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Wireless networks for industrial applications

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Wireless networks for industrial applications

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  2. 2. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à :LOO 7KLV (YHU %H D 5HDOLW ² :LUHOHVV RQWURO 6VWHPV 1XPEHU RI %OXHWRRWK (QDEOHG HYLFHV 0D[ )RUHFDVW 0LOOLRQV
  3. 3. 0LQ )RUHFDVW %OXHWRRWK 6DOHV )RUHFDVWÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  4. 4. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! Ã([HFXWLYH 2YHUYLHZMost of us are now connected with a wireless device of limited utility be-cause it is only for voice – our cell phones. We are at the dawn of a majortransition for data connections as it also moves from wired to wireless tech-nology. The transition of data communications has not happened with a“grand design”, but is moving inexorably through some interimtechnologies to a conclusion in the wireless domains using a va- :LUHOHVV WHFKQRORJ LV H[SHFWHG WR KDYH D PDMRU LPSDFW RQ WKHriety of technologies. This ARC Strategy Report attempts to PDQXIDFWXULQJ LQGXVWULHV LQ WKHprovide some background on the most significant of these wire- QH[W ILYH HDUV 7KH WHFKQRORJLHV WRless technologies, and makes predictions on their use in the ZDWFK DUH %OXHWRRWK ZLUHOHVV /$1Vmanufacturing environment. Wireless technology is expected to DQG * ZLUHOHVV WHOHSKRQhave a major impact on the manufacturing industries in the nextfive years.7HFKQRORJLHVThe three wireless technologies most likely to be used in the manufacturingindustries are listed in the following table. There are lots more, some at anequivalent state of development, and some still in embryonic state not yetready for wide commercialism.7HFKQRORJLHV )UHTXHQF DWD 5DWH 3URWRFRO LVWDQFH:LUHOHVV /$1 *+] 0ESV LUHFW VHTXHQFH DQG 2PQLGLUHFWLRQDO DQWHQQD P IUHTXHQF KRSSLQJ *+] ² 0ESV LUHFWLRQDO DQWHQQD XS WR NP VSUHDG VSHFWUXP%OXHWRRWK *+] .ESV )UHTXHQF KRSSLQJ 1RPLQDOO P VSUHDG VSHFWUXP XVWRP ² XS WR P* ZLUHOHVV .ESV PRELOH 0$ LUHFW VHTXHQFH 8QOLPLWHG ZLWK FHOO WUDQVIHU *+] VSUHDG VSHFWUXP 0ESV VWDWLRQDU HOO GLVWDQFH a ² NP :LUHOHVV 1HWZRUNV IRU DWD RPPXQLFDWLRQVIt would be wonderful if there was a single winning technology, but there aretoo many applications needing a more direct solution for a volume market.These three technologies cover the application distances from very shortrange (Bluetooth), to medium distances (Wireless LAN), to very long dis-tances (3G Wireless).These are all digital communications protocols completely replacing legacyanalog and hybrid radio of previous generations. The only commonality 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  5. 5. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à among these technologies is that they all use spread spectrum protocols to be immune from noise and to obtain a base level of privacy. ,QGXVWULDO $SSOLFDWLRQV The common thread for wireless applications is mobility, where wireless eliminates the inconvenience and cost of connection to a wired network. However, applications for wireless go well beyond the cordless aspect to ar- eas that were never previously considered “connectable.” Wireless, in all its forms, is another of those enabling technologies that will stimulate new ap- plications when the cost falls to an appropriate point. This report is all about the three wireless technologies that ARC expects to achieve low price points in the next five years. ,WV $OO $ERXW RQQHFWLYLW Manufacturing plants can be large and widely distributed; therefore, the data from the plant comes from a wide area. Manufacturing automation requires access to data at the point where it is generated, and further, requires that real-time control actions be performed in the plant at the location where it has dynamic effect on the process itself. Data processing, or in today’s style “IT,” has usually required that data be transported to a central location for processing and reporting. IT can often accomplish its goals with periodic or daily transport of the data it requires, but manufacturing must +RZHYHU LQ WKH EDFN RI RXU PLQGV process its data in milliseconds or seconds. ZH DOZDV DVN ´:KDW LI ZH FRXOG PDNH FRQQHFWLRQV ZLWKRXW ZLUHVµ Process control applications needed to move the operator out of +HQFH ² ZLUHOHVV the hazardous plant environment that led to use of pneumatic data transmission in the 1930s. From the 1950s onward, most data transmission from the plant floor to the control system has been through copper wires. The maze of copper wiring needed to connect sensors and ac- tuators to control systems is expensive to design, install, test, commission, and maintain. For many years the industry has been spending time and re- sources on serial bus interconnection methods to reduce these costs. However, in the back of our minds, we always ask “What if we could make connections without wires?” Hence – wireless. There has always been a class of device for which the connection cord was such a large inconvenience that it became impractical to depend on the use ofÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  6. 6. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! Ãthe device. Portable barcode readers are an example of this char-acteristic. Only when portable barcode readers became wirelessdid they become convenient enough to require their use in manu-facturing and warehousing.Another class of applications are for connection of devices thatare themselves in motion. Temperature sensors in rotary kilns ordrums are commonly connected using wireless technology. AutomatedGuided Vehicles (AGV) are a class of equipment in constant motion needingnetwork connection.Radio links have been used to connect remote and mobile devices for manyyears. In most cases, these links were narrow-band radios (not spread spec-trum) and required a site license for use. Further, the data transferred wassent from the remote point in almost raw form for processing on a PC orother type of computer equipment. The radio link was actually a form ofwireless RS-232 link, and no more. Today, we expect much more of our in-vestment in sensor and actuator devices. Embedded microprocessors oftenhave more computing power than the 1980s mainframe computer. No longeris raw data enough. Fully processed information is required. Embeddedprocessors need bi-directional communications with other computers anddatabases on the network to maximize their ability to control material flowsand perform the work previously assigned to centralized computers. This isthe state of the technology on two-way radio communications for data at the stbeginning of the 21 century.:LUHOHVV /$1Sometimes pulling wire to connect a computer or a new device to the LAN iseither too costly or physically impossible. The answer to this problem, atleast according to one IEEE standards committee, is to use a wireless LAN forthe physical layer. A very inexpensive solution has been to use infrared lightto “beam” the data through open spaces, but in spite of good specificationssuch as IrDA, infrared connections have not become popular. In 2000, over200 million devices were shipped with IrDA ports, but use of this excellentstandard is almost non-existent. Clearly, something was wrong with IrDA.The IEEE 802 committee concluded that comprehensive work was necessaryto establish a wireless connection to any of their 802 LANs, and assigned the 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  7. 7. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à responsibility of defining the wireless physical layer to Subcommittee 11. In 1997, the initial work of IEEE 802.11 was completed and specification 802.11 was issued as an American National Standard (ANS), and later as an ISO standard. This document defined three (3) different physical layers: 1. Infrared (IR) 2. Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), and 3. Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) The standard has defined only the physical layer so that these interfaces will operate with any of the other LAN/MAN protocols of IEEE 802. Since 802.3 (Ethernet) is the most popular of all these protocols, it is the only one fully tested and commercialized. You might think of a wireless LAN as a gap be- tween two ends of an Ethernet cable. This has been referred to as an “air interface” and is commonly called “wireless Ethernet.” IEEE 802.11 defined data rates of 1.0 and 2.0 Mbps for both the IR link and both forms of spread spectrum radio operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM (indus- trial, scientific., and medical) band. This was initially thought to be fast enough when networks rarely achieved much faster rates, and internet con- nections were typically at T1 rates, or 1.544 Mbps. However, with fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps, and broadband internet connections, there was a demand for higher data rates. In 1999, the Wireless LAN subcommit- tee released IEEE 802b, which defines only DSSS at a data rate of 1, 2, 5.5, and 11.0 Mbps. Never satisfied with these slow speeds, the committee went back to work to define higher data rates at 20 to 54 Mbps, but there is not room in the 2.4 GHz ISM band for higher rates. The higher rates will only be achieved by operation in the 5.0 GHz frequency band. This standard is called IEEE 802.11a, and is commonly called Hiperlan2, after an early prototype product. ,QIUDUHG :LUHOHVV /$1 IrDA was never designed to be more than a simple device connection, not a local area network. Its most frequent use is to provide a way to synchronize PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) with a database on a PC. However, most PCs are not equipped with an IrDA port. Laptop computers generally are so equipped, but the port is usually at the rear. Physical inconvenience and lack of desktop presence probably were at fault in failure of IrDA.