Senate HELP Testimony 11/20/13

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Senate HELP Testimony 11/20/13

  1. 1. Tables And Figures To Accompany Prepared Testimony Nicholas Eberstadt, Ph.D. Henry Wendt Chair in Political Economy American Enterprise Institute <eberstadt@aei.org> Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging U.S. Senate Washington, D.C. November 20, 2013
  2. 2. Figure 1 Life Expectancy at Birth, USA vs. 23 Never-Communist OECD countries, 1950-2011 (years) 85 Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Denmark Finland 80 France Germany Iceland 75 Ireland Israel Italy 70 Japan Luxembourg Netherlands 65 New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain 60 Sweden Switzerland UK 55 USA Source: Human Mortality Database. University of California, Berkeley (USA), and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany). Available at www.mortality.org, Accessed November 15, 2013.
  3. 3. Figure 2 Infant Mortality Rate for the USA and 23 Never-Communist OECD countries, 1950-2011 (deaths per 1000 births) 100 Australia Austria Belgium Canada 90 Denmark Finland 80 France Germany 70 Iceland Ireland 60 50 40 Israel Italy Japan Luxembourg Netherlands 30 New Zealand Norway 20 Portugal Spain 10 Sweden Switzerland 0 UK USA Source: Human Mortality Database. University of California, Berkeley (USA), and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany). Available at www.mortality.org, Accessed November 15, 2013.
  4. 4. Table 1 Socioeconomic Disparities and Mortality in the United States, by Ethnicity, c. 2010 Percent Adults Age 25+ without High school Degree (2009) Poverty Rate (2010) White, not Hispanic Asian Pacific Gini Coefficient for Family Income (2010) Percent with no health insurance (2010) Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Age 18+ With no Health Care Visits over Previous 12 Months (2009) Age standardized mortality rate (2008-2010) Index of Age Standardized Mortality 2008-2010 (All = 100) 9.9 9.6 0.418 11.7 16.5 755.0 101 12.2 14.7 0.427 18.4 24.2 424.3 57 120 Black, not Hispanic 27.4 (classified as Black alone) 18.6 0.463 20.8 19.7 898.2 (classified as Black or African American) Hispanic (any race) 26.5 39.1 0.456 30.7 29.8 558.6 75 All 15.1 14.7 0.440 16.3 19.5 747.0 100 Sources: Poverty Rate: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplements, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032011/pov/POV01_100.htm; Education: Camille L. Ryan and Julie Siebens, Educational attainment in the United States: 2009, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-556 (February 2012), Table 1, http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p20-566.pdf ; Gini coefficient for family income: U.S. Census Bureau, “Historical Income Tables: Income Inequality”, Table F-4, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/inequality/ ; Health Insurance: Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadetter D. Proctor, Jessica C. Smith, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60-239, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010, Figure 7 and Table 8, http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p60-239.pdf ; Health Care Use: Schiller JS, Lucas JW, Peregoy JA. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2011. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 10(256). 2012., Table 35, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_256.pdf ; Mortality: Centers for Disease Control/National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States, 2012, Table 20, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/contents2012.htm#fig01 . All Data Accessed November 15, 2013.
  5. 5. Figure 3 Age Standardized Mortality for Females by Ethnicity: USA, 1980-2010 1,100.0 1,000.0 900.0 800.0 700.0 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 All Black or African American Asian or Pacific Islander Hispanic or Latino White, not Hispanic or Latino Source: CDC/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Compressed Mortality File, See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), Health, United States, 2012, Table 25, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/contents2012.htm#fig01 , Accessed November 15, 2013
  6. 6. Figure 4 Age Standardized Mortality for Males by Ethnicity: USA, 1980-2010 1,900.0 1,700.0 1,500.0 1,300.0 1,100.0 900.0 700.0 500.0 300.0 1980 1982 All 1984 1986 1988 Black or African American 1990 1992 1994 Asian or Pacific Islander 1996 1998 2000 Hispanic or Latino 2002 2004 2006 2008 White, not Hispanic or Latino Source: CDC/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Compressed Mortality File, See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), Health, United States, 2012, Table 25, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/contents2012.htm#fig01 , Accessed November 15, 2013 2010
  7. 7. Figure 5 Life Expectancy at Birth in Los Angeles County by Ethnicity, 2001-2010 with 2010-12 Poverty Rate by Ethnicity 88 2010 Asian Poverty Rate: 12.7% 86 2010 Hispanic Poverty Rate: 23.7% 84 Life Expectancy 82 80 2010 White, non Hispanic Poverty Rate: 10.2% 78 76 2010 Black Poverty Rate: 24.2% 74 72 70 2001 2002 Life Expectancy Legend: 2003 2004 Asian/Pacific Islander 2005 2006 Black Hispanic 2007 2008 2009 White Sources: Life expectancy dataset, County of Los Angeles, Department of Public Health, https://dqs.publichealth.lacounty.gov/query.aspx?d=3, Accessed November 15, 2013; Poverty Rate Statistics: Poverty Status in the Past (S1701): Los Angeles County, U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2010-2012 2010
  8. 8. Figure 6 Life Expectancy at Birth by Race/Ethnicity in New York City, 2001-2010; with Poverty Rate at 2010 by Ethnicity 2010 Hispanic Poverty Rate 27.9% 2010 White, nonHispanic Poverty Rate 12.1% 2010 Black Poverty Rate 23.0% Sources: NYC DOHMH Bureau of Vital statistics from Li W, Maduro G, Begier EM. Life Expectancy in New York City: What Accounts for the Gains? New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene: Epi Research Report, March 2013; 1-12. Poverty Rate Statistics: Poverty Status in the Past 12 months(S1701): New York City, New York, U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2010.
