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VIA Bravo
Network Analyzer
What’s in this presentation?
• What you gain by using a Network Analyzer
• Learn the difference between a Network Analyzer...
Why Use a Vector
Impedance Analyzer?
 Scalars provide SWR & Return Loss information, but not
Vector Impedance. A high SWR...
Optimize Your Antenna System
to Enhance Range and Quality
Minimum Service Threshold
Range
EffectiveRadiatedPower(ERP)
Un-T...
EXAMPLE of a
COMMUNICATIONS IMPROVEMENT
Un-Tuned Transmission
Tuned Transmission
Proper tuning delivers more power and a h...
What Chokes an
Antenna?
Resistance Inductance
Capacitance
Impedance Reactance
Frequency
Resonance
Impedance Angle Reflecti...
Vector Impedance and
the Right Hand Plane (RHP)
X = Reactance, Z = Total Impedance, R = Resistance,
θ = Z Angle, and i or ...
Mapping the RHP to a unit circle
– Smith Chart
Note where Zo plots – Dead Center is Antenna System Perfection
Inductive
Re...
ELI the ICE Man
For best performance an antenna should be purely
resistive and resonant near Zo at the center frequency
(...
VIA Bravo
Vector Impedance Analyzer
Measures the impedance
and resonant frequencies of
antennas, coils, circuits &
compone...
Left = Unit of measure for selected test on Left vertical axis
Right = Unit of measure for selected test on Right vertical...
L/C = Numeric display of the inductive or capacitive
component of the measurement. For SWR mode, L/C =
the calculated “Q”
...
An antenna is resonant at the frequency(s) where
the Impedance (Phase) Angle is equal to zero (0).
Center Frequency
Right ...
Frequency Sweep vs CW Mode
Frequency Sweep
Normal Mode
One sweep about every second from FL to FH
Tuning requires a 1-2 se...
VIA Bravo II
Two ports (S11 and S21) add measurement versatility:
Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation
Amplifier Gain
Group Delay
...
VIA Bravo & PC Software
Impedance
Impedance Angle
Resistance
Reactance
Smith Chart*
VSWR
Return Loss
Reflection Coefficien...
Bravo PC Vision
Smith Chart from Antenna Sweep
As the frequency changes the antenna’s reactance moves from
inductive to capacitive with so...
Bravo PC Vision Software
Upload Current or Stored Plots from the VIA Bravo
Chart 8 Parameters at once
Save Charts on a PC ...
Weigh the Cost Against
the Gain
 Radio equipment - $$$$
Antenna site or tower - $$$$
Transmission lines - $$$
Installa...
VIA Bravo Bonus
It’s not just for measuring antennae
Tune ½ and ¼ wave transmission lines
Measuring inductors and capacito...
VIA Bravo II Bonus
It’s not just for measuring antennae
Measuring Group Delay
Measuring Gain Compression
Measuring Differe...
Summary
Proper antenna tuning for clear long range communications
Scalars provide only SWR and Return Loss, but NOT
reso...
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VIA Bravo Training Presentation 2

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E2020 General TDR Training from AEA Technology, Inc. For further assistance, visit our dedicated help desk at http://help.aeatech.com or send an email to techsupport@aeatechnology.com. You can also visit us online at http://aeatechnology.com.

Published in: Devices & Hardware
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VIA Bravo Training Presentation 2

