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reviewed overall ACCESSORIES DIVISION, HAL, LUCKNOW. Emphasized major points on HAL history, their the industrial training can be fruitful to the aspiring engineers

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  • Remember, the four forces work on the aircraft and against each other – weight acts against lift. If my airplane weights 1700 pounds, in the simplest sense, I’d need 1700 pounds of lift generated by the wings to get it off the ground.
    OK – somebody do me a favor a jump up out of your chair. Thanks! Now, can anyone tell me why he/she didn’t float away?
  • Air resists aircraft motion because it is sticky.
    Directly proportional to velocity and air density.
    Newton’s 1st law, air will stay at rest unless acted on by a force, which is the plane moving through it. Thus the plan must give up some of it’s energy to push the air out of the way.
    As the airplane moves through the air, there is another aerodynamic force present. The air resists the motion of the aircraft and the resistance force is called drag. Drag is directed along and opposed to the flight direction. Like lift, there are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force including the shape of the aircraft, the "stickiness" of the air, and the velocity of the aircraft. Like lift, we collect all of the individual components' drags and combine them into a single aircraft drag magnitude. And like lift, drag acts through the aircraft center of pressure.
    How Things Fly: Friction is the resistance to motion that occurs when two things rub together. Air rubbing against the surface of an airplane creates a force of resistance, known as friction drag. NASA Glenn Research Pages: One of the sources of drag is the skin friction between the molecules of the air and the solid surface of the aircraft. Because the skin friction is an interaction between a solid and a gas, the magnitude of the skin friction depends on properties of both solid and gas. For the solid, a smooth, waxed surface produces less skin friction than a roughened surface. For the gas, the magnitude depends on the viscosity of the air and the relative magnitude of the viscous forces to the motion of the flow, expressed as the Reynolds number.
    How Things Fly: Air flowing past an object pushes harder against the upstream side than against the downstream side. This pressure difference between front and back creates a backward force called pressure drag. Streamlining an object can dramatically reduce pressure drag. NASA Glenn Research Pages: We can also think of drag as aerodynamic resistance to the motion of the object through the fluid. This source of drag depends on the shape of the aircraft and is called form drag. As air flows around a body, the local velocity and pressure are changed. Since pressure is a measure of the momentum of the gas molecules and a change in momentum produces a force, a varying pressure distribution will produce a force on the body. We can determine the magnitude of the force by integrating (or adding up) the local pressure times the surface area around the entire body. The component of the aerodynamic force that is opposed to the motion is the drag; the component perpendicular to the motion is the lift. Both the lift and drag force act through the center of pressure of the object.
    How Things Fly: The higher-pressure air below a wing spills up over the wing tip into the area of lower-pressure air above. The wing's forward motion spins this upward spill of air into a long spiral, like a small tornado, that trails off the wing tip. These wing tip vortices create a form of drag called vortex drag. Tilting the airplane's wings upward makes the vortices stronger and increases vortex drag. Vortices are especially strong during takeoff and landing, when an airplane is flying slowly with its wings tilted upward. NASA Glenn Research Pages: There is an additional drag component caused by the generation of lift call induced drag. This drag occurs because the flow near the wing tips is distorted as a result of the pressure difference from the top to the bottom of the wing. Swirling vortices are formed at the wing tips, and there is an energy associated with these vortices. The induced drag is an indication of the amount of energy lost to the tip vortices. The magnitude of induced drag depends on the amount of lift being generated by the wing and on the wing geometry. Long, thin (chordwise) wings have low induced drag; short wings with a large chord have high induced drag.

