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Knowledgement management for Climate Smart Conservation Agriculture

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Knowledgement management for Climate Smart Conservation Agriculture

  1. 1. 1 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR CLIMATE SMART CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE RAMAKGWALE MAMPHOLO (DAFF:LANDCARE) 3RD AFAAS WEEK & 51 st ANNUAL SASAE CONFERENCE 2 NOVEMBER 2017
  2. 2. 2 OUTLINE 1.BACKGROUND ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CSA 2.ENABLING ENVIRONEMENT  POLICY& LEGISLATIONS  PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT  PROMOTIONS , AWARENESS & PUBLICITY 3.CSA ON FARM LEVEL  FARM LEVEL CONTEXT  FARM LEVEL DEMONSTRATIONS  FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS  VALUE CHAIN SYSTEM IN CSA
  3. 3. 3 OUTLINE Continue……. 4.CSA ON NATIONAL LEVEL  RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS  SKILL DEVELOPMENT  EDUCATION AND TRAINING (CURRICULUM) 5.CSA ON REGIONAL / CONTINENTAL 6.MONITORING & EVALUATION  BASELINE DATA  KEY DATA SET FOR CSA 7.CONCLUSSION
  4. 4.  Systematic management of an organization's knowledge assets for the purpose of creating value and meeting strategic requirements; it consists of the initiatives, processes, strategies, and systems that sustain and enhance the storage, assessment, sharing, refinement, and creation of knowledge.  KM involves the understanding of: Where and in what forms knowledge exists; what the organization needs to know; how to promote a culture conducive to learning, sharing, and knowledge creation; how to make the right knowledge available to the right people at the right time; how to best generate or acquire new relevant knowledge; how to manage all of these factors so as to enhance performance in light of the organization's strategic goals and short term opportunities and threats.  KM must provide the right tools, people, knowledge, structures, culture so as to enhance learning; it must understand the value and applications of the new knowledge created; it must store this knowledge and make it readily available for the right people at the right time; and it must continuously assess, apply, refine, and remove organizational knowledge in conjunction with concrete long and short term factors. 4 1.BACKGROUND ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM) AND CSA
  5. 5.  The concept of KM in the sector is compounded by various challenges, opportunities and differentiation in its application to myriad types of farmers i.e. subsistence, smallholders and commercial farmers.  It is often differentiated in explicit knowledge codified and articulated in formal language and tacit knowledge that is personal wisdom embedded in experiences.  There is growing appreciation of the personal knowledge in the sector owing to acceptance that knowledge cannot simply be transferred, but needs to be anticipated by the processes of experiences and learning by doing. This recognition support the theory of Andragogy as appropriate form of adult learning and education compared to Pedagogy which is more teacher cantered approach.  First-generation KM in agricultural development, emphasized a top-down and technological perspective where the main goal was getting the right technological information to the right people at the right time. Most investments in agricultural research and extension were based on the assumption that agricultural science generates technology which extension experts transfer to users, ignoring local knowledge creation and sharing, as well as the relevance of articulating demands by farmers and promoting their self-confidence and empowerment. 5 1.BACKGROUND ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CSA
  6. 6. 1.BACKGROUND ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CSA Climate smart label has been applied to a range of agricultural innovations and development projects across diverse African contexts, on conservation agriculture and water- efficient maize, associated with claims about simultaneously increasing productivity, building resilience to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions 6 CSA Increase agriculture productivity & income Adapt & build resilience to CC Reduce GHG emissions Enhances achieving national food security & development goals
  7. 7. WHAT IS CLIMATE SMART CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE 7 Mix and rotate crops Keep soil covered Minimum soil tillage Based on 3 principles: minimum mechanical soil disturbance, yearlong organic soil cover & utilisation of crop diversity
  8. 8. (Friedrich, Derpsch & Kassam , 2012) World total is estimated at 125 Million ha Africa (Numbers in Million ha and % adoption by region) Europe China Kazakhstan Russia WORLDWIDE ADOPTION OF MAJOR CA SYSTEM 25,5 2,5 25,5 1,3 17 1,6 4,5 1 Argentina Paraguay Brazil Canada 26,5 13,5 USA Australia & NZ 3,1 32% 45% 1% 1% 14% 7% CA is gaining global acceptance as proven sustainable, viable production system 8
  9. 9. CA ADOPTION IN AFRICA (LOW)  CA now adopted in more than 20 countries in Africa as core production component of CSA  Estimated Cropland under CA in Africa is 2.68 Mha.  Area under CA has increased by 447% since 2008/09.  > 95% of the farmers are smallholders -1ha 9 Algeria 0% Ghana 1% Kenya 1% Lesotho 0% Madagascar 0% Malawi 8% Morocco 0%Mozambique 6%Namibia 0% South Africa 65% Sudan 0% Swaziland 0% Tunisia 0% Uganda 0% Tanzania 1% Zambia 12% Zimbabwe 4% % of Area under CA (Africa) Algeria Ghana Kenya Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Morocco Mozambique Namibia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tunisia Uganda Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe land under CA: 30% smallholders, 1% medium, 69% large-scale
  10. 10. 2.ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR CSA POLICY & LEGISLATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME DEVELOPMNET, REVIEW AND MAINSTREAMING PROMOTION, AWARENESS AND PUBLICITY 10 CA POLICY VISION: envisaged to transform South African land use systems towards a sustainable food production system, adopted by the majority of farmers, that will increase the food security status of South Africa and its citizens, whilst reducing vulnerability to food scarcity and the related risk to national security.
