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The quantum age - secure transport networks

ADVA
ADVA

At Namex Annual Meeting 2022, Christoph Glingener discussed the threat that quantum computers pose to network security and talked about addressing this significant cybersecurity risk with quantum key distribution and post-quantum cryptography.

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The quantum age – secure transport networks
June, 22nd 2022 – NAMEX Workshop
Christoph Glingener
2 © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. Confidential.
Recommend to prepare
for quantum era
Why care about future quantum computers?
The quantum computer threat
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
3
Public key cryptography is vulnerable
Quantum computers break present crypto systems
AES-GCM-256 AES-GCM-256
Secret
Diffie-
Hellman
Diffie-
Hellman
Session
key
Key exchange
Secret
Plaintext Ciphertext Plaintext
Alice Bob
Session
key
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
4
• Provides computational security
• Is based on hardness of math problems
• Works on any communication channel
• Requires endpoint protocol access only
• Is independent of optical layer
• Provides information-theoretic security
• Is based on laws of quantum physics
• Needs optical fiber or free-space channel
• Requires access to physical infrastructure
• Depends on optical link performance
Quantum-key distribution (QKD)
Post-quantum cryptography (PQC)
Standardization activities are taking place for both options
How can we make the key exchange quantum-safe?
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
5
Code- and lattice-based asymmetrical encryption algorithms
Option 1 (must-have): post-quatum cryptography
Alice
Bob
Session
key
Session
key
Quantum-safe key
exchange protocol
Quantum-safe key
exchange protocol
Key exchange
NIST, July 2020: Candidates for standardization of quantum-safe protocols are Classic
McEliece, CRYSTALS-Kyber, NTRU, SABER
BSI, August 2020: Recommends hybrid algorithms, Classic McEliece among others
© 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved.
6
Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol distills a secure key out of a quantum signal
Option 2 (nice-to-have): quantum key distribution
Alice
Bob recognizes the
observation
Session
key
Session
key
Quantum channel
+Service channel
Ad

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The quantum age - secure transport networks

  • 1. The quantum age – secure transport networks June, 22nd 2022 – NAMEX Workshop Christoph Glingener
  • 2. 2 © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. Confidential. Recommend to prepare for quantum era Why care about future quantum computers? The quantum computer threat
  • 3. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 3 Public key cryptography is vulnerable Quantum computers break present crypto systems AES-GCM-256 AES-GCM-256 Secret Diffie- Hellman Diffie- Hellman Session key Key exchange Secret Plaintext Ciphertext Plaintext Alice Bob Session key
  • 4. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 4 • Provides computational security • Is based on hardness of math problems • Works on any communication channel • Requires endpoint protocol access only • Is independent of optical layer • Provides information-theoretic security • Is based on laws of quantum physics • Needs optical fiber or free-space channel • Requires access to physical infrastructure • Depends on optical link performance Quantum-key distribution (QKD) Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) Standardization activities are taking place for both options How can we make the key exchange quantum-safe?
  • 5. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 5 Code- and lattice-based asymmetrical encryption algorithms Option 1 (must-have): post-quatum cryptography Alice Bob Session key Session key Quantum-safe key exchange protocol Quantum-safe key exchange protocol Key exchange NIST, July 2020: Candidates for standardization of quantum-safe protocols are Classic McEliece, CRYSTALS-Kyber, NTRU, SABER BSI, August 2020: Recommends hybrid algorithms, Classic McEliece among others
  • 6. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 6 Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol distills a secure key out of a quantum signal Option 2 (nice-to-have): quantum key distribution Alice Bob recognizes the observation Session key Session key Quantum channel +Service channel
  • 7. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 7 Hybrid key exchange Plaintext Plaintext Alice Bob AES encryption AES encryption Secret Diffie- Hellman Diffie- Hellman Session key Key exchange Secret Ciphertext Session key PQC PQC Key exchange QKD QKD Key exchange Combining key exchange schemes to provide robust quantum-safe solutions
  • 8. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 8 Practical implementation Network element A QKD Tx Network element B QKD Rx Key delivery API QKD Rx QKD Tx Trusted node 1..N (oder Repeater) KMS KMS KMS Auxiliary channel Quantum channel Management channel AES-encrypted data channel(s) In-line amplifier 1..N (optional) Additional fiber* Grey or DWDM link Fiber pair *Co-propagation option with data channels Trusted site A Trusted site B AES: Advanced encryption standard KMS: Key management system PQC PQC QKD Repeater
  • 9. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 9 Practical implementation 2 DWDM System Optical layer 10G/100G/200G/400G… Quantum Channel Service Channel QKD Alice Ethernet device QKD Bob Ethernet layer ETSI GS014 REST API ETSI GS014 REST API 1G/10G OTNsec MACsec Quantum key delivery API Quantum key delivery API
  • 10. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 10 Multiple candidates • Code-based (e.g. McEliece) • Latice-based (e.g. FrodoKEM) • Etc. BSI • TR-02102-1 (hybrid with McEliece or FrodoKEM) NIST • SP800-65C Rev2, hybrid with PQC • Ongoing PQC project / challenge Quantum Key Distribution Post Quantum Cryptography Standards and certifications necessary! Quantum communication technologies CV DV Protocol CV- QPSK Decoy BB84 BBM92 (Ent.) Twin Field Key rate 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/√ Complexity side channels ecurity Topology p2p p2p p2mp p2mp Fiber Free space Costs
  • 11. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 11 Safety based on known cryptographic principles No Distance limitation No Need for another fiber Computational complexity Standardization in progress Safety based on quantum-physics Impossible to eavesdrop Distance limitation Need for additional fiber Integration with existing networks Standardization in progress Quantum Key Distribution Post Quantum Cryptography Quantum communication – lessons learned
  • 12. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 12 Quantum communication initiatives • Germany (Research) • R: QuNET, QR.X, QUBE, … • E: DemoQuanDT, DE-QOR, … Public Funding QT (22 Mrd$ globally, 3,1 Mrd$ in D) Yole, 2021 QEYSSAT mission DOE: Quantum internet blueprint EuroQCI Quantum Comunications Hub Space+terrestrial Q KD net, MICIUS
  • 13. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 13 Operators are taking action …
  • 14. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 14 Protecting networks against tomorrow‘s threats, today … so do we!
  • 15. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 15 There’s more … joint communication and sensing © 2021 ADVA. All rights reserved. Confidential. 15 Protect communication infrastructure against failures, attacks and natural disasters Photo: Sebastian Schmitt/dpa Photo: dpa Optical JC&S*: Phase-sensitive OTDR for infrastructure monitoring *Joint communicaton & sensing Photo: Sebastian Schmitt/dpa
  • 16. © 2022 ADVA. All rights reserved. 16 • Quantum-resistant approaches needed for long-term security of data • Technologies: PQC (must-have) and QKD (nice-to-have) • Crypto-agility for future updates to reflect advances in technology • Highly funded (public incl. pre-commercial public procurement) • First commercial products and installations Challenges: • Security proofs, atandards & certifications • QKD robustness, performance, stability … need to improve! • QKD costs – Quantum-PICs, RNGs • QKD – Trusted Nodes vs Repeater? The quantum age – secure transport networks ADVA IC-TROSA
  • 17. Thank you IMPORTANT NOTICE ADVA is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. The information in this presentation may not be accurate, complete or up to date, and is provided without warranties or representations of any kind, either express or implied. ADVA shall not be responsible for and disclaims any liability for any loss or damages, including without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential and special damages, alleged to have been caused by or in connection with using and/or relying on the information contained in this presentation. Copyright © for the entire content of this presentation: ADVA. info@adva.com