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Preliminary Test Results: High Performance Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Clock

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Patrick Berthoud’s presentation, delivered at WSTS 2016 in San Jose, reveals design specifications and the results of initial testing of Oscilloquartz's new high-performance optically pumped cesium beam clock.

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Preliminary Test Results: High Performance Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Clock

  1. 1. Preliminary Test Results: High-Performance Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Clock Berthoud Patrick, Chief Scientist, Time and Frequency Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, WSTS 2016, San Jose CA, USA, June 2016
  2. 2. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.2 Outline • Motivation and applications • Clock sub-systems development • Clock integration results • Conclusion and acknowledgment
  3. 3. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.3 Identified Markets • Telecommunication network reference • Telecom operators, railways, utilities, … • Science • Astronomy, nuclear and quantum physics, … • Metrology • Time scale, fund. units measurement • Professional mobile radio • Emergency, fire, police • Defense • Secured telecom, inertial navigation • Space (on-board and ground segments) • Satellite mission tracking, GNSS systems
  4. 4. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.4 Available Cs Clock Commercial Products • Long life magnetic Cs clock • Stability : 2.7E-11 t-1/2, floor = 5E-14 • Lifetime : 10 years • Availability : commercial product • High performance magnetic Cs clock • Stability : 8.5E-12 t-1/2 , floor = 5E-15 • Lifetime : 5 years • Availability : commercial product • High performance and long life optical Cs clock • Stability : 3.0E-12 t-1/2 , floor = 5E-15 • Lifetime : 10 years • Availability : under development
  5. 5. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.5 Motivation for an Optical Cs Clock • Improved performance (short and long-term stability) for: • Metrology and time scales • Science (long-term stability of fundamental constants) • Inertial navigation (sub-marine, GNSS) • Telecom (ePRTC = enhanced Primary Reference Time Clock) • No compromise between lifetime and performance • Low temperature operation of the Cs oven • Standard vacuum pumping capacity • Large increase of the Cs beam flux by laser optical pumping
  6. 6. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.6 Outline • Motivation and applications • Clock sub-systems development • Clock integration results • Conclusion and acknowledgment
  7. 7. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.7 Optical Cesium Clock Operation • Cs beam generated in the Cs oven (vacuum operation) • Cs atoms state selection by laser • Cs clock frequency probing (9.192 GHz) in the Ramsey cavity • Atoms detection and amplification by photodetector (air) • Laser and RF sources servo loops using atomic signals Ramsey cavity Light Collectors Magnetic shield + coil FM User 10 MHz Laser Cs Oven Vacuum enclosure Photo- detectors RF source Sync Detect FM Laser source Sync Detect Cs beam
  8. 8. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.8 Optical Pumping: Principle of Operation • Stable ground states (F=3 and F=4) • Switching between ground states F by RF interaction 9.192 GHz • Unstable excited states (F’=2,3,4,5) • Switching between ground states F and excited states F’ by laser interaction 852 nm (optical domain) 6S1/2 nhf = 9.192 GHz F=4 F=3 6P3/2 F’=4 F’=3 F’=2 F’=5 133Cs atomic energy levels
  9. 9. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.9 Cesium Clock: Magnetic vs Optical • Weak flux • Strong velocity selection (bent) • Magnetic deflection (atoms kicked off) • Typical performances: • 2.7E-11 t-1/2 • 10 years • Stringent alignment (bent beam) • Critical component under vacuum (electron multiplier) F=3,4 • High flux (x100) • No velocity selection (straight) • Optical pumping (atoms reused) • Typical performances: • 2.7E-12 t-1/2 • 10 years • Relaxed alignment (straight beam) • Critical component outside vacuum (laser) N S N S F=3,4
  10. 10. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.10 Clock Functional Bloc Diagram • Cs tube • Generate Cs atomic beam in ultra high vacuum enclosure • Optics • Generate 2 optical beams from 1 single frequency laser • Electronics • Cs core electronics for driving the Optics and the Cs tube • External modules for power supplies, management, signals I/O Cesium tube Magnetic field and shields Cs Oven Collect CollectRamsey cavity Optics Laser Splitter Mirror Clock electronics RF Source Clock Ctrl Power Supply Photo Detect Photo Detect 4xSyncout(1PPS) Expansion electronics Serial(RS232) Syncin(1PPS) Display 10MHzsine 10MHzsine 10or5MHzsine(option) 10or100MHzsine(option) Metrology Manage ment Remote(TCP/IP) PPS DC/DC AC/DC Battery ExternalDCsupply ExternalACsupply
