Biosensors: A Review


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A Descriptive Review over the field of Biosensors has been given here; its origin history events; its working principle; its classification based on various parameters; applications and future scope

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Biosensors: A Review

  1. 1. Presentation On Term Paper (1st Semester) Amity School of Engineering and Technology Amity University Uttar Pradesh Lucknow BIOSENSORS : A REVIEW Adrija Chowdhury M.Tech (OEOC)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Biological and biochemical processes have a very important role on medicine, biology and biotechnology. It is very difficult to convert directly biological data to electrical signal. Biosensors can convert these signals over come this difficulty. Sensors are being developed to address the need for real time analytical measurements in the field.
  3. 3. History of biosensors 1962 – Leland C. Clark first described a biosensor as an enzyme electrode for glucose [4] 1969 – First potentiometric biosensor 1970s–Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor, Fiber Optic Sensor 1980s–First Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor (SPR) 1990s – SPR based and handheld biosensors Current –nanobiosensors
  4. 4. BIOSENSORS An analytical device which is used to determine the presence and concentration of a specific substance in a biological analyte. Other names immuno-sensors, optrodes, chemical canaries, resonant mirrors, gluco-meters, biochips, bio-computers. IUPAC: “A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element (biochemical receptor) which is in direct spatial contact with a transducer element” [1,2,5] BIORECEPTOR + TRANSDUCER = BIOSENSOR Biosensor ≠≠ Bio-analytical System
  5. 5. WORKING: BIOSENSOR SYSTEMS Biological materials used: enzymes/substrate, antibody/ antigen and nucleic acids/complementary sequences, microorganisms, animal or plant whole cells and tissue slices. sensing elements: electrochemical, optical, thermometric, piezoelectric.[3, 5] Principle of detection: specific binding of the analyte of interest to the complementary bio-recognition element. Specific interaction results in a change in one or more physico-chemical properties (pH change, electron transfer, mass change, heat transfer, uptake or release of gases or specific ions).
  6. 6. Components of a Biosensor Detector
  7. 7. IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUES ADOPTED Physical Adsorption Microencapsulation Entrapment Covalent Attachment/ Bonding Cross-linking
  9. 9. BASED ON BIORECOGNIZATION ELEMENTS Biologics such as enzymes, antibodies, DNA, receptors and even biological cells and microorganisms that selectively recognize an analyte. Categorized as:- (i) Catalytic biosensors (ii) Affinity biosensors
  10. 10. BASED ON TRANSDUCTION ELEMENTS RESONANT BIOSENSORS: Measures change in mass ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSORS: Measures change in electric distribution. Further classified into Amperometric, Conductimetric and Potentiometric ones. OPTICAL DETECTION BIOSENSORS: Measures change in light intensity THERMAL DETECTION BASED BIOSENSORS: Measures change in heat ION SENSITIVE BIOSENSORS
  11. 11. Sensing techniques BEING USED
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOSENSORS LINEARITY: Linearity of the sensor should be high for the detection of high substrate concentration. SENSITIVITY: Value of the electrode response per substrate concentration. SELECTIVITY: Chemicals Interference must be minimized for obtaining the correct result. RESPONSE TIME: Time necessary for having 95% of the response. ACCURACY: Around ±5% RECOVERY TIME: Time before biosensor is ready to analyse the next sample; should not be more than a few minutes. WORKING LIFETIME: Determined by instability of the biological material; vary from a few days to few months; Exactech glucose biosensor is usable for over 1 year.
  13. 13. APPLICATIONS OF BIOSENSORS Healthcare (glucose, artificial pancreas) Process control: fermentation control and analysis Food and drink production and analysis Pollution control and monitoring Mining, industrial and toxic gases Military applications Pharmaceutical and drug analysis
  14. 14. CONCLUSION With increasing threat of bioterrorism, the development of faster, reliable, accurate, portable and low-cost biosensors has become much more important than ever as they could play an important role in providing powerful analytical tools to the agricultural diagnosis sector, environmental safety, bioterrorism, biomedical research and drug discovery where rapid, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity measurements in field situations are required. The combination of nanotechnology, molecular biology and photonics opens the possibility of developing nano-devices [5] which have the potential for a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic uses at the molecular and cellular level. Optical nanosensors for living cell analysis are promising analytical tools that needs to mature
  15. 15. REFERENCES [1] R. S. Marks et. al., “Handbook of Biosensors and Biochips”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1st edition, 2007. [2] P. N. Prasad, “Introduction to Biophotonics”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, 1st edition, 2003. [3] Arnold, M.A Meyerhoff, M.E. Recent Advances in the Development and Analytical Applications of Biosensing Probes. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 20, 149–196, 1988. [4] Clark, L.C.; Lyons, C. Electrode systems for continuous monitoring cardiovascular surgery. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 102, 29–45, 1962 [5] C. Aston, “Biological warfare canaries,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 35–40, Oct. 2001.
  16. 16. THANK YOU Any queries ???