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  8. 8. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! ÃDesigners of 802.11 were quite aware of IrDA’s faults, and specified a higherpower infrared radiation capable of being bounced off walls and reflected bymirrors to “flood” an office area with infrared (IR) data beams. This leads tomultipath distortion, where the same data arrives along different reflectedpaths at slightly different delays. Compensation for multi-path distortion has been included in the 802.11 specification $OWKRXJK ,5 ZRXOG JHQHUDOO EH VXLWDEOHto allow its infrared to be used in an office environment IRU PRVW IDFWRU DXWRPDWLRQwithout direct line of sight communications. DSSOLFDWLRQV IXWXUH XVH LV GRXEWIXO EHFDXVH RI WKH ODFN RI FRPPHUFLDOAt this point, it is obvious that the IR option of 802.11 is not HTXLSPHQW DQG WKH HPSKDVLV RQ VSUHDG VSHFWUXP UDGLR FRPPXQLFDWLRQVbeing implemented, and no more development is plannedfor higher data rates. Although IR would generally be suit-able for many factory automation applications, future use is doubtful becauseof the lack of commercial equipment, and the emphasis on spread spectrumradio communications.)UHTXHQF +RSSLQJ 6SUHDG 6SHFWUXP )+66
  9. 9. The original spread spectrum idea was conceived by movie actress HedyLamarr (real name: Hedwig Maria Eva Kiesler), and her piano composerfriend, George Antheil, who patented the method and donated it to the USGovernment in 1943. The idea for frequency hopping was conceived as amethod to allow secure radio communications, without the fear of intercep-tion, and one that would be able to function in the presence of high powerjamming signals used to disrupt battlefield communications.IEEE 802.11 defines a specific instance of FHSS for the unlicensed ISM radioband 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz. Specifically, it defines 79 different frequencies inthat band, and therefore, 78 different frequency transitions are defined foreach of the 79 base frequencies of the carrier signal. Signals are transmittedfor 400 ms before the carrier is switched to the next frequency. This is com-monly called “slow” frequency hopping.Two different FHSS systems each operating in the same area (co-location)could occasionally collide by operating at the same carrier frequency. Addi-tionally, any other noise on one of the frequency bands will causeinterference. Bluetooth is one of those technologies operating in the 2.4 GHzband that will cause some interference with wireless LANs. There is no spe-cific error detection specified for the physical layer, so any data errors causedby interference will be detected through an error in the CRC (Cyclic Redun-dancy Check) performed by the Data Link Layer. No specific management 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  10. 10. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à for the physical layer is defined by the standard, although suppliers may im- plement their own. One such common function of FHSS management would be to detect frequency bands consistently generating framing errors, and to eliminate them from the list of available frequencies. LUHFW 6HTXHQFH 6SUHDG 6SHFWUXP 666
  11. 11. Another method of spreading the signal across the 85 MHz of the 2.4 to 2.485 GHz frequency band is called direct sequence spread spectrum. DSSS is harder to understand than FHSS, but accomplishes the same goals of noise rejection, and resistance to jamming. Imagine that DSSS is like FHSS, but the switching time between frequencies is very short – less than one bit time at the transmitted data rate. Each bit of data is sent at multiple frequencies (11 in IEEE 802.11b) providing some redundancy. Since the frequencies are se- lected at random within the allowable frequency band, covert detection is practically impossible. For many technical reasons, most of the advanced development has been de- voted to DSSS. IEEE 802.11b defines a data rate of 11 Mbps, and uses only DSSS technology. At present, it seems that DSSS is the only wireless LAN technology being developed for broad interoperability. The most under- standable reason is the speed of 11 Mbps is within the range of wired networks, while the 1-2 Mbps of FHSS is probably suitable only for connec- tion of slower peripheral devices such as barcode readers and handheld terminals. In fact, although too technical for this report, behavior of DSSS in most ways is superior, or at worst equivalent, to FHSS. One of the differences between FHSS and DSSS is the statutory limit, which prevents co-located FHSS from synchronization, which would prevent colli- sions resulting from networks in the same area from picking the same frequency at the same time. DSSS is allowed to probe for potential interfer- ence by statute so that it may detect it before transmission. Some of the statutes are written this way because IEEE 802.11 (and Bluetooth) operate in the unlicensed ISM radio band, and are very limited in radiated energy. US Government regulations are established for this band to allow sharing by many technologies. Most other governments share the same findings and echo the same regulations for this band as the US Federal Communications Commission.