  9. 9. Figure 7 Age Standardized Mortality by Race/Ethnicity in New York City, 1990-2006; with 2006 NYC poverty rate by ethnicity 2006 Black 21.4% 2006 White, nonHispanic 10.9% 2006 Hispanic 28.6% 2006 Asian 17.9% Notes: Rates are age adjusted. Asian data prior to 1993 excluded due to changes in category definition. Sources: US Census 1990 and 2006; NYC DOHMH neighborhood population estimates, 2000-2006; Bureau of Vital Statistics, NYC DOHMH, 1990-2006 from Myers C, Olson C, Kerker B, Thorpe L., Greene C., Farley T. Reducing Health Disparities in New York City: Health Disparities in Life Expectancy and Death. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2010. Poverty Rate Statistics: Poverty Status in the Past (S1701): New York City, New York, U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2005.
  10. 10. Figure 8 Source: Bureau of Vital Statistics, NYC DOHMH, and New York State Dept. Health Bureau of Biometrics, 2004-2006 combined; NYC neighborhood population estimates, 2004-2006 combined from Myers C, Olson C, Kerker B, Thorpe L., Greene C., Farley T. Reducing Health Disparities in New York City: Health Disparities in Life Expectancy and Death. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2010.
  11. 11. Figure 9 Life Expectancy at Birth, 2007 in Years: OECD Nations vs. African Americans by State 84 82 80 78 76 74 70 District of Columbia West Virginia Turkey Louisiana Arkansas Mississippi Estonia Alabama Nebraska Oklahoma Tennessee Michigan Missouri Wisconsin Illinois Pennsylvania South Carolina Hungary Kentucky Ohio Indiana North Carolina Kansas Texas United States Georgia Virginia California Iowa Maryland Slovakia Poland Minnesota Nevada New Jersey Florida Mexico Delaware Czech Republic Slovenia Washington Chile Connecticut Arizona Colorado Portugal Oregon Denmark Massachusetts South Korea New York Finland Rhode Island Belgium Luxembourg Austria Greece United Kingdom Ireland Norway Germany New Zealand Netherlands Iceland Israel Sweden Spain France Canada Australia Italy Switzerland Japan 72 Source: OECD Data: United States Census Bureau. International Programs. International Data Base. Mortality Indicators by Sex. http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (Accessed: November 17, 2013) US Data: HD Index and Supplemental Indicators By State, 2010-11 Dataset, Measure of America, Social Science Research Council, http://measureofamerica.org/maps/?area=States&race=All&sex=All&year=Year2010&index=Life%20Expectancy%20at%20Birth%20%28years%29 (Accessed: Jan. 9, 2013)
  12. 12. 70 Turkey Estonia Hungary Slovakia West Virginia Poland Mexico Oklahoma Alabama Mississippi Kentucky Nevada Czech Republic Arkansas Slovenia Louisiana Tennessee Chile Georgia South Carolina Texas Portugal Indiana Missouri North Carolina Wyoming Denmark Ohio South Korea Kansas Maine Finland United States New Mexico Oregon Pennsylvania Delaware Michigan Montana Belgium Luxembourg Maryland Alaska Idaho Rhode Island Virginia Austria Illinois Greece Nebraska United Kingdom California New Hampshire Vermont Washington Ireland Florida Norway Iowa New Jersey Wisconsin Germany Colorado Hawaii Utah New Zealand Arizona Massachusetts Netherlands Iceland Connecticut New York Israel Sweden North Dakota Spain South Dakota France Canada Minnesota Australia Italy Switzerland Japan District of Columbia Figure 10 Life Expectancy at Birth, 2007 in Years: OECD Nations vs. White Americans by State 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 Source: OECD Data: United States Census Bureau. International Programs. International Data Base. Mortality Indicators by Sex. http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (Accessed: November 17, 2013) US Data: HD Index and Supplemental Indicators By State, 2010-11 Dataset, Measure of America, Social Science Research Council, http://measureofamerica.org/maps/?area=States&race=All&sex=All&year=Year2010&index=Life%20Expectancy%20at%20Birth%20%28years%29 (Accessed: Jan. 9, 2013)