  1. 1. VIA Bravo Network Analyzer
  2. 2. What’s in this presentation? • What you gain by using a Network Analyzer • Learn the difference between a Network Analyzer and Scalar • Look at the dynamics involved with antenna performance aka “Smith Chart Intro” • Familiarization with the VIA Bravo’s display • Preview Bravo PC VisionTM software • Summarization Plus Question and Answer session
  3. 3. Why Use a Vector Impedance Analyzer?  Scalars provide SWR & Return Loss information, but not Vector Impedance. A high SWR reading doesn’t tell you what to fix or what to tune in an antenna system  The VIA Bravo’s information can be used to: Maximize an antenna system’s efficiency Document an installation with electronic or paper media Diagnose an Antenna System to effect timely repairs  The VIA Bravo can be used at the antenna base or at the feed line using the “Nulling Cable” feature
  4. 4. Optimize Your Antenna System to Enhance Range and Quality Minimum Service Threshold Range EffectiveRadiatedPower(ERP) Un-Tuned Antenna Tuned Antenna
  5. 5. EXAMPLE of a COMMUNICATIONS IMPROVEMENT Un-Tuned Transmission Tuned Transmission Proper tuning delivers more power and a higher quality of transmission from the same equipment and antenna system
  6. 6. What Chokes an Antenna? Resistance Inductance Capacitance Impedance Reactance Frequency Resonance Impedance Angle Reflection Coefficient All the factors for antenna performance MUST balance or the result is Power Loss from out-of-phase current and voltage and increased VSWR from impedance mismatches
  7. 7. Vector Impedance and the Right Hand Plane (RHP) X = Reactance, Z = Total Impedance, R = Resistance, θ = Z Angle, and i or j = square root of -1 Above, the positive X values plot into one quadrant of a Cartesian graph’s RHP, negative X values plot in the other quadrant directly below this one
  8. 8. Mapping the RHP to a unit circle – Smith Chart Note where Zo plots – Dead Center is Antenna System Perfection Inductive ResistiveLow Z High Z Capacitive
  9. 9. ELI the ICE Man For best performance an antenna should be purely resistive and resonant near Zo at the center frequency (Fc) Power loss factors include: If the antenna is inductive, voltage will lead current (ELI) If the antenna is capacitive, current will lead voltage (ICE) Either of these conditions exceeding the manufacturer’s specifications require corrective action by tuning the antenna or adding a tuning stub
  10. 10. VIA Bravo Vector Impedance Analyzer Measures the impedance and resonant frequencies of antennas, coils, circuits & components 100 kHz – 200 MHz Single & Two Port Versions Bravo PC Vision Software
  11. 11. Left = Unit of measure for selected test on Left vertical axis Right = Unit of measure for selected test on Right vertical axis VIA Bravo LCD Display FL>FC>FH = Frequency sweep range FL = Lowest frequency of the sweep FC = Center frequency of the sweep FH = Highest frequency of the sweep
  12. 12. L/C = Numeric display of the inductive or capacitive component of the measurement. For SWR mode, L/C = the calculated “Q” L = Numeric readout for Left Plot ( ) center frequency. In EXAM/PLOT the measurement at the cursor frequency R = Numeric readout for Right Plot (+++++) center frequency measurement or in EXAM/PLOT the measurement at the cursor frequency
  13. 13. An antenna is resonant at the frequency(s) where the Impedance (Phase) Angle is equal to zero (0). Center Frequency Right plot (thick) = ө Angle of 2.38o Left plot (thin) = Z of 50.6Ώ at resonance Positive ө Angle = inductive X at 19.7 nH. [Note: Negative ө Angle would = capacitive X] Smith Chart
  14. 14. Frequency Sweep vs CW Mode Frequency Sweep Normal Mode One sweep about every second from FL to FH Tuning requires a 1-2 seconds wait for change to post Continuous Wave Mode Update rate is increased to about 5 times per second CW operates at Center Frequency – no sweep Tuning changes appear almost instantly Tuning by the numbers is faster No additional power drain on the batteries
  15. 15. VIA Bravo II Two ports (S11 and S21) add measurement versatility: Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Amplifier Gain Group Delay Gain Compression Differential Amplifiers AM to PM Distortion
  16. 16. VIA Bravo & PC Software Impedance Impedance Angle Resistance Reactance Smith Chart* VSWR Return Loss Reflection Coefficient Magnitude Angle Capacitance Parallel Series Plot save capabilities *In the Bravo PC Vision software which is included
  17. 17. Bravo PC Vision
  18. 18. Smith Chart from Antenna Sweep As the frequency changes the antenna’s reactance moves from inductive to capacitive with some impedance change and is resonant slightly off the center of the swept frequency
  19. 19. Bravo PC Vision Software Upload Current or Stored Plots from the VIA Bravo Chart 8 Parameters at once Save Charts on a PC or on CDs Export Charts – (BMP, JPEG, GIF or TIFF) Produce Smith Charts Print Charts Create a Records data base and provide documentation to customers
  20. 20. Weigh the Cost Against the Gain  Radio equipment - $$$$ Antenna site or tower - $$$$ Transmission lines - $$$ Installation and turn-up - $$$ Antenna Test & Tune - $
  21. 21. VIA Bravo Bonus It’s not just for measuring antennae Tune ½ and ¼ wave transmission lines Measuring inductors and capacitors Tuning antenna traps Determine resonant frequencies Tuning cavity filters Adjusting antenna tuners Signal tracing Determine Cable Characteristics Use as a Signal Source
  22. 22. VIA Bravo II Bonus It’s not just for measuring antennae Measuring Group Delay Measuring Gain Compression Measuring Differential Amplifiers Measuring Amplifier Gain Measuring AM to PM distortion
  23. 23. Summary Proper antenna tuning for clear long range communications Scalars provide only SWR and Return Loss, but NOT resonance information. Proper antenna tuning or diagnostic work requires a network analyzer The VIA Bravo is a 100KHz to 200MHz network analyzer for antennas, coils, circuits or components The VIA Bravo displays any two parameters at once, but stores all eight parameters measured Bravo PC Vision will display all eight parameters at once

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