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APPLICATION OF
SECONDARY
SURVEILLANCE
RADAR(SSR) IN
MILITARY
IDENTIFICATIONFRIEND OR
FOE(IFF)
TECHNOLOGY
PREPARED BYADRIJA...
INTRODUCTION
 Surveillance systems provide breakthrough performance
in the Detection, Interrogation, Identification, Trac...
SURVEILLANCE IN DEFENSE
SYSTEMS
SURVEILLANCE ~
 A radar system used for locating the position of both
civilian as well mi...
OBJECTIVES
OF SURVEILLANCE
 For civil as well as air traffic control &
management – safely directing traffic
 For extrac...
Secondary Surveillance
Radar (SSR)
 Also known as ‘INTERROGATOR’
 A radar system used in ATC that
relies on a piece of e...
IFF-A MODERN METHOD OF
SURVEILLANCE
 IFF is IDENTIFICATION-FRIEND OR FOE
 A system that distinguishes FRIENDS from FOES
...
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF
IFF
• The technology IFF was
developed during
WORLD WAR-II by
British and American
military
• S...
FEATURES OF IFF
 Detection And Tracking
 Identification
 Interrogation
 Data Extraction
 Air Traffic Control And Mana...
HOW AN IFF SYSTEM WORKS

9
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IFF
SYSTEM
 Ground based transmitter known as interrogator that
is the Secondary Surveillance radar ...
WORKING PRINCIPLE (Contd.)

11
RADAR DISPLAY
What appear on
radar display?
• Aircraft Identity.
• Altitude
• Speed
• Direction
• Example
• MH092 FL280
• ...
TRANSPONDER CODES (XPNDR CODES)
• Transponder codes are four digit numbers transmitted by
the transponder in an aircraft i...
MODES OF OPERATION OF IFF 
SYSTEMS
 Mode 1 is a non-secure method used to track aircrafts; codes
manually set by pilot bu...
CHARACTERISTICS OF IFF MODES

15
PROBLEMS WITH 
IFF
 FRUIT
 GARBLE
 FAILURE OF TRANSPONDER
 WRONG ENCRYPTION KEYS
 BATTLE DAMAGE

16
CONCLUSION
o IFF technology serves as one of the best methods
of surveillance
o Multipurpose fulfilment
o MODE S & MODE 5-...
END OF THE PRESENTATION 
BUT NOT THE END OF THE
              DEVELOPMENT
                         OF
               IFF A...
THANK
YOU

19
ANY QUESTIONS
?????

20
ACRONYMS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

IFF~IDENTIFICATION-FRIEND OR FOE
TCAS~TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM
FLIR~FORWARD LOOKING IN...
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Iff technology

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Application of secondary surveillance RADAR in Identification-friend or foe (IFF) technology. Finds a very important application in defence (military) domain