    2. 2. ABOUT HAL  Type State-owned enterprise Industry Aerospace and defence Founded 1940 (in 1964, company took on current name) Headquarters Bangalore, Karnataka, India Chairman Ashok Nayar Products Aerospace equipment Military aircraft Communication & Navigation equipment Space systems Revenue US$2.35 billion (FY 2007) Employees 30,000
    3. 3. HISTORY OF HAL > Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur  Late Mr. Seth Walchand Hirachand set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940 The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942. 11/09/13 3 
    4. 4. HAL- PRESENT SCENARIO   MISSION OF HAL “To become a global player in the aerospace industry” > Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is the largest PSU under the Department of Defense Production and is a Navaratana Company. > Presently ranked 34th among the global defense companies >HAL is one of the largest aerospace companies in Asia with its annual turnover to be running above US$ 2 billion. > It has several facilities throughout India including Nasik, Korwa, Kanpur, Koraput, Lucknow, Bangalore and Hyderabad. 11/09/13 4
    5. 5. SERVICES OF HAL 11/09/13 5
    7. 7. HAL LUCKNOW    Established in 1970 with the primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft and engines and attain self sufficiency in this area Presently turning out over 1100 different types of accessories Started with manufacturing various Systems and Accessories-Hydraulics, Engine Fuel System, Airconditioning and Pressurization, Gyro & Barometric Instruments, Electrical System items, Undercarriages, Electronic items all under one roof to meet the requirements of the aircraft, helicopters and engines being produced by HAL 11/09/13 7
    8. 8. PRODUCTS OF HAL LUCKNOW              Instruments Sensors, Gyros Flight instruments, electrical indicators, Fuel Gauge probes, Gyros, sensors and Switches Electrical power generation and control AC/DC Generator, Control and protection units, inverters, Transformers Rectifier units, AC/DC Electrical system, Actuators. Land navigation systems Microprocessor controller Under carriage, wheels and breaks Hydraulic system and power control Pumps, Accumulators, Actuators, Electro-Selectors, Bootstrap Reservoirs and various types. Environmental control system Pneumatics and oxygen system, cold air unit, water Extractors, valves. Ejection system-Ejection Seats, Release Units Engine fuel control systems Booster pumps, main and Reheat Fuel systems, Nozzle Actuators 11/09/13 8
    9. 9. BASIC AERODYNAMIC FLIGHT THEORY  AERODYNAMICS The word comes from two Greek words: >Aerios = concerning the air. >Dynamis = meaning powerful  Aerodynamics is the study of objects in motion through the air and the forces that produce or change such motion 11/09/13 9
    10. 10. BASIC FLIGHT THEORY  FOUR BASIC FOURCES IN FLIGHTLift- The upward force Thrust- The forward force Weight/Gravity- Gravity the Downward force Drag- The rearward force 11/09/13 10
    11. 11. The Four Forces of Flight The four forces act on the airplane in flight and also work against each other. 11/09/13 11
    12. 12. THE FOUR FOURCES 11/09/13 12
    13. 13. WHAT IS WEIGHT ??? 11/09/13 13
    14. 14. The earth’s gravity pulls down on objects and gives them weight. Weight counteracts lift.
    15. 15. WHAT IS DRAG ??? Newton’s 1st Law Applies 11/09/13 15
    16. 16. WHAT IS LIFT ??? 11/09/13 16
    17. 17. HOW LIFT IS GENERATED??? Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principle are used to explain lift.  Bernoulli – Bernoulli’s Principle states that, as air speeds up, its pressure goes down.  He focused his studies on the curvature of the wing, and the differing air pressure over the top and bottom of the wing.  Newton – Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.  He focused his studies on the deflection of air or fluid on an object and its reaction. (Newton’s 3rd Law)  To explain the lift phenomena we have to understand the meaning of Aerofoil 11/09/13 structure  17
    18. 18. AEROFOIL An Aerofoil is a device that gets a reaction from air moving over its surface. When it is moved through the air it produces lift. Wings, horizontal and vertical tail surfaces and propellers are all examples of aerofoil 11/09/13 18
    20. 20. WHAT IS THRUST ??? 11/09/13 20
    21. 21. SIMPLIFIED AIRCRAFT MOTION BALANCED FORCES In order for an airplane to fly straight and level, the following relationships must be true: Thrust = Drag Lift = Weight This is called Straight and Level Flight 11/09/13 21
    23. 23. AXES OF MOVEMENT OF ANY AIRCRAFT Axis of Yaw (Vertical Axis) Axis of Rotation:Intersect at the centre of gravity –The axes of movement of any aircraft are basically imaginary lines about which the aircraft may rotate about while flying Axis of Roll (Longitudinal Axis) 11/09/13 Axis of Pitch (Lateral Axis) 23
