervention initia- year, including a required workshop above. In addition, mutual aidtives such as peer education, a men’s for first-year students at summer agreements between UNC and localprogram, and services for survivors. orientation. To ensure that mes- police allow for shared training, sages concerning the need to pre- mutual assistance, and systematic“Stop, Look, Listen” (SLL), UNC’s vent alcohol use and sexual assault reporting to campus officials of inci-unique and comprehensive safety are consistent, these sessions are led dents in areas adjacent to campus.program, is a two-hour workshop jointly by campus law enforcementrequired for all incoming freshmen. and alcohol and other drug preven- A campus and community commit-SLL explores a variety of health and tion staff. The Student Code of tee, Sexual Assault Free Environ-safety issues geared toward promot- Conduct further highlights the link ment (SAFE), which meetsing personal health and safety, and between alcohol and sexual assault monthly, includes representativesit emphasizes discussions concern- by noting that “voluntary intoxica- from the assault survivors advocacying sexual assault and alcohol con- tion is NOT an excusable justifica- program (ASAP), the counselingsumption. tion for inappropriate or illegal center, the dean of students, resi- behavior.” Victims of crime, howev- dential life, campus police, theThese measures are strengthened alcohol and drug office, Greek life,further by ongoing review of inci- er, are rarely sanctioned for alcohol consumption or possession, and and the district attorney’s office.dents and potential problems, cam- UNC’s crisis response committeepus and community partnerships, sexual assault victims, in particular, are never sanctioned. also meets weekly. The staff who 7
  8. 8. serve on this team regularly share Violence Against Women. The cen- for the Prevention of Violence information about new and ongo- ter developed a multifaceted set of Against Women teamed up with the ing safety issues and concerns. initiatives aimed at reducing the office of judicial affairs, the counsel- incidence of violence and ensuring ing center, and public safety to Consequently, the structures that perpetrators are held account- develop an antistalking policy to described allow campus and com- able for their actions. The project increase the accountability of perpe- munity officials to coordinate poli- involves collaborations among judi- trators for their stalking behaviors. cies and programs, ensure that they cial affairs, the counseling center, remain effective, and respond to the women’s center, and public As a result of these combined new mandates as required. For safety. The program is designed to efforts, referrals to the women’s example, Colorado recently passed do the following: center and counseling center have a state law forbidding any student increased dramatically.30, 31 convicted of riotous behavior from 1. Provide advocacy services for vic- enrolling in a state institution. tims and increase student aware- University Counseling and Because UNC’s admissions stan- ness of the availability of these Advising Network (U-CAN) dards already allowed for a special services. Cornell University committee to review applicants 2. Educate students about how to Cornell University has created a with felony and sex crime convic- report these crimes. problem-focused early intervention tions, they were more easily able to program characterized by cross-dis- respond to this new law.28, 29 3. Establish networks of advisers ciplinary collaboration and coordi- and mentors to students among The Center for the Prevention nation of existing services. While faculty, staff, and other universi- of Violence Against Women not specifically focused on violence, ty personnel. Marshall University this initiative is designed to facili- 4. Increase awareness of violence tate early identification of problems (West Virginia) against women on campus that might lead to aggression or Because Marshall University serves among university and local self-harm. Cornell’s University the area of West Virginia with the police departments through a Counseling and Advising Network state’s highest reported rates of media campaign and training (U-CAN) grew out of five interre- domestic violence and sexual assault, programs for officers. lated observations: it is likely that many students on 5. Develop educational content campus have witnessed violence in 1. Cornell’s counseling center staff about violence against women noted a growing demand for their families. Within the context of and incorporate this material this high-risk environment, the uni- counseling services locally and into existing courses and fresh- among college students nation- versity’s Office of Women’s Programs man orientation. noted that the number of crimes wide. against women reported was lower While many campus programs 2. Campus-specific survey data than expected, suggesting underre- focus primarily on preventing sexual revealed a wide array of student porting. This information, taken assaults, Marshall staff responded to mental health and substance together, indicated the need for a the particular needs of their stu- abuse problems at Cornell for more comprehensive campus pro- dents by also including extensive which students were not seeking gram addressing both domestic information and education about all assistance, indicating that unmet violence and sexual assault. forms of intimate partner violence. needs for service were high. Educational efforts include separate In the year 2000, the Office of programs for men and women. 3. Staff noted that students experi- Women’s Programs applied for and encing difficulty manifested a received funding from the federal The project also has allowed the range of symptoms, which in Violence Against Women Office university to create partnerships and some cases probably reflected (VAWO) to establish a campus- initiatives to solve newly identified more serious underlying prob- based Center for the Prevention of problems. For example, the Center lems (e.g., substance abuse,8
