Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Ist Dental Students - BioChemistry

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. Classification of minerals in human body:  According to body needs, minerals are divided:According to body needs, minerals are divided: 1-1-Major [MacronutrientsMajor [Macronutrients ]:]: They are required in amountsThey are required in amounts > 100 mg / day> 100 mg / day.. They include:They include: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium,calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulphur.sodium, potassium, chloride and sulphur. 2-2-Trace elements [Micronutrients]Trace elements [Micronutrients] :: They are required in amountsThey are required in amounts < 100 mg / day< 100 mg / day.. They include:They include: iron, copper, zinc, selenium, chromium, cobalt, iodine,iron, copper, zinc, selenium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, fluoride, manganese and molybdenumfluoride, manganese and molybdenum..
  2. 2. Calcium& PhosphorusCalcium& Phosphorus
  3. 3. Ca DistributionCa Distribution  1200 g1200 g of Ca in adult body.of Ca in adult body.  99%99% in skeleton:in skeleton: 1. Major form1. Major form isis crystalline Ca phosphatecrystalline Ca phosphate .. 2. Minor form2. Minor form is amorphousis amorphous non-crystallinenon-crystalline CaCa phosphatephosphate..  1%1% in body fluids, serum and CSF:in body fluids, serum and CSF: ionized andionized and non-ionizednon-ionized..
  4. 4. CaCa FunctionFunction  Bone mineralizationBone mineralization:: Ca is an essential element inCa is an essential element in bone and teeth.bone and teeth. Ca is captured into bones by bindingCa is captured into bones by binding osteocalcin (osteocalcin (Ca binding protein).Ca binding protein).  Ionized Ca:Ionized Ca: 1.1. Blood coagulationBlood coagulation and milk clottingand milk clotting.. 2.2. Membrane permeability.Membrane permeability. 3.3. Muscle and Nerve excitability:Muscle and Nerve excitability: -- Generation and conduction ofGeneration and conduction of nerve impulse &msnerve impulse &ms contractioncontraction.. - Regulation of- Regulation of neuro-muscular excitabilityneuro-muscular excitability ..
  5. 5. CaCa FunctionFunction  Ionized CaIonized Ca:: 4.4. Second messenger of many hormones:Second messenger of many hormones: 5.5. For activity ofFor activity of lipase, phosphorylase andlipase, phosphorylase and αα- amylase enzyme.- amylase enzyme.
  6. 6. PhPh DistributionDistribution  800 g800 g distributed in all body cells.distributed in all body cells.  80%80% inin bone and teethbone and teeth combined with Ca.combined with Ca.  20%20% in all body cells as:in all body cells as: 10%10% inin (phospho compound)(phospho compound) phosphoproteins,phosphoproteins, phospholipids and sugar phosphates.phospholipids and sugar phosphates. 10%10% inin (chemical compounds)(chemical compounds) as nucleicas nucleic acids, nucleotides, coenzymes andacids, nucleotides, coenzymes and creatine phosphate.creatine phosphate.
  7. 7. PhPh FunctionFunction  Bone and teethBone and teeth mineralization.mineralization.  Phosphate esterPhosphate ester compounds forcompounds for transfer and storage of energy.transfer and storage of energy.  PhosphatePhosphate buffersbuffers system in blood.system in blood.  Nucleic acidsNucleic acids formation.formation.  Coenzymes [Coenzymes [TPP, NADP].TPP, NADP].
  8. 8. CalciumCalcium PhosphorusPhosphorus SourcesSources Milk and its product, egg yolk,Milk and its product, egg yolk, cabbage, cauliflowercabbage, cauliflower AbsorptionAbsorption Active transport in upper S.I byActive transport in upper S.I by CBP.CBP. Ca:P ratio in diet 1:1 (adults) andCa:P ratio in diet 1:1 (adults) and 1.5:1 (infants).1.5:1 (infants).
  9. 9. Factors affecting absorption  1-Calcitriol (1,251-Calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol):dihydroxycholecalciferol): It is produced inIt is produced in the kidneys in response tothe kidneys in response to lowlow plasma Ca.plasma Ca. ↑↑ intestinal absorption of calciumintestinal absorption of calcium && phosphorus through;phosphorus through; mechanism :-mechanism :-↑↑ synthesissynthesis Calcium BindingCalcium Binding ProteinProtein >>>which is responsible for Ca>>>which is responsible for Ca absorption through the intestinal mucosalabsorption through the intestinal mucosal cell.cell.
  10. 10. Factors affecting absorptionFactors affecting absorption (cont(cont.(.(  2-PTH:2-PTH: through activation of vit D.through activation of vit D.  3-pH3-pH of intestinal contents.of intestinal contents. Alkaline pHAlkaline pH leads to less soluble Ca saltsleads to less soluble Ca salts Acidic pHAcidic pH favours Ca solublity andfavours Ca solublity and absorption.absorption.
  11. 11. Factors affecting absorptionFactors affecting absorption (cont(cont.(.(  4-Dietary factors:4-Dietary factors: For optimal absorption CaFor optimal absorption Ca++++ : PO: PO-- 44 ratio inratio in diet is 1:1 in adult and 1.5 : 1 in is 1:1 in adult and 1.5 : 1 in infant. A-A- Vit D, lactose and high protein dietVit D, lactose and high protein diet ↑↑ the absorption.the absorption. B-B- Phytate, oxalate (insoluble Ca salts)Phytate, oxalate (insoluble Ca salts) and fatty acids (insoluble Ca soap)and fatty acids (insoluble Ca soap) ↓↓ CaCa absorptionabsorption while aluminum hydroxidewhile aluminum hydroxide (antacid)(antacid) ↓↓ Ph absorption.Ph absorption.