  11. 11. Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Typeoffarmingsystem Conv. tillage Min. or reduced tillage Conv. no tillage (NT) (Direct seeding equipment using tines). Production system lacks adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. High use of external inputs Conv. zero tillage (ZT) (Direct seeding equipment using discs). Production system lacks adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. High use of external inputs CAHEI (NT or ZT using high quantities of external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. CALEI (NT or ZT using low quantities of external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has above 80% soil cover and sound crop rotations. Organic CA (ZT using no external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. Sustainability gradient TYPOLOGY (Blignaut, et al, 2015) POLICY TRAJECTORY OF CA IN SOUTH AFRICA
  12. 12. NEED FOR SCALING PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT The estimated water erosion on crop land = 13 ton ha-1 year-1 At an average yield of 4.15 ton maize year-1, the “erosion cost” = 3.1 ton of soil per ton of maize produced. Soil is a non- renewable resource Many CSA programme are undefunded e.g. LandCare, while some are donor driven and fragmented 12
  13. 13. Promotion, awareness and publicity is key in knowledge exchange More of farmers days, radio talk, brochures in farmers languages is required on CSA Effective use of national and international conference 13 PROMOTION, AWARENESS AND PUBLICITY
  14. 14. 3.KNOWLEDGE MANEGEMENT FOR FARM / PLOT LEVEL CSA Context of CSA on farm level Extension Methods/ Approaches Farm level demonstration / experiential learning Farmer field school Value chain approach 14
  15. 15. 15 CONTEXT OF CSA KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: GHG EMISSIONS ON FARM LEVEL:
  16. 16. CONTEXT OF CSA: Is South Africa becoming a dust bowl? Free State August 2014 American Midwest May 1934 This rolling cloud of dust in America rose 3000 meters into the air Johannesburg 16 October 2014
  17. 17. DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING AS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR CSA UPSCALING 17 “When I hear it, I forget” 20% adoption “When I do it, I own it for life” 80% adoption “When I see it, I remember” 40% adoption New learning must be built upon past experience rather than linear knowledge transfer orthodox
  18. 18. FARMER FIELD SCHOOL AS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR CSA UPSCALING Approach based on learning by doing, which integrates 25 farmers working in sub-groups of 5 doing on-farm agro- ecosystems analysis under the managing guidance of an experienced FFS facilitator functions as a local Innovation Platform and Social System 18 FFS Innovation Platforms are integrated into and function as, networks in many ways. Regular field observation
  19. 19. VALUE CHAIN SYSTEM AS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR CSA UPSCALING Value chain approach recognises that farming is a business that needs to be integrated horizontal and vertical from its regulation to end consumer Extension officer as facilitator, Recognition of a farmer as partner, Capacitating of farmers Information sharing not imposing, Networks and networking of a wide range of stakeholders 19 Commodity and integration approach
  20. 20. 4.KNOWLEDGE MANEGEMENT FOR NATIONAL LEVEL CSA 1.RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT 2.EDUCATION AND TRAINING 3.SKILLS DEVELOPMENT 4.NETWORKS, GOVERNANCE AND INSTITUTIONS 20
  21. 21. CSA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Adoption as adaptation (Research challenge)  Whilst adoption rates of technologies are often cited as evidence of impact, or even success, adoption is often weakly defined in relation to such statistics, with details about the area, and length of time over which specific practices are conducted, often not specified within impact assessments. In the case of platform technologies because of their varied manifestations, identifying these specifics is particularly problematic, but the incentive to conform to an established convention of adoption rates as impact has in some cases resulted in a compromise of quasi-prescriptive platform technologies.  Farmer research groups (Research Approach) 10-20 farmers work as group on deciding what implements, cover crops, and combinations should be tested. Training and demonstration are conducted on individual farmers fields with other group members attending. All group members move from one farmers test plot to another to discuss the positive and negatives together 21
