Adoption of agro-weather information sources for CSA among farmers in Embu and Ada'a Districts of Kenya and Ethiopia
Adoption of agro-weather information
sources for climate-smart agriculture
among farmers in Embu and Ada'a
Districts of Kenya and Ethiopia
Oladele O.I, Shimeles A, Mamo G, Aregawi F, Gitika M P, Ngari F, Braimoh A K
Kenya National Federation of Agricultural Producers
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Agricultural and Rural Development, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW,
Washington DC 20433, USA.
Objective of the study
Results and Discussions
Ensuring food security under a changing climate is one of the
major challenges of the 21st Century.
Agricultural productivity is highly impacted by weather.
The Agro-weather tool increases the adaptive capacity of
farming communities by improving a) access to information on
weather forecasting and climate patterns; and b) farm
management capabilities under conditions of climate risk for
Agroweather increases awareness of the practical utility of agro-
weather information products and improve extension services
for better agricultural decision making.
The delivery of climate-smart advisory information using
ICT such as SMS and smart phone applications and more
conventional media such as radio messages are vital for
enhancing farmers’ resilience and adaptation to climate
Weather information needs to be tailored to the
microenvironment of the farmer to improve farm
management capabilities under conditions of climate risks.
The agro-weather decision support systems including
community farm radio messages were used in the study
The agro-weather tool took advantage of internationally
available Decision Support System (DSS) tools such as crop
simulation models to understand and demonstrate impacts of
climate variability and crop management practices on specific
crop yields and subsequently generates climate-smart agro-
DSS collect, organize, and integrate all types of information
required for producing a crop.
DSS then analyzes and interprets the information and finally
uses the analysis to recommend the most appropriate action for
sustaining maximum yields.
Expert knowledge, management models, and timely data are
key elements of DSS and are used to assist producers with both
daily operational and long-range strategic decisions.
The development process comprises of stakeholder identification and consultation;
data/information collection and dissemination of services to farmers.
Agro-weather advisory system utilised short message services, Interactive voice response,
newsletter and other traditional ICTs for the transfer of activity specific information that is
location specific and time bound to farmers in the coverage area on pre-cultivation
strategic choices, and tactical decisions.
This is predicated on the fact that digital technology is fast becoming a part of everyday life
in sub-Saharan Africa,"
With a mobile penetration rate of 70% at the end of 2013, sub-Saharan Africa is rapidly
closing in on the global penetration rate of 92%.
Nigeria, South Africa and Kenya still have the most mobile subscribers.
Sub-Saharan Africa is a the fastest growing and largest prepaid market (ITU, 2014).
Based on the crop simulation model generated outputs, a detailed climate-smart
agricultural management practices advisory framework has been developed.
Objective of the study
The objective is to determine factors
influencing adoption of agro-weather
information sources for climate-smart
agriculture among farmers in Embu and Ada'a
Districts of Kenya and Ethiopia
Kenya and Ethiopia are situated in the Eastern Africa
The population of the study is all agroweather tools project beneficiaries in Embu
east Sub County and Ada’a District, Ethiopia.
These are all tea, coffee sorghum and maize & beans farmers that have been reached
with the agroweather tools namely, newsletters, radio, IVR and SMS.
In Ethiopia, these are all chick pea, lentils, teff and wheat farmers that have been
reached with the agroweather tools namely, newsletters, radio, IVR and SMS.
The sampling procedure was systematic in Kenya while in Ethiopia simple random
sampling was used with 360 and 171 farmers respectively
Data in Embu East, Kenya and Adaá district in Ethiopia were collected through the
use of a structured questionnaire which was face validated and tested for reliability
Data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0.
Result and Discussions
Gender Age Marital status Religion Educational level
Figure 1: Distribution of farmers based on selected personal characteristics in Embu Kenya
The agroweather tools for adaptation to climate smart agriculture has
been used as a proof of concept that smallholder farmers are able to
make more informed choices upon access to timely weather information
and requisite advisory.
The overall results show that farming experience and impact of
agroweather information were significant determinants of the use of all
Ownership/ Access, Extension contact, Frequency of Extension contact
and Extension agency were significant determinant of the use of SMS,
Newsletter, and radio,
Group membership, was a significant determinant of the use of SMS,
Newsletter, and IVR.
The significance of these variables stress their need in the planning and
policy formulation for the use of agroweather tools for information