    24. 24. EXPLAINATION OF ALL AXES The Longitudinal AxisThis is an imaginary line running length wise through the micro-light from bow to stern. Movement around this axis is called rolling.  The Vertical Axis This is a line through the centre of gravity going downwards and at right angles to the longitudinal axis. Movement around this axis is called yawing  The Lateral Axis This is sometimes called the pitch axis. This is the line through the centre of gravity and running span wise from wing tip to wingtip and at right angles to the longitudinal axis. Movement around this 11/09/13 axis is called pitching  24
    25. 25. 11/09/13 25
    26. 26. VARIOUS MOTIONS AROUND THE AXES • Yawing along vertical axis– side to side motion • Pitching along lateral axis – up and down motion (nose up and nose down) • Rolling along longitudinal axis – rolling motion 11/09/13 26
    27. 27. Pitch Around the Lateral Axis 11/09/13 27
    28. 28. Roll Around Longitudinal Axis 11/09/13 28
    29. 29. Yaw Around the vertical Axis 11/09/13 29
    30. 30. AIRFRAME UNITS          Propeller Power-plant ( jet engine) Cockpit Engine cowl Fuselage Wings Stabilizers-Horizontal stabilizer and Vertical stabilizer Flight control surfacesailerons, rudder, flaps, spoilers, elevators, slats Landing gear-nose landing gear and main landing gear 11/09/13 30
    31. 31. AIRFRAME UNITS 11/09/13 31
    32. 32. FUSELAGE (BODY)  The body of the airplane that all the other parts are attached to.  Can be made of many different substances such as aluminum or wood 11/09/13 32
    33. 33. WINGS  The part of the plane that creates lift and controls roll.  Has a rounded leading edge and tapered trailing edge which helps create lift.  The wing design uses Bernoulli’s Principle. 11/09/13 33
    34. 34. PROPELLER  Uses the principle of a wing to create thrust to move the airplane forward.  Can have different number of blades on propeller.  Design is similar to an airfoil 11/09/13 34
    35. 35. POWERPLANT (JET ENGINE)  Turns the propeller at high RPM’s to increase thrust 11/09/13 35
    36. 36. ENGINE COWLING  Cover to protect the engine and make the plane aerodynamic 11/09/13 36
    37. 37. COCKPIT  Place where the pilot controls the airplane.  The airplane control, gauges, and indicators are held here. 11/09/13 37
    38. 38. MAIN LANDING GEAR A frame with wheels that allow the plane to takeoff and land.  Some airplanes have retractable landing gear. 11/09/13 38
    39. 39. NOSE LANDING GEAR  The front landing gear when the plane has three wheels to land. 11/09/13 39
    40. 40. HORIZONTAL STABILIZER  Horizontal with the fuselage.  Helps airplane maintain level flight 11/09/13 40
    41. 41. VERTICAL STABILIZER  Vertical to the horizontal stabilizer.  Helps to airplane maintain level flight 11/09/13 41
    43. 43. AILERONS AILERON- The ailerons form a part of the wing and are located in the trailing edge of the wing towards the tips. The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the wing’s ailerons. By turning the stick, the pilot can change the positions of the ailerons  Located at the top of the trailing edge of the wings.  Controls rolling.  11/09/13 43
    44. 44. ELEVATORS    Elevators are the movable control surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. The control stick is connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the tail section’s elevators. In line with and behind the horizontal stabilizer. Controls pitching. 11/09/13 44
    45. 45. RUDDER The rudder is a moveable control surface attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. The foot pedals are connected by means of wires or hydraulics to the rudder of the tail section. The rudder can also be used in controlling a bank or turn in flight. Provides side to side control of airplane. Controls yawing.
    46. 46. FLAPS Located near at the trailing edge of the wing near the fuselage. Change the shape of wing Increase Lift and Drag Used on takeoff and landing The Flaps increase lift
    47. 47. SPOILERS Spoilers are located in the outer third of each wing. When deployed a spoiler kills the lift over that portion of the wing while the other wing retains full lift and induces roll. They basically do the job of spoiling the lift. Hence can be supposed as a braking system for any aircraft
    49. 49. CLEAN ROOM In Clean room those subunits are assembled and tested that are sensitive to dust, temperature and humidity. All these parameters are kept under control because these can have an adverse effect on their functional efficiency. The required specification for the instruments assembled and tested are different
    50. 50. ASSEMBLY AND TEST SHOP 2 AND 3 The major products of H.A.L. are fighter aircrafts. An aircraft comprises of many smaller units or accessories, which play significant role in their successful flight . Any fault, may lead to a catastrophic end. Here comes the role of assembly and test unit .it forms an integral part of any manufacturing unit. The main instruments are KCN-2 compass system, flight data recorder, gyro-magnetic compass, fuel gauging system, radio magnetic indicator, DNDU (day and night dimmer unit), GPPU (ground power protection unit).