  22. 22. CSA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 22 Worldwide literature on yield and environmental performance of no-tillage systems is inconsistent and even contradictory. In many cases, inconsistencies can be explained by a lack of common standards in how experiments in tillage systems were performed. Sometimes mulch tillage, reduced tillage, minimum tillage or other methods involving various degrees of soil tillage disturbance are coined no-tillage. This lack of common understanding of what no-tillage systems are, plagues research scientists as well as practitioners. Similarly, lack of crop rotation, extended fallow periods, and insufficient mulch cover or periodic tillage, violate the concept of no-tillage systems, now properly termed conservation agriculture systems as a more holistic description. If systems are named ‘‘no- tillage’’, but performed with various intensities of soil disturbance, lack of crop rotation and/or mulch cover, and fallow periods, inconsistent and contradictory results can be expected because a legitimate conservation agriculture system is not included in the experimental assessment. Use of local jargon and inconsistent definitions of CA has dire implications on KM.
  23. 23. 23 CSA EDUCATION AND TRAINING Incomplete knowledge and narratives of climate smart agriculture in SADC school curriculum
  24. 24. CA SKILL DEVELOPMENT LANDSCAPE CA tailored made course recently aligned to existing mixed farming qualification on NQF level 2 and NQF level 4 There is a need for stand alone CA qualification on level 1to 5, Need for Curriculum review of level 6 to 8 to factors CA 24
  25. 25. CSA NATIONAL NETWORKS, PARTNERSHIP National Forum for CA established Some provincial forum in place or CA farmers networks supported by Grain SA 25
  26. 26. 5.KNOWLEDGE MANEGEMENT FOR REGIONAL/ CONTINENTAL LEVEL CSA  Alliances and networks are being built like in Africa through NEPAD, East Africa and West Africa Climate-smart alliances through Regional Economic Communities) or in Asia (ASEAN Climate Resilience Network) or the work of IICA in Latin America.  The Global Alliance on Climate-smart Agriculture (GACSA) has created three action groups (knowledge, investments and enabling) and offers engagement of governments, institutions, NGOs and the private sector.  In June 2014, the NEPAD Agency launched an alliance of diverse partners to reach six million farming families through Climate-Smart Agriculture processes over the next seven years. Known as the Africa Climate-Smart Agriculture Alliance, the group aims to contribute to helping 25 million farmers become more resilient and food secure by 2025.
  27. 27. Conservation Agriculture Centres of Excellence – CA COE CA CoEs are public research and/or training institutions dedicated to the goals and showcasing the widespread adaptation and adoption of CA at the national level. Key areas of their contribution include: 1. Research 2. Outreach 3. Linkages 4. Education & Training 5. IT Supported M&E and Knowledge Managemen
  28. 28. Identified Conservation Agriculture Centers of Excellence 1. Agricultural Research Institute Uyole, Tanzania 2. Gwebi Agricultural College, Zimbabwe 3. Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization Njoro, Kenya 4. L’institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, in Morocco (in the making) 5. Université Polytechnique de Bobo- Dioulasso in Burkina Faso 6. Yei Crop Training Centre in South Sudan 7. Haramaya University (HU), Ethiopia (in the making)
  29. 29. 5.MONITORING AND EVALUATION TO ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR CSA UPSCALING Regular updating of CA baseline on country level 30 N O Field Coordinates Tillage Crop rotation Permanent soil cover Irriga tion Area (ha) 1 . E S - No Till Reduce d Till Conven tional Rotation Mixed cropping Mono cropping Crop residue Imported material Cover crops No cover material YES NO 2 . E S - No Till Reduce d Till Conven tional Rotation Mixed cropping Mono cropping Crop residue Imported material Cover crops No cover material YES NO INVENTORY OF CULTIVATED FIELDS FOR CA DATABASE
  30. 30. MONITORING OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON Regular updating of key CSA ingredient such as SOC Hidden knowledge on the benefits of Soil organic carbon For every 1% increase of SOC the cropland can store water that flow for 150 days in major rivers 31