  12. 12. Blood calcium & phosphorusBlood calcium & phosphorus CaCa PhPh Plasma level isPlasma level is 9-11 mg/dl9-11 mg/dl diffusible:diffusible: ionized: 50% (active)ionized: 50% (active) non ionized: 5%non ionized: 5% (inactive Ca citrate)(inactive Ca citrate)  non diffusible:non diffusible: protein bound [45%].protein bound [45%]. Plasma level isPlasma level is 4-7 mg/dl in child &4-7 mg/dl in child & 3-4.5 mg/dl in adult3-4.5 mg/dl in adult Ca : P ratioCa : P ratio is importantis important in ossificationin ossification In serum, the ionic productIn serum, the ionic product of Caof Ca ×× P is about 50 mg/dlP is about 50 mg/dl in children (in children (↓↓ in rickets)in rickets)
  13. 13. Control of blood calcium &Control of blood calcium & phosphorusphosphorus o The precise control is regulated by action ofThe precise control is regulated by action of PTHPTH,, calcitriolcalcitriol andand calcitonincalcitonin on intestine, kidney andon intestine, kidney and bone.bone.  1-Calcitriol:1-Calcitriol: produced in kidney in response toproduced in kidney in response to lowlow calcium & phosphorus level.calcium & phosphorus level. It increases calcium level by:It increases calcium level by:  Increasing theirIncreasing their intestinal absorptionintestinal absorption andand renalrenal tubular reabsorption of Calcium .tubular reabsorption of Calcium .  StimulateStimulate bonebone resorptionresorption..
  14. 14. Control of blood calcium &Control of blood calcium & phosphorus (cont.)phosphorus (cont.) 2-PTH:2-PTH: secreted in response tosecreted in response to low plasma calciumlow plasma calcium level.level. ItIt ↑↑ calciumcalcium && ↓↓ phosphorusphosphorus levels through;levels through;  ActivatesActivates vitamin D>>>calcitriol.vitamin D>>>calcitriol.  IncreaseIncrease intestinal absorptionintestinal absorption of both in presence ofof both in presence of calcitriol.calcitriol.  Increases mobilization of both Ca&P fromIncreases mobilization of both Ca&P from bone tobone to bloodblood..  IncreasesIncreases renal tubular reabsorption of Carenal tubular reabsorption of Ca++++ andand increases phosphate excretionincreases phosphate excretion..
  15. 15. Control of blood calcium &Control of blood calcium & phosphorus (contphosphorus (cont.).)  3-Calcitonin:3-Calcitonin: lowerslowers both plasma calcium andboth plasma calcium and phosphorus by:phosphorus by:  inhibiting mobilization from bone.inhibiting mobilization from bone.  DDecreasing calciumecreasing calcium renal tubular reabsorptionrenal tubular reabsorption of calciumof calcium & phosphorus ( increases Ca and Ph& phosphorus ( increases Ca and Ph excretion).excretion).
  16. 16. The total body iron of an adult (70 kg) isThe total body iron of an adult (70 kg) is about 4-5 g. It is distributed as followsabout 4-5 g. It is distributed as follows:: Heme iron compoundsHeme iron compounds  HemoglobinHemoglobin  MyoglobinMyoglobin  Cytochrome CCytochrome C  Cytochrome aCytochrome a11, a, a33, b, b  PeroxidasePeroxidase  CatalaseCatalase Non heme iron compoundsNon heme iron compounds  FerritinFerritin  HemosiderinHemosiderin  TransferrinTransferrin Other iron compounds (<5%) is mainly present bound to proteins
  17. 17. Biological functionsBiological functions  Iron enters in the structure of:Iron enters in the structure of: - hemoglobin- hemoglobin & myoglobin. .& myoglobin. . - cytochrome P- cytochrome P450450.. - peroxidase and catalase.- peroxidase and catalase. - thyroperoxidase.- thyroperoxidase.
  18. 18. Disorders of plasma iron levelDisorders of plasma iron level Iron deficiency anemiaIron deficiency anemia.. HaemosiderosisHaemosiderosis..
  19. 19. Iron deficiency anemiaIron deficiency anemia Inadequate intake.Inadequate intake. Impaired absorption:Impaired absorption: -achlorhydria.-achlorhydria. -steatorrhea.-steatorrhea. -intestinal resection.-intestinal resection. Excessive blood loss.Excessive blood loss.  ↓↓ Plasma iron.Plasma iron.  ↑↑ transferrin.transferrin.  RBCs isRBCs is hypochromic,hypochromic, microcyticmicrocytic..
  20. 20. Haemosiderosis  repeated blood transfusion.repeated blood transfusion.  overdose of injectable iron.overdose of injectable iron.  congenital abnormality of increasedcongenital abnormality of increased iron absorption.iron absorption.
  21. 21. Flouride  SourceSource: drinking fluorinated water, sea fish.: drinking fluorinated water, sea fish.  FunctionsFunctions:: - protective against- protective against dental cariesdental caries (↓incidence(↓incidence of dental caries of up to 70%).of dental caries of up to 70%). - protective against- protective against bone demineralizationbone demineralization disorders, asdisorders, as osteoporosis and osteomalaciaosteoporosis and osteomalacia..