  9. 9. Preventing Violence eating disorders, self-harm, motion, academic advising, and other protocols—for example, U-CAN depression, aggression). departments to create a network to works with Cornell’s “advising facilitate, coordinate, and enhance the offices” to develop guidelines and 4. Many staff, faculty, and students work of the many service providers procedures for when and how were aware of student distress but who were already supporting stu- advisers should share information were unsure of whether or how to dents. U-CAN accomplished this with U-CAN staff about students respond. goal through five basic initiatives: in distress. 5. Campus prevention and interven- 4. Instituting a “network forum” tion responses were characterized 1. Training faculty, teaching assis- tants, secretaries, and other people to enable networking and contin- by departmental fragmentation uing education for student ser- and other institutional barriers to not in formal helping roles as the system’s “eyes and ears” by increas- vices professionals. integrated efforts, as well as lack of funding for program staff. ing their ability to identify and 5. Outreach by U-CAN staff to reach out to students in distress. identified students in distress who In 1999 the director of health services 2. Offering student-centered con- might be reluctant to accept refer- at Cornell University responded by sultation by U-CAN staff to rals to formal counseling services. initiating a program designed to guide and support faculty and increase early identification and refer- During the development of these staff in working with individual programs, a postdoctoral fellow and ral of a broadly defined category of students. “students in distress.” With funding graduate student were hired as part- from supportive alumni, two full- 3. Providing program-centered time evaluators to help clarify the time staff members worked with consultation to assist depart- program’s goals and objectives and cross-departmental teams from medi- ments and divisions in develop- to design appropriate process and cal, nursing, counseling, health pro- ing organizational practices and outcome evaluation measures.32 9 Herek, G. M. “Documenting Prejudice against Lesbians and Gay Men References on Campus: The Yale Sexual Orientation Survey.” Journal of1 Personal communication with Cheryl Presley, Ph.D., executive director Homosexuality 25 (4 ): 15–30, 1993. 10 of the Core Institute, e-mail January 29, 2004. (National Probability Cohen, M. A.; Miller, T. R.; and Rossman, S. B. “The Costs and Sample Study, Core Institute, Student Health Programs, Southern Consequences of Violent Behavior in the United States.” In Reiss, A. J. Illinois University, Carbondale, Ill.) Jr., and Roth, J. A. eds. Understanding and Preventing Violence, Volume2 Fisher, B. S.; Cullen, F. T.; and Turner, M. G. The Sexual Victimization 4: Consequences and Control Panel on the Understanding and Control of of College Women. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Violent Behavior. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, National National Institute of Justice, 2000. Research Council, 1994. 113 Makepeace, J. M. “Courtship Violence among College Students.” Reiss, A. J., Jr., and Roth, J. A. Understanding and Preventing Violence, Family Relations 30: 97–101, 1981. Volume 1. Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior:4 Arias, I.; Samios, M.; and O’Leary, K. D. “Prevalence and Correlates of Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, National Research Council, Physical Aggression during Courtship.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1993. 12 2: 82–90, 1987. Stokols, D. “Translating Social Ecological Theory into Guidelines for5 Barrios, L. C.; Everett, S. A.; Simon, T. R.; Brener, N. D. “Suicide Community Health Promotion.” American Journal of Health Promotion Ideation among U.S. College Students: Associations with Other Injury 10: 282–98, 1996. 13 Risk Behaviors.” Journal of American College Health 48 (5):195–198, Chalk, R., and King, P. A. Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and 2000. Treatment Programs. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998. 146 Miller, M.; Hemenway, D.; and Wechsler, H. “Guns and Gun Threats at Bickel, R. D., and Lake, P. F. The Rights and Responsibilities of the College.” Journal of American College Health 51 (2): 57–65, 2002. Modern University: Who Assumes the Risks of College Life? Durham, N.C.:7 Alfred University. Initiation Rites and Athletics: A National Study of Carolina Academic Press, 1999. 15 NCAA Sports Teams. Alfred, N.Y.: Alfred University, 1999. Roark, M. L. “Conceptualizing Campus Violence: Definitions,8 Wessler, S., and Moss, M. Hate Crimes on Campus: The Problem and Underlying Factors, and Effects.” Journal of College Student Psychotherapy Efforts to Confront It. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 8 (1/2):1–27, 1993. Office of Justice Programs, 2001. 9
