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Case of Korean Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services

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Case of Korean Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services

  1. 1. Oct. 31, 2017 Case of Korean Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services Cho Gyoung-Rae Korea –Africa Food &Agriculture Cooperation Initiative
  2. 2. Overview Key Factors Agriculture Investing in Youth
  3. 3. I. Overview 4
  4. 4. 19801960 1970 1996 5,000 10,000 1953 GNI Per Capita ($) 19901945 1998 2007 15,000 2008 20,000 2016 65 79 12,197 7,355 1,000 21,632 1997~98 Financial Crisis Global Financial Crisis OECD Member 1948 Independence (1945) $27,561 Receiving Foreign Aid Korean War (1950~53) SMU UR Rice Self- sufficiency 81% (’70) → 109% (’77) 25,000
  5. 5. Agricultural Extension System MAFRA Provincial governments City/County governments Research Inst.(4) Extension Bureau Research Station Korea agriculture extension is based on the network among RDA, and provincial agricultural research & extension centers and city/county agricultural technology centers Farmer Help Center RDA Provincial (9) City/County (158) Extension Network Provincial City/County Producer Family farm Farm association Local univ. RDA Industry Farmer Evaluation Budget Budget management Dissemination & Training
  6. 6. Agricultural Extension System Personnel (2017) : 9,985 persons Researcher Extension agent Technician, others Total RDA 1,168 96 583 1,847 (18%) LocalRDA 781 4,320 3.037 8.138 (82%) Total 1,949 4.416 3,620 9,985 (100%)
  7. 7. Rural Development Administration RDA: Integrated Research and Extension System 농과원 원예원 식량원 National Institute of Agricultural Sciences National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science National Institute of Crop Science National Institute of Animal Science
  8. 8. Korea achieved self-sufficiency of rice through ‘Green Revolution’ in 1974 6/46
  9. 9. RDA also developed a technique which enables the year- round production of vegetables and fruits through ‘White Revolution’ in 1980s
  10. 10. 1. Agriculture as an Innovation System 2. Strong Government Support 3. Farmers Organization 4. The Role of Extension 5. Research-Extension Linkage Ⅱ. Key Factors of Korean AEAS
  11. 11. 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s  Set up Research & Extension System • Initiation of modern technology dissemination  High-yielding Food Production • Green Revolution  Year-round Production • White Revolution  Quality, Eco-friendly • Quality Revolution  Safe, Value-added * Value Revolution
  12. 12. 2. Strong Government Support Financial Support  Total R&D investment: 5.3% of national budget  Farmers organization  Entrepreneurship  Extension programs  Institutional Support  National Agricultural Research & Extension System  Seed supply system  Local extension agencies  Whole sale markets
  13. 13. 3. Farmers Organization • Founded in 1961 (National Agricultural Coop. Federation) • Number of Cooperatives: 1,167 (as of 2012) – Regional cooperatives: 1,086 – Commodity specific cooperatives: 81 • Member Farmers: 2,446,836 (2011) • Main Activities – Collective purchase of agricultural inputs and marketing – Banking: mutual credit – Insurance • Net Income (2011): KRW 703 billion (USD 700 million) – Total Assets (2011): KRW 305 trillion (USD 305 billion) 1. Agricultural Cooperatives: NACF
  14. 14. 3. Farmers Organization Unit 2014 2015 No. of corporates ea. 16,482 18,757 No. of employees persons 102,296 115,704 Total sales Mil. USD 23,023 24,519 Sales per corp. Mil. USD 1.77 1.65 2. Agricultural Corporates Encourage cooperative entrepreneurship
  15. 15. 4. The Role of Extension • Farm household vs. extension agent ratio = 242:1 Farm population (2016) No. of Farm Households (A) No. of Extension Agents (B) Ratio (A/B) 2,496,000 1,068,000 4,416 242 *Numberoffarmpopulationper1extensionagents:565
  16. 16. 4. The Role of Extension contd... • Educator/ Trainer • Consultant/ Advisor • Project Manager • Community Developer • Facilitator of Community Organizing • Policy Advocator • Administrative Supporter of Local Government Considered as Pioneer of Rural Development
  17. 17. 5. Research-Extension Linkage Research (4 Inst.) Extension (9 PRDAs, 156 AECs) Farmers (1.07M Farms) New Variety New Tech. Dissemination advisory Adoption & Production feedback Results Issues Technology Problems FAO recognized Korean Research & Extension Linkage as one of the most efficient systems in 1985. ※ Two missions (Re. & Ex.) in one body, RDA Research : 4 National Institutes on Crop, Horticulture, Animal, Basic research, RDA Extension : 9 provincial RDAs, 156 city/county Agricultural Extension Centers Strong Research & Extension Linkage System
  18. 18. III. Key Innovation Tools: ICTs
  19. 19. ICTs in Agriculture ICT development Index (2016) : Ranked 1 since 2010 Source: UN-ITU (2016)
  20. 20. Use of ICTs in Agriculture Role of ICTs Use Agricultural extension services Call center, video, SNS, agricultural innovation platform Promote environmentally sustainable farming practices GAP, Smart farm, Soil info. Sys. Disaster management & early warning system Weather info., National Crop Pest Management system Market access Market price information system
  21. 21. Use of ICTs in Agriculture Role of ICTs Use Food safety & traceability Animal products and food traceability system Financial inclusion, insurance & risk management E-wallet, agricultural disaster insurance system Capacity-building & empowerment e-Learning for farmers & extension agents Regulatory & policy National regulation information sys