  11. 11. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.11 Clock Architecture (Top View) • Cs core is not customizable • External modules are customizable: • Power supplies • Signal outputs • Management
  12. 12. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.12 Cs Tube Sub-Assembly
  13. 13. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.13 Optics Sub-Assembly • Optical sub-system • Free space propagation • Single optical frequency (no acousto-optic modulator) • Redundant laser modules (2) • No optical isolator • Ambient light protection by cover and sealing (not shown here) • Laser module • DFB 852 nm, TO3 package • Narrow linewidth (<1MHz)
  14. 14. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.14 Physics Package Optics Cs tube Laser modules Photo-detectors modules
  15. 15. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.15 Complete Cs Clock • Front view • LCD touchscreen • Top view • Optics + Cs tube in front • Core electronics • Rear view • Power supplies (AC, DC, Battery) • Sinus Outputs (5, 10, 100 MHz) • Sync 1PPS (1x In, 4x Out) • Management (RS 232, Ethernet, Alarms)
  16. 16. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.16 Outline • Motivation and applications • Clock sub-systems development • Clock integration results • Conclusion and acknowledgment
  17. 17. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.17 Laser Frequency Synchronous Detector • Green curve: laser current (ramp + AM modulation) • Blue curve: modulated atomic fluorescence zone A (before Ramsey cavity) • Pink curve: demodulated atomic fluorescence in zone A • Phase optimization for synchronous detector (max signal, positive slope on peak)
  18. 18. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.18 Laser Frequency Lock • Automatic laser lock • Atomic line identification by correlation in micro-controller • Laser optical frequency centering (center of laser current ramp) • At mid height of next ramp, automatic closing of frequency lock loop • Optimization of laser lock loop • Tuning parameters: amplitude of modulation, PID parameters • Criterion: min PSD of laser current • Reliability of laser lock
  19. 19. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.19 Ramsey Fringes (Preliminary) • Dark fringe behavior (minimum at resonance) • Central fringe • Amplitude = 200 pA • Linewidth = 800 Hz (FWHM) • Background = 600 pA • Noise PSD [1E-28*A2/Hz] • Photo-detector = 1.6 • Background light = 1.9 • Atomic shot noise = 0.5 • Extra noise = 6.2 • Total = 10.2 • SNR = 6’090 Hz1/2
  20. 20. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.20 Frequency Stability (Preliminary) • Measured frequency stability • ADEV = 7.5E-12 t-1/2 • Compared to H-maser • Calculated frequency stability • ADEV = 7.1E-12 t-1/2 • Using SYRTE model (S. Guérandel at al, Proc. of the Joint Meeting EFTF & IEEE - IFCS, 2007, 1050-1055)
  21. 21. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.21 Outline • Motivation and applications • Clock sub-systems development • Clock integration results • Conclusion and acknowledgment
  22. 22. © 2016 ADVA Optical Networking. All rights reserved.22 Conclusion and Acknowledgment • Development of an industrial Optical Cesium Clock for ground applications • All sub-systems are functional (Cs tube, Optics, Electronics) • Preliminary frequency stability measurement ADEV = 7.5E-12 recorded for long life operation (10 years target) • Present performance limitations: laser lock quality (extra noise) • Acknowledgment: this work is being supported by the European Space Agency
  23. 23. Thank You IMPORTANT NOTICE ADVA Optical Networking is the exclusive owner or licensee of the content, material, and information in this presentation. Any reproduction, publication or reprint, in whole or in part, is strictly prohibited. The information in this presentation may not be accurate, complete or up to date, and is provided without warranties or representations of any kind, either express or implied. ADVA Optical Networking shall not be responsible for and disclaims any liability for any loss or damages, including without limitation, direct, indirect, incidental, consequential and special damages, alleged to have been caused by or in connection with using and/or relying on the information contained in this presentation. Copyright © for the entire content of this presentation: ADVA Optical Networking.

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