  13. 13. 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 Turkey Estonia Hungary Slovakia Poland Mexico Czech Republic Slovenia Chile Hawaii Portugal Denmark Mississippi Alabama Louisiana South Korea Oklahoma Finland New Mexico Belgium Luxembourg Arkansas Kentucky Tennessee Austria Greece United Kingdom Ireland South Carolina Norway Germany Georgia North Carolina New Zealand Netherlands Missouri Ohio Iceland Israel Indiana Sweden Michigan Colorado Spain Maryland Pennsylvania France Canada Delaware Virginia Texas Arizona Australia Italy Switzerland Oregon Rhode Island Wisconsin Iowa Japan Florida Minnesota United States California Connecticut New York Idaho Utah Nebraska Kansas Washington New Jersey Massachusetts Illinois Nevada Figure 11 Life Expectancy at Birth, 2007 in Years: OECD Nations vs. Hispanic Americans by State Source: OECD Data: United States Census Bureau. International Programs. International Data Base. Mortality Indicators by Sex. http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (Accessed: November 17, 2013) US Data: HD Index and Supplemental Indicators By State, 2010-11 Dataset, Measure of America, Social Science Research Council, http://measureofamerica.org/maps/?area=States&race=All&sex=All&year=Year2010&index=Life%20Expectancy%20at%20Birth%20%28years%29 (Accessed: Jan. 9, 2013)
  14. 14. 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 Turkey Estonia Hungary Slovakia Poland Mexico Czech Republic Slovenia Chile Portugal Denmark South Korea Finland Belgium Luxembourg Austria Greece United Kingdom Ireland Norway Germany New Zealand Netherlands Iceland Israel Sweden Spain France Canada Australia Italy Switzerland Hawaii Oklahoma Louisiana Japan Tennessee South Carolina North Carolina Ohio Missouri Indiana Kansas Wisconsin Minnesota Utah Florida Oregon California Washington United States Nevada Pennsylvania Virginia Texas Georgia Michigan Maryland New York Illinois Massachusetts Colorado New Jersey Arizona Connecticut Figure 12 Life Expectancy at Birth, 2007 in Years: OECD Nations vs. Asian Americans by State Source: OECD Data: United States Census Bureau. International Programs. International Data Base. Mortality Indicators by Sex. http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (Accessed: November 17, 2013) US Data: HD Index and Supplemental Indicators By State, 2010-11 Dataset, Measure of America, Social Science Research Council, http://measureofamerica.org/maps/?area=States&race=All&sex=All&year=Year2010&index=Life%20Expectancy%20at%20Birth%20%28years%29 (Accessed: Jan. 9, 2013)
  15. 15. Figure 13 Infant Mortality Rate (2009) vs. Poverty Rate (2010): US Native born vs. Foreign born mothers by ethnicity 14 Black 12 Infant Mortality Rate 10 8 Black All 6 Hispanic Asian White All 4 Asian Hispanic White 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Poverty Rate Native born mother Foreign born mother Source: Infant mortality rate: T.J. Mathews and Marian MacDorman, Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol 61, No. 8, January 24, 2013, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_08.pdf. Poverty Rate data: Center for Immigration Studies, “Poverty, Welfare, and the Uninsured,” Immigrants in the United States: A profile of America’s Foreign born Population, Table 10, http://cis.org/node/3876#poverty, Accessed November 15, 2013. 35
  16. 16. Table 2 Infant Mortality Rate by Ethnicity, marital status, and education level, 2007-2009 8th grade or less Married NonHispanic Black 9th-12th grade, no diploma High school graduate Some or GED college, no Bachelor's Master's completes degree degree degree Doctorate or Professional degree Total 10.25 10.77 10.48 8.5 5.56 9.44 12.55 14.84 13.06 11.74 10.21 12.86 12.81 Married NonHispanic White 6.42 8.37 5.6 4.58 3.28 2.97 Unmarried NonHispanic White 8.43 10.03 7.53 5.66 5.66 Unmarried NonHispanic Black 3.58 4.24 7.13 Source: United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics (DVS), Linked Birth / Infant Death Records 2007-2009 on CDC WONDER On-line Database. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/lbd-current.html on Nov 17, 2013
  17. 17. Figure 14 Gestational age-specific infant mortality rates, United States vs. selected European countries, 2004 1,000.00 100.00 10.00 1.00 22–23 weeks Scotland Northern Ireland 24–27 weeks Denmark 28–31 weeks Finland Austria England and Wales 32–36 weeks United States 37 and over Norway Sweden Source: Marian MacDorman and T.J. Mathews, Behind international rankings of infant mortality: How the United States compares with Europe, Table 2, International Journal of Health Services, Volume 40, Number 4, Pages 577–588, 2010.

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