  10. 10. 16 Security On Campus, Inc. Complying with the Jeanne Clery Act. Retrieved February 2, 2004, from Resources The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (DFSCA), and Drug-Free Schools Violence Prevention and Campuses Regulations. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and The U.S. Department of Education’s Higher Education Center for Alcohol Other Drug Prevention. Retrieved July 29, 2003, from and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention provides nationwide sup- port for campus alcohol, other drug, and violence prevention efforts.18 Ryan, B. E.; Colthurst, T.; and Segars, L. College Alcohol Risk Assessment The Higher Education Center offers training and professional develop- Guide: Environmental Approaches to Prevention. Washington, D.C.: U.S. ment activities; technical assistance; publications; support for the Network Department of Education, Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Addressing Collegiate Alcohol and Other Drug Issues; and assessment, Other Drug Prevention, revised 1997. evaluation, and analysis activities.19 Security On Campus, Inc. “Campus Safety Audit.” Retrieved February The Higher Education Center lists resources addressing campus violence at 2, 2004, from Its Campuses and Other Drugs20 Winnipeg Committee for Safety. “Winnipeg Safety Audit Manual.” In Web page, found at, includes Safety Tool Box. Winnipeg, Canada: Winnipeg Committee for Safety, resources on date rape and club drugs. For contact information, please see back cover. January 2001. Retrieved February 2, 2004, from www.winnipeg The Communication Initiative. Change Theories. Retrieved February 2, Federal Resources 2004, from Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools (OSDFS)22 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity U.S. Department of Education 400 Maryland Ave, SW Evaluation Handbook: Appendix 3 Theories and Models Used in Physical Washington, DC 20202-6123 Activity Promotion. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (202) 260-3954 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002. Retrieved February 11, 2004, from OSDFS supports efforts to create safe schools, respond to crises, prevent alcohol and other drug abuse, ensure the health and well-being of students,23 Weiss, C. H. “Understanding the Program.” In Weiss, C. H. Evaluation: and teach students good citizenship and character. The agency provides financial assistance for drug abuse and violence prevention activities and Methods for Studying Programs and Policies, 46–71. Upper Saddle River, activities that promote the health and well-being of students in elementary N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998. and secondary schools and institutions of higher education. OSDFS partici-24 Mattessich, P. W., and Monsey, B. R. Collaboration: What Makes It Work. pates in the development of Department program policy and legislative pro- St. Paul, Minn.: Wilder Research Center and Wilder’s Community posals and in overall administration policies related to drug abuse and Collaboration Venture, 1992. violence prevention. It also participates with other federal agencies in the25 development of a national research agenda for such prevention. National Evaluation Findings Sheets: Community Partnerships. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and SAMHSA’s National Office for Civil Rights Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Other Drug Information. U.S. Department of Education Customer Service Team26 Mary E. Switzer Building Langford, L., and DeJong, W. “Prevention Update: How to Select a 330 C Street, SW Program Evaluator.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC 20202 Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 2001. (800) 421-348127 National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. In Roark, M. L. “Conceptualizing Campus Violence: Definitions, Underlying Factors, Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination prohibited in schools by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. In 2001, the U.S. and Effects.” Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 8 (1/2): 1–27, 1993. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights published guidelines to28 University of Northern Colorado. Student Handbook, June 2002. assist institutions with Title IX compliance related to sexual harassment, Retrieved February 2, 2004, from titled “Sexual Harassment Guidance: Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other Students, or Third Parties.”29 University of Northern Colorado. University of Northern Colorado Safety Office of Postsecondary Education Campus Security Statistics and Security Information 2002. Retrieved December 5, 2002, from U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education30 Interview with Carla Lapelle, coordinator, Student Health Education 1990 K Street, NW Programs, Marshall University, summer 2002. Washington, DC 2000631 (202) 401-1576 West Virginia Grants to Combat Violent Crimes Against Women on Campuses. Office on Violence Against Women, Office of Justice The Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE) maintains a Web site for Programs. U.S. Department of Justice, 2000. campus security statistics, authorized by Congress with the 1998 amend- ment to the Higher Education Act of 1965 to help potential college stu-32 Marchell, T. “In the Spotlight: Reaching Out to Students in Distress.” dents and parents research criminal offenses on college campuses. Student Health Spectrum. The Chickering Group, fall 2001.10