  22. 22. ICTs in Agriculture : Smart Farm Fan Driving motor for roof & side window, warm & shade curtain Temp. Humi. CO2 Greenhouse control Inner weather Control panel Outer weather Cloud server Soil sensorFertilizer Recorder CCTV Cool/Heat control Router PC High Speed Internet Infrastructure (5G)
  23. 23. Smart Farms: controlled by phone System Configuration CCTV camera Smart Farm (M2M Embedded System) controller Sensors - temperature - humidity - rainfall etc. Smart phone Apps.
  24. 24. ICTs in Agriculture : Smart Farm 40/46 Smart Agriculture System based on Sensors and Information Soil sensor Soil info. Crop info. Harvest info. Plant sensor Variable rate application (fertilization, pesticide)
  25. 25. National Crop Pest Management System
  26. 26. National Crop Pest Management System Monitoring Forecast Diagnose Pest info Guide Request test Test result Pictorial book Forecast map Open API
  27. 27. Soil Information System
  28. 28. Soil Information System • Web platform base and mobile access • Provide chemical/physical properties of soil such as ph, organic matter, phosphoric acid, etc. • Suggest farmers on which crop will be the best to plant • Recommend the kind and the quantity of fertilizers that the farmer has to use for his/her land • Find the best-fit land for the specific crop around your region • Provide Web-education service for user’s better understanding
  29. 29. Korean Soil Information System Main screen Fertilizer recommendation Digital soil map service Various agro- environmental characteristics
  30. 30. Soil Information Maps of 1:5,000 scale
  31. 31. Fertilizer Application Recommendation Recommended fertilizer application Soil chemical properties as a soil test result General farm information
  32. 32. Farm Management App Contents: Farm work management, bookkeeping, cost- benefit analysis and consulting
  33. 33. Farm Management App Account book: daily, weekly, monthly analysis
  34. 34. Real Time Market Info System Info. Data Collection Area Time Wholesale Price 33 Wholesale Markets City Daily Auction Price 33 Wholesale Markets City Minutes Consumer price Department store Supermarket Traditional Market District Weekly Price of Exported goods Garak Market Country Daily Quantity of goods Joint Markets City Minutes
  35. 35. Real Time Market Info System Market Information is available in both Web and Mobile
  36. 36. Real Time Market Info System Market name Corn Time Real time Action Price Variety Quantity Price
  37. 37. e-Learning: Video • Around 700 Videos for crops, vegetable, fruits, flowers, livestock, and farm management – cultivation, pest management, physiological problem, postharvest management etc.
  38. 38. Integrated Innovation Platform NongSaro
  39. 39. Integrated Innovation Platform NongSaro Agri. inputs Technologies Mgt. & Business Consumers All agi. Info are here in only one APP
  40. 40. IntegratedAgr. Innovation Platform • Integrated external information systems (32) • Linked to all agricultural information system – governments, farmers organizations, markets • Information of all stakeholders – Farmers, researchers, extension agents, consumers • Accumulated 5 million documents – weather, soil info, market, agri. inputs, etc. NongSaro
  41. 41. Investing in Youth as the Next Generation
  42. 42. Youth as the Next Generation Table. Percentage of Farmers by Age in Korea Items Unit 2016 No. of Korean household (A) 1,000 19,285 No. of farm household (B) 1,000 1,068 B/A % 5.5 Below 50 years old % 7.5 50-59 % 21.4 Over 60 years old % 71.1 Average age of farmers year 66.3
  43. 43. Youth as the Next Generation  Avoiding Job: agriculture, why?  Income  Hard work  Bad environment  Living condition  Dynamics  Education
  44. 44. Case: KNCAF Korea National College of Agriculture and Fishery (KNCAF)  Established in 1997  Number of graduate(~2016): 4,041  Number of graduate in 2017: 373  School year: 3 year  Course: 9 department (Crop, floriculture, livestock, fruit, vegetable, fishery etc.) Rate of farming graduates up to now: 85%
  45. 45. KNCAF commencement 2017
  46. 46. Youth as the Next Generation $81,818 $33,815 $47,991 $0 $20,000 $40,000 $60,000 $80,000 $100,000 KNCAF graduates Farm household Non-farm household Average Income in 2016 (USD)
  47. 47. Youth as the Next Generation Heo Jeongsoo (28 years old) Farm size: 2 ha of smart farm Tomato production: 1,200 ton (2016) Income: USD 1 million
  48. 48. Youth as the Next Generation cont..  Success Points  Equipped new innovative technologies  Mind set of entrepreneurship  Trained at advanced farms for 6 months  Students selected mainly from farm households  Financial, technical support by government
  49. 49. Concluding • Extension agents are key persons as catalyst, facilitators, and adviser of the rural and agricultural development, because only they contact with grass root farmers, listen their difficulties, and try to find out the solutions. • Action to support them will be first step toward agricultural growth.
  50. 50. Concluding: Now in Korea… 8,758 9,392 8,400 8,600 8,800 9,000 9,200 9,400 9,600 2010 2015 Rural population (1,000) Rural population (1,000) 635,000 people have moved to rural for recent five (5) years 635
  51. 51. Concluding cont… 14.7 10.7 29.4 19.1 15.4 12.4 36.7 3.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Disliked urban life For health Natural amenity Agricultural vision & profitability Reasons for immigration to the rural (%) Rural residence group Farming group Source: KREI (2017)
  52. 52. Concluding  Attractive Rural and Agricultural life • Good rural environment and amenity; • Rapid development of ICTs, and transportation will attract rural and agricultural life rather than urban life. • Science and technology will make it possible.

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