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Determinants of farmers’ adoption alternate wet and dry techniques in lowland rice production in Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon for CSA

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Determinants of farmers’ adoption alternate wet and dry techniques in lowland rice production in Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon for CSA

  1. 1. Determinants of farmers’ adoption alternate wet and dry techniques in lowland rice production in Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon for climate smart agriculture Oladele O I and Adenike Naomi Chimewah1 1Service of Relations with Private Societies and Agric. Ext Structures, MINADER Internal Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, National Agricultural Extension and Research Program, Cameroon adenikechimewah@yahoo.com Oladele20002001@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Adoption concepts Rice in Africa Rice for food security Features of AWD Objectives of study Methodology Analytical model Results and Discussion Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction Improving performance of low-productivity smallholder agriculture and moving out of poverty in general have been the focus of recent development economics literature Several proven technologies and improved farming practices have been impacted by farmers’ adoption behaviour and consequently low agricultural productivity There exist adoption gap is the difference between potential and actual adoption rate, often operationalized as yield and extension gaps Increasing the speed of technology adoption is a key requirement for enhancing food security, agricultural productivity, economic growth and reduction of poverty in economically vulnerable communities
  4. 4. Adoption Concepts Sustainable adoption Continued adoption Sustained adoption Selective adoption Adoption rent Replacement adoption Partial adoption Adoption intensity Ex- post adoption Ex- ante adoption Replacement discontinuance adoption Disenchantment discontinuance adoption Abandoned adoption
  5. 5. Rice in Africa Rice has become one of the major staple cereals in Africa as the second largest cereal consumed after maize due to increasing urbanization, rapid population growth and the ease of preparation. The inability of many African countries to produce rice to self- sufficiency levels is indicative of the presence of major constraints. In African countries major rice production ecologies include rainfed drylands; rainfed lowlands or hydromorphic; inland swamps and valley bottoms; and irrigated paddies. More returns, yield and profitability is associated with production systems that guarantee sufficient and effective management of water.
  6. 6. Fig. 1 Rice ecologies excluding deep water and mangrove swamp along a continuum of inland valley watershed and floodplains in West Africa. Source: Wakatsuki T, Buri, M.M and Oladele O.I (2009) West African Rice Green Revolution by Sawah Eco-technology and the Creation of SATOYAMA systems. Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies No. 63, JSPS Global COE Program Series 61 In search of Sustainable Humanosphere in Asia and Africa. March 2009. 30 p
  7. 7. Rice for food security The introduction of rice production techniques is one of the several attempts to stimulate green revolution in Africa as a major step towards achieving food security in Africa. Closely related to irrigated lowland rice production is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which vary depending on system of production but produces roughly four times the GHG emissions per ton of crop as wheat or maize, mostly in the form of methane and nitrous oxide as flooding rice fields blocks oxygen penetration into the soil, which allows bacteria that produce methane to thrive. To reduce greenhouse gas emission from irrigated lowland rice production Alternate Wet and Dry (AWD) as a water management was introduced
  8. 8. Features of AWD The adoption of AWD makes rice production climate smart agriculture. Practiced on lowland rice-growing areas where soils can be drained in 5-day intervals Reduce the amount of irrigation water input by as much as 35% without yield penalty. Reduces irrigation and pumping costs. Increase the water use efficiency by reducing seepage and percolation during production. Improves yields compared to continuous flooding, by promoting more effective tillering and stronger root growth of rice plants
  9. 9. Fig. 2 Schematic presentation of yield responses to water availability and soil condition in different rice production systems and their respective technologies to reduce water inputs. AWD = alternate wetting and drying, SSC = saturated soil culture, FC = field capacity, S = saturation point, Y = change in yield. Adapted from Cabangon et al (2014) and Tuong et al. (2005).
  10. 10. Features of AWD Reduce labor costs through improved field conditions (soil stability) at harvest, allowing for mechanical harvesting. Decreases the net global warming potential of paddy fields as long as large amounts of rice straw are returned to the soil. Reduce methane emissions by over 50% as compared to rice produced under continuous flooding; Reduce the global warming impact of paddy fields to one- third (1/3) of the conventional continuously-flooded field water management.
  11. 11. Objectives of study The objective is to determine factors influencing farmers’ adoption alternate wet and dry techniques in lowland rice production in Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon for climate smart agriculture. The specific objectives include the identification of personal characteristics, determination of levels of awareness, use of Alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation, knowledge and implications of AWD for climate smart agriculture
  12. 12. Methodology
  13. 13. Methodology An ex-post facto research design was used in the studies and the population of rice farmers on each of the irrigation schemes were the population of the study. A sample size of 120 150 and 300 rice farmers from irrigation schemes in (Tema) Ghana, (Doho) Uganda and Ndop (Cameroon) respectively were randomly selected from each of the irrigation schemes. The sample sizes of farmers were arrived at using the Raosoft Sampling Technique. Data were collected through the use of structured, face-validated and reliable ( r = 0.80; split- half) questionnaire on their personal characteristics, awareness, use of Alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation, knowledge and implications of AWD for climate smart agriculture. Completed questionnaires were coded, captured and analysed using version 21 of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, and means were used to summarise the data. The probit model was used to analyse the effect of factors on AWD adoption by farmers. The dependent variable Y is dichotomous, thus Y=1 if farmers adopt, and Y=0 if farmers do not adopt. A probit model highlights the fact that the discrete dependent variable Y is a rough categorisation of a continuous but unobserved variable Y*. If Y* could be directly observed, then standard regression methods would be used (with an assumption that Y* is a linear function of some independent variables, for example):
  14. 14. Analytical Model
  15. 15. Result and Discussions
  16. 16. Conclusions The introduction of alternate wet and dry techniques in lowland rice production in Ghana, Uganda and Cameroon for climate smart agriculture plays an important role in the reduction of irrigated lowland rice production generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions The need for extension services to achieve more than use of a technology to ensuring the accurate implementation of technology disseminated is highlighted.

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