    51. 51. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ROTATING SHOP In the E.R.M department of the instrument factory the assembly and testing is done of the dc Starter Generators, AC Generator system, constant speed alternator, regulators, inverter of the Russian and French origin. These products are basically those products which take the principle of the electromagnetic rotating which can be elaborated as follows i.e., electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy or vice versa. These products are of mig-21 & mig-27 aircrafts which are of Russian origin and jaguar aircraft of France origin.
    52. 52. INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS OF AN AIRCRAFT Instrument Systems:Just as in a car, there are instruments that monitor the engine, and instruments that monitor the drive. So in aircraft too there are certain instruments that monitor the flight. The groups of instrument systems are mainlyFUEL SENSING/ GUAGING PROBES SYSTEM FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS PITOT-STATIC INSTRUMENTS GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
    53. 53. FUEL CONTENT GUAGING SYSTEM The function of F.C.G is based upon the principle that the capacitance of two concentric tubes (cylindrical in shape) is different when there is air in between and when there is aviation fuel present in between them, it acts as a dielectric in between the gap. The capacitance increase or decrease as the level of fuel changes in the gap. This change in capacitance is measured by meter. This system is also known as ‘Fuel low level warning sensors system’ as it gives emergency signal on lowering of fuel level within the tank
    54. 54. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS These instruments basically help in controlling and monitoring the flight parameters. PITOT-STATIC INSTRUMENTSPitot-static instruments are those that basically work on the principle of Pitot and static pressure. STATIC PRESSURE-Static pressure is the pressure that is simply the aircraft’s surrounding pressure. PITOT PRESSURE- Pitot pressure is the pressure that comes into scenario when aircraft flies and goes forward. It is generally the front pressure that acts against the body of the aircraft. The three basic Pitot-Static instruments mainly assembled in the instrument panel of a cockpit areAirspeed Indicator, Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator
    56. 56. Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
    57. 57. ASI Static and Pitot pressure principle based source Also known as Mach meter Measure the difference between static pressure and static pressure (impact pressure) Shows speed through air (not over ground) Shows Indicated Airspeed (IAS) in Knots or Miles Per Hour (MPH, older system) Aneroid capsule connected to pitot pressure. Case connected to static pressure. Aneroid capsule inflates with more airspeed, moving dial clockwise. Static pressure in case corrects for altitude. Pitot pressure pushes against a diaphragm inside the airspeed indicator, which will then be able to expand or contract accordingly. This linear movement of the diaphragm is then translated into needle movement.
    58. 58. ASI WORKING
    59. 59. CONCEPT OF DIAPHRAGM AND CAPSULE DIAPHRAGM-Two capsule units together make one diaphragm. CAPSULE-It is the heart of the large no of instrument for aircraft .It simply consists of two diaphragm of beryllium and copper material for better handling capability. We first cut the two pieces of circular shape from the sheet and then make them as like bowl shape and then joint both the capsules and thus diaphragm is generated.
    60. 60. Airspeed Markings Red Line Never Exceed Speed (Vne) Yellow Arc Caution Range (Lower limit = Vno) Green Arc Normal Range (Lower limit = Vs) White Arc Flaps Range (Lower limit = Vfe)
    61. 61. Altimeter
    62. 62. ALTIMETER Shows height in feet Measures pressure of outside air (drops with altitude) Aneroid capsules (like balloons) inside are set to standard pressure. As altitude changes, capsules expand and contract, moving needle on dial. Static pressure is taken as only input Manufacturer seals the aneroid wafer(s) at a specific pressure. As the static pressure fills in the area around these sealed wafers, they will be able to contract or expand accordingly. As the aircraft moves into lower pressure a climb is indicated As the aircraft moves into higher pressure a descent is indicated
    63. 63. Altimeter Operation
    64. 64. Vertical Speed Indicator • Indicates speed up or down (rate of climb/descent) in feet per minute (FPM) Static pressure enters aneroid capsule and case. But pressure in case delayed. Capsule registers difference in pressure (as descent or climb) on dial. What does a VSI show? Climbs Descents Level Flight
    65. 65. GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS GYROSCOPE- A Gyroscope is an accurately balanced flywheel having a mass and freedom of in one or more axis which crossed on a point at right angle to each other and having the property of RIGIDITY & PRESSION
    66. 66. RIGIDITY- It is the ability of a gyroscope to resist any freedom with tends to change the direction of spin axis Rigidity depends upon•Speed of gyro(in RPM) •Mass of the gyro(rotor) •The radius of gyro rotor/motor. PRECESSION-It is the angular change in the direction of plane of the spin of the rotor resulting from the application of external torque. The ratio of precession depends upon•The magnitude of applying torque. •Rotor speed which is directly proportional to the applied torque and inversely proportional to the rotor speed.