  31. 31. KNOWLEDGE OF CA ECONOMICS LIMITED (RIETKUIL MAIZE TRIAL: 2013/14) No Till Conventional Difference Yield: (Tons/ha) 7.5 6.9 Price/ton in Rand 1 750 1 750 Rand per year per: Hectare Hectare Produce sales 13 125 12 075 GROSS PRODUCTION VALUE R 13 125 R 12 075 -R 1 050 Seed 1 254 1 254 Fertilizer (Transport/ton included) 1 918 1 918 Weed control 1 077 858 Pest control 37 37 Harvest cost 463 463 DIRECT EXPENSES R 4 749 R 4 530 -R 219 Crop insurance (5 tons) 3.1% 271 271 Transport 342 342 VARIABLE COST R 613 R 613 R 0 Machinery cost 900 1 538 638 - Fuel 252 550 - Depreciation & Repairs 630 962 - Operator cost 18 26 Interest 213 203 ALLOTTED EXPENSES R 1 113 R 1 741 R 628 TOTAL EXPENSES R 6 475 R 6 884 R 409 ENTERPRISE MARGIN R 6 650 R 5 191 -R 1 459 32
  32. 32. RIETKUIL MAIZE TRIAL: 2013/14 No Till Conventional Difference CAPITAL 20 968 26 650 5 682 Machinery 5 968 11 650 Land (R12,000/ha) 15 000 15 000 ENTERPRISE MARGIN 6 650 5 191 -1 459 RETURN ON INVESTMENT 32% 19% -12 33
  33. 33. CONCLUSION (GAPS in proofing of CSA interventions)  Making agricultural production and management systems climate-smart is a highly knowledge-intensive process thus current gaps in knowledge and capacity need to be addressed systematically.  There are currently very few “proofs of concept” – to address the “disconnect” between climate science and African agriculture.  Due to the uncertain and dynamic nature of climate change impacts, a transition towards climate-smart agriculture requires socio-institutional learning processes that utilize the innovation potential of agricultural systems.  Decisions of CSA made at national and local level need to be based on the best information available-and currently there is a need to build information sharing systems and platforms across government, private sector, NGOs, communities, academic and research institutions.
  34. 34. CONCLUSION (GAPS in proofing of CSA interventions)  There is lack of capacity of knowledge management and capacity development platforms  Access to information and knowledge particularly for poor and vulnerable Africans is constrained by the packaging which is technical terms and in very many times in foreign language  To achieve food security, there is need for efficient and effective knowledge management and capacity development in reducing the vulnerability to climate change by:  Establishing existing capacity gaps on CSA technologies and practices  Developing training materials that can support the capacity development gaps identified  Strengthening institutional and community capacity and partnerships to deliver climate services and products  Generating, developing, sustaining and disseminating knowledge and information to support CSA technologies and practices
  35. 35. PRIORITY ACTIONS TO ADRESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR CSA 1. Develop and strengthen capacity to support CSA technologies and practices  Undertake a capacity gap analysis in climate smart technologies and practices  Facilitate development of training materials to support the capacity development gaps identified  Strengthen institutional and community capacity and partnerships to deliver climate services and products  Strengthen regional networks such as Conservation Agriculture Regional Working Group in SADC, ACT etc 2. Generate and disseminate knowledge and information to support CSA  Communication strategies  Improve coordination  Innovative models of communication employing ICT, print media, social media, churches, etc
  36. 36. PRIORITY ACTIONS TO ADRESS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR CSA 3. Develop, repackage and disseminate knowledge products and services to promote CSA technologies and practices to simple non technical parlance and local vernacular  To downscale weather and climate information to the smallholder packaged it into user friendly formats  To strengthen collection and utilisation of agrometeorological data  To promote public private partnerships and to demonstrate the positive economic returns associated with CSA  Develop and equip climate change resource centres  Develop and upscale climate smart agriculture technology community demonstration and learning centres 4. Develop and improve the Agricultural Geo-referenced Information System (AGIS) in all levels as theatre of knowledge warehousing
  37. 37. WHAT IS LANDCARE NO CARE LANDCARE USE OF TRANSFORMATIVE GRASROOTS PROGRAMMES SUCH AS LANDCARE FOR BROADER KNOWLDEGE GENERATION AND DISSEMINATION

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