  11. 11. Preventing ViolenceNational Organizations Non-Campus Best Practice ReviewsThe National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) Although not specific to college and university campuses, the following reviews123 North Enola Drive of “best practices” for community and youth violence prevention compiled byEnola, PA 17025 federal agencies may provide programs, policies, and services that can be(877) 739-3895 (717) 909-0710 adapted to campus settings.http://www.nsvrc.orgThe National Sexual Violence Resource Center serves as an information Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention:clearinghouse, provides information and technical assistance to people A Sourcebook for Community Actionworking to prevent sexual violence, and identifies emerging policy issues Centers for Disease Control and Preventionand research needs to support the development of policies and practices National Center for Injury Prevention and Controlspecific to the intervention and prevention of sexual violence. The Web includes campus-specific resources. This sourcebook presents effective violence prevention practices in four areas: parents and families; home visiting; social and conflict resolutionSecurity On Campus, Inc. skills; and mentoring. The resource also discusses the science behind each133 Ivy Lane, Suite 200 program and provides a directory of additional resources.King of Prussia, PA 19406-2101(888) 251-7959 Blueprints for Violence Prevention Center for the Study and Prevention of ViolenceSecurity On Campus, Inc. (SOC), founded in 1987, is a nonprofit grass- organization dedicated to fostering safe campus environments. SOC Blueprints for Violence Prevention is an initiative that describes effectiveeducates prospective students, parents, and the campus community about and promising youth violence prevention and intervention programs.the prevalence of crime on campus and assists victims with information Eleven model programs and 21 promising programs were identified forabout laws, advocacy organizations, legal counsel, and other resources. their effectiveness in reducing adolescent violent crime, aggression, delin-SOC also provides guidance to campuses regarding compliance with the quency, and substance abuse.Clery Act and other federal laws. Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe U.S. Department of Education Special Education and Rehabilitation ServicesEstablished in 1992, is a Web-based resource committed providing students, parents, and educators with resources and up-to- This guide offers research-based practices designed to help school commu-date statistics on the problem of hazing in America. The site lists books, nities identify early warning signs of violence and develop prevention andarticles, and hazing prevention programs. intervention programs and crisis response plans. Although the recommen- dations are aimed at primary and secondary schools, many of the resourcesStop the Hate are adaptable for higher education.Association of College Unions International (ACUI)One City Centre, Suite 200 “Youth Violence Prevention: Descriptions and Baseline Data from 13120 West Seventh Street Evaluation Projects,” by Powell, E., and Hawkins, F. (American Journal ofBloomington, IN 47404-3925 Preventive Medicine 12 (5S): 1996) This issue of American Journal of Preventive Medicine includes articlesThe Association of College Unions International (ACUI) created the Stop describing 13 school, hospital, and community violence prevention pro-the Hate initiative to provide training and other resources to aid colleges in jects and their initial evaluation results.addressing hate and bias-related crimes and incidents. Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation—Enhancing Policy andCampus Organization Practice Through Research, Volume 2. National Institute of JusticeIndiana Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Project (INCSAPP) Wellness Office This publication includes three papers describing current efforts and601 Stadium Mall Drive promising practices for school violence prevention.West Lafayette, IN 47907(765) 496-3363 Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General Department of Health and Human ServicesThe Indiana Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Project is the campus Office of the Surgeon Generalcomponent of the Communities Against Rape (CARe) Initiative of the University Cooperative Extension Service. While INCSAPP’s Web This report summarizes the research on youth violence in the United States,site is designed to promote collaboration between campus and community including the scope of the problem, causes of violence, risk and protective fac-organizations in the state of Indiana, it also offers generally helpful tors, and effective strategies and programs to reduce and prevent youth violence.resources related to sexual assault , including bibliographies, campuspolicies, and victim advocacy information. World Report on Violence and Health World Health Organization This publication examines various types of violence as an international public health problem, including youth violence, intimate partner vio- lence, and sexual violence. It describes the magnitude and impact of violence, key risk factors, the effectiveness of intervention and policy responses to violence, and recommendations for action. 11
  12. 12. Ed ucation Our Mission r C The mission of the U.S. Department of Education’s he en Hig Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other ter Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention is to assist for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention institutions of higher education in developing, implementing, and evaluating alcohol and other drug abuse and violence prevention policies and programs that will foster students’ academic and social development and promote campus and community safety.How We Can HelpThe Higher Education Center offers an integrated array of services to help people atcolleges and universities adopt effective prevention strategies: • Training and professional development activities • Resources, referrals, and consultations • Publication and dissemination of prevention materials • Support for the Network Addressing Collegiate Alcohol and Other Drug Issues • Assessment, evaluation, and analysis activities Get in Touch Additional information can be obtained by contacting: The Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention Education Development Center, Inc. 55 Chapel Street Newton, MA 02458-1060 Web site: Phone: 1-800-676-1730; TDD Relay-friendly, Dial 711 E-mail: Funded by the U.S. Department of Education