    67. 67. ATTITUDE INDICATOR Only instrument that gives immediate and direct indication of the airplane’s pitch and bank attitude. Gives the rolling and pitching information Also known as the Artificial horizon/ Vertical gyro/ Gyro horizon.
    68. 68. HEADING INDICATOR Also known as the Directional Gyro (DG) Displays magnetic heading without magnetic compass errors Senses rotation about the aircraft’s vertical axis Gives the yawing information
    69. 69. TURN CO-ORDINATOR (RATE GYRO) Rate and Rolling information is achieved by this. Slip and Skid parameters are determined
    71. 71. ALTERNATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION UNIT (A.C.P.U) Alternator Control & Protection Unit regulates the alternator O/P voltage within specified limit under various rated load & speed conditions. The unit is having built in protections against over/under voltage, over/under frequency, over load & feeder fault conditions. Under these faulty conditions, the unit disconnects the alternator from AC electrical system by de – energizing the contractor & field.
    72. 72. A.C MASTER BOX Excluding the two alternators and protection unit and static inverter, primary AC distribution system consists of following boxes: AC Master Box – 1 AC Master Box – 2 115 V AC Emergency Bus Relay 26 V AC Emergency Bus Relay During normal operation (both alternator running), complete system – 1 is powered from alternator 1.In case of fault on alternator –1, all the buses of system –1 are connected to alternator –2, with alternator –1 in failed condition, in the event of short circuits. On a main bus –1, it goes disconnected from alternator –2. In case of both alternator fails to supply power to AC main buses, emergency buses of system –1 are powered from static inverter. In the Aircrafts, 2 AC MASTER BOX are present, if one of them gets fail then other works.
    73. 73. D.C MASTER BOX DC Master Box is a part of dc power generation and distribution system for re-engine Cheetah Helicopter. It is designed for use with an independent starter/generator mounted on the engine accessories gearbox, and is interfaced with GCPU, battery, and external power source and control panel of DC power generator to the loads through its main bus. In the event of failure of starter/generator, the dc master box will activated the battery contactor, through which the on-board single battery (Ni-Cd 40 Ah) will get connected to the main bus & supply power to the emergency loads
    74. 74. FILTER TRANSFORMER UNIT The Filter Transformer Unit (FTU - 01) is for Jaguar aircraft which gives single phase 26 V, 400 Hz low distortion O/P, synchronized with phase AB of the three – phase 200 VCC O/P, 400 Hz aircraft power source. The unit is being operated from three phase 200 VCC, 400 Hz aircraft power source. There are two no. of FTU’s in one A/C. in case of failure of one unit (FTU), the entire A/C load will be automatically transferred to another healthy unit (FTU).
    75. 75. CONCLUSION The joy of flying has fascinated the human race for centuries. Defense avionics major & Navratana PSU Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is in the business of building a whole range of aircraft helicopters and jet trainers. Besides, the company manufactures aircraft components, overhauls fighter planes and trains future pilot’s .its success in the design and development of light combat aircraft Tejas and advanced light helicopter Dhruv has won admiration. HAL is the backbone of India’s air defense and continues to occupy the strategic importance reflecting a new pace of growth. Today the faster growing sector is the aviation sector & is likely to be a boon for the entire job market. It deals with the manufacture, design & development of aircrafts. The project is based on the instruments that are used in the manufacture of the various aircrafts. A deep knowledge of these instruments is crucial in the perfect design & manufacture of the aircrafts. The project will benefit those who have interest in the instrument & will provide the reader with the deeper knowledge of the topic.
    76. 76. FLY SAFE……………….!!!!! THANK YOU
    77. 77. THANK YOU
    78. 78. ANY QUERIES ?????