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Iff technology

  1. 1. APPLICATION OF SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR(SSR) IN MILITARY IDENTIFICATIONFRIEND OR FOE(IFF) TECHNOLOGY PREPARED BYADRIJA CHOWDHURY 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Surveillance systems provide breakthrough performance in the Detection, Interrogation, Identification, Tracking & Data Extraction of targets in severe environments  Aim on Civil and Military air traffic control, battle management, efficient decision making in air defense system & keeping friendly forces out of harms way  Modern Methods of surveillance IFF systems  TCAS  FLIR etc 2
  3. 3. SURVEILLANCE IN DEFENSE SYSTEMS SURVEILLANCE ~  A radar system used for locating the position of both civilian as well military aircrafts & ships, or ground vehicles & most commonly in air traffic management  Used by ATC to indicate the position of aircraft while flying or on airport surface  Makes use of radio waves  Also gives information like-speed, range, bearing, altitude & direction of aircrafts  Most Important function- Identifies the friendly aircrafts & ships and distinguishes them from the hostile ones 3
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES OF SURVEILLANCE  For civil as well as air traffic control & management – safely directing traffic  For extracting various information regarding the targets  For defense mechanism • Identifying the friendly forces out of many & keeping them out of harms way • Thus reducing the risk of enemy attack 4
  5. 5. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)  Also known as ‘INTERROGATOR’  A radar system used in ATC that relies on a piece of equipment that is placed within the aircraft & is known as a 'transponder‘  For IFF system it is basically synchronized with the PSR on ground station  Gives additional information unlike PSR 5
  6. 6. IFF-A MODERN METHOD OF SURVEILLANCE  IFF is IDENTIFICATION-FRIEND OR FOE  A system that distinguishes FRIENDS from FOES  Based on the application of Secondary Surveillance Radar  Inception-1935, U.S. Initially was developed to identify U.S aircrafts  Mainly works on these major modes of operation      MODE 1 MODE 2 MODE 3/A MODE 4 MODE C MODE S newly developed 6
  7. 7. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF IFF • The technology IFF was developed during WORLD WAR-II by British and American military • Sir ROBERT WATSON WATT invented the first IFF transponder and SSR in 1935 • This technology was later used by Civil Aviation in 1950s. 7
  8. 8. FEATURES OF IFF  Detection And Tracking  Identification  Interrogation  Data Extraction  Air Traffic Control And Management  Efficient decision making during battles and wars 8
  9. 9. HOW AN IFF SYSTEM WORKS 9
  10. 10. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF IFF SYSTEM  Ground based transmitter known as interrogator that is the Secondary Surveillance radar synchronized with primary radar, transmits a radio signal(interrogating signal) to the aircraft’s transponder at 1030 Megahertz by selecting a unique transponder code  Transponder receives the signal and decodes it  After decoding, the transponder replies back to the interrogator for that particular transponder code  Now the interrogator will decode the reply and report back to ATC and thus we will get the display 10
  11. 11. WORKING PRINCIPLE (Contd.) 11
  12. 12. RADAR DISPLAY What appear on radar display? • Aircraft Identity. • Altitude • Speed • Direction • Example • MH092 FL280 • 585 • Meaning: Flight Malaysian 092 cruising at 28’000ft with speed of 585knots
  13. 13. TRANSPONDER CODES (XPNDR CODES) • Transponder codes are four digit numbers transmitted by the transponder in an aircraft in response to an interrogation signal assisted by air traffic controllers in traffic separation. A discrete transponder code (often called a squawk code) is assigned by air traffic controllers to uniquely identify an aircraft. • Squawk codes are four-digit octal numbers; the dials on a transponder read from zero to seven, inclusive. Thus the lowest possible squawk is 0000 and the highest is 7777. Four octal digits can represent up to 4096 different codes, which is why such transponders are often called "4096 code transponders” (ROUTINE & EMERGENGY CODES) 13
  14. 14. MODES OF OPERATION OF IFF  SYSTEMS  Mode 1 is a non-secure method used to track aircrafts; codes manually set by pilot but assigned by ATC(military only)  Mode 2 is for identification; identifies the tail no.(military only)  Mode 3/A is the standard system also used by civilian aircrafts to relay their position to ground controllers throughout the world for ATC. Used in conjunction with MODE C(military & civilian)  Mode 4 is secure encrypted IFF(the only true method of determining friend or foe); only military  Mode "C" is the altitude encoder(military & civilian)  Newly developed Mode S does selective interrogation; each aircraft can be addressed using its unique 24 bit address(military & civilian) but not implemented yet  Mode 5-advanced mode of Mode S under processing 14
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS OF IFF MODES 15
  16. 16. PROBLEMS WITH  IFF  FRUIT  GARBLE  FAILURE OF TRANSPONDER  WRONG ENCRYPTION KEYS  BATTLE DAMAGE 16
  17. 17. CONCLUSION o IFF technology serves as one of the best methods of surveillance o Multipurpose fulfilment o MODE S & MODE 5-GOOD FUTURE ASPECTS  Less power required as Transmitter is typically more efficient  If the SSR interrogates selectively Mode S can reduce power even more as it can replace both Mode 3/A & Mode C as together both modes would consume a lot of power 17
  18. 18. END OF THE PRESENTATION  BUT NOT THE END OF THE               DEVELOPMENT                          OF                IFF AND SSR 18
  19. 19. THANK YOU 19
  20. 20. ANY QUESTIONS ????? 20
  21. 21. ACRONYMS • • • • • • • • IFF~IDENTIFICATION-FRIEND OR FOE TCAS~TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM FLIR~FORWARD LOOKING INFRARED RADAR ATC~AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FAA~FEDERAL AVIATION AUTHORITY SSR~SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR PSR~PRIMARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR FRUIT~FALSE REPLIES UNSYNCHRONISED WITH INTERROGATOR TRANSMISSION or FALSE REPLIES UNSYNCHRONISED IN TIME 21

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