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  12. 12. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! Ã,((( D +LJK 6SHHG :LUHOHVV /$1The most significant recent development has been the availability of low costCMOS chips for the 5 GHz frequency band (5.15-35 and 5.725-5.825), previ-ously requiring expensive Gallium Arsinide (GAs) semiconductors. This hasresulted in a surge of interest in IEEE 802.11a, the high data rate DSSS tech-nology supporting up to 54 Mbps. At present, this band is not shared withany other radio service actually in use, and it does not contain aharmonic of the water absorption band. IEEE 802.11a has been $5 EHOLHYHV WKDW ,((( Dspecified with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi- GHILQHV D ZLUHOHVV SURWRFRO VXLWDEOH IRU XVH LQ WKH LQGXVWULDO HQYLURQPHQWplexing) modulation, which has superior rejection of multipath DQG ZLOO GRPLQDWH WKH LQGXVWULDOdistortion (signal bounces off walls and objects) over 802.11b. ZLUHOHVV /$1 PDUNHW E Chips for 802.11a are already available in development quanti-ties and commercial products are likely to become available in2002. Convergence with the European-developed HiperLAN2 is highlylikely, removing international objections to this standard. ARC believes thatIEEE 802.11a defines a wireless protocol suitable for use in the industrial en-vironment, and will dominate the industrial wireless LAN market by 2005.We advise against use of FHSS and 802.11b for wireless LANs, except tosolve immediate short-term problems.%OXHWRRWKThe original application for Bluetooth was for “cordless” applications: elimi-nate the connecting cord between headphones and the cell phone;synchronize PDA data bases without a connection cord; and, allow PDAs toprint without making a physical connection to a printer. Since then, the Blue-tooth SIG (Special Interest Group) has developed extensive protocols notnormally found in data communications. One of the applications, whichmany Bluetooth advocates believe will be the largest use of the technology,will be for the transmission of digitized voice – telephony.One of the defined functions of Bluetooth is the automatic formation of “pi-conets” – spontaneous networks with up to eight (8) nodes at a timeconnected. File sharing and transfer, printer sharing, and all the usual peer-level network functions are provided similar to a Windows NetworkNeighborhood. If there are more than eight nodes in one location, they willall appear on as many other nodes as possible forming multiple networkpaths. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  13. 13. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à Bluetooth is a full network protocol definition, not just a physical layer such as Wireless LAN. While it operates in the same network band as IEEE 802.11, the ISM band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, it only uses FHSS with much faster hopping than 802.11. The hopping rate is 1600 hops per second, which when coupled with the very low power of 1600 picowatts, should result in minimal interference with 802.11 FHSS. However, there has been some reported in- terference with 802.11b DSSS when used in the same area. One of the Bluetooth protocols is its ability to discover other Bluetooth nodes in its vicinity and spontaneously form a piconet attachment. Therefore, when applications are ready to connect as a microphone/headphone, ex- change business cards, or synchronize a contact database, they need not concern themselves with the attachment step. Each of these applications will be enabled or disabled in advance and usually will require specific identifica- tion before the attachment can take place. This is especially important for database synchronization or the formation of piconets since these steps may expose data to unwanted transfers. Lack of security in this function is more than compensated by the convenience that goes way beyond plug-and-play. ,QGXVWULDO $SSOLFDWLRQV Bluetooth is expected to be part of every cell phone and PDA sold by 2003. This huge market volume is expected to reduce the cost of the chip to less than US$5.00 in this time frame. With the trend to commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, Bluetooth clearly fits. Because Bluetooth will most often be applied to a battery driven device, it must draw little power, and must run cool as well. These characteristics make Bluetooth useful for portable devices or devices mounted on moving machinery. Bluetooth is a viable data communications protocol and will support the up- per layers of the protocol stack including Internet protocols and applications such as TCP/IP, FTP, SNMP, SMTP, and UDP. While transmitted energy is expected to be low, raising the signal level closer to the allowed ISM band maximum of 250 milliwatts from the traditional 1600 picowatts, increases distance between nodes. If signals are only directed to a single node, as for a switch or centralized controller, then directional antennas may be used to further increase reception distance. Bluetooth transmitting with an omnidi- rectional antenna at 250 milliwatts should be able to reach at least 100 meters. Except for the lower level protocols, there is no essential difference between Bluetooth and any other LAN technology operating in the 2.4 GHz band.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  14. 14. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! ÃEmbedded Bluetooth is expected to appear in many industrial automationproducts.* :LUHOHVVThe world’s wireless telephones are converging toward a common technol-ogy called CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) originally created andpatented by Qualcomm, and freely licensed for use in 3G Wire-less. The ITU (International Telecommunications Union), 7KH ZRUOG·V ZLUHOHVV WHOHSKRQHV DUHwhich sets the world’s standards for telecommunications has FRQYHUJLQJ WRZDUG D FRPPRQset a goal called IT-2000 – a standard that defines the converged WHFKQRORJ FDOOHG 0$ RGHtechnology for all wireless telephones. If this standard would LYLVLRQ 0XOWLSOH $FFHVV
  15. 15. be achieved, it would be possible to use a single wireless tele-phone anywhere in the world. But, alas, this dream has been subverted bycommercial forces wanting to preserve the life of today’s wireless central of-fice switching equipment. As a result, we will see CDMA used all over theworld, but not with identical protocols or at the same radio frequency.Wireless telephony will certainly be useful in the factory or process plant tocontact people who are not deskbound. 3G is a far superior technology to theold CB radios. However, it is not for voice alone that we are suggesting astrong interest in 3G wireless – it is the high digital data rate of this technol-ogy:• 384 Kbps while the mobile terminal is in motion.• 2.0 Mbps (or higher) when the terminal is not in motion (fixed).These data rates are suitable for most data transfers in industrial automationapplications, particularly for remote units. Other characteristics of 3G wire-less are also appealing:• CDMA is a highly noise-resistant protocol using DSSS technology.• The appeal of a very large COTS market for low cost support silicon.• Use of one product anywhere in the world.• Availability of low cost telephones and PDAs for handheld terminals.While the world’s wireless telephone providers are all moving in the CDMAdirection, the protocols will differ somewhat depending upon the spectrumavailable and the previous cell phone technology used in that country. 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  16. 16. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à 7KH RQYROXWHG 3DWK WR * GSM (Global System Mobile) is the most widely used digital cell phone tech- nology in the world. It is a form of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) with time segments of about 50 ms. This allows up to 200 users to share the frequency in the vicinity of the cell transceiver. It is used at different fre- quencies in different parts of the world: 800, 900, and 1900 MHz. The most significant feature of GSM is the SIM (System Identification Module), a tiny card usually referred-to as a “chip” inserted into a cell phone to give it all of your account information including your telephone number. The US-based TDMA networks do not use a SIM. The limitation of GSM and TDMA are clear – the limit of 200 users per cell means that conversations are frequently dropped when you move into the range of a different cell, which is already at full capacity, and often there is no dial tone in crowded metropolitan areas. In any time division multiplex- ing protocol, the time assignment is fixed as long as you are off-hook, even when you are not speaking or listening. Less clear, is the quality of service since all speech is digitized and compressed. The GSM voice encoder (CO- DEC) has sufficient fidelity for most speech, but little else, and limits speeds when used as a modem. CDMA (code division multiple access) uses DSSS and is a packet-based transmission method. When speaking, voice is encoded into digital data, compressed and assembled into packets that are transmitted when the chan- nel is available. No packets are sent during quiet periods. Since human speech contains many pauses, CDMA is usually more than 50 percent more efficient than TDMA or GSM. For reasons of bandwidth efficiency, the ITU selected CDMA as the technology for IT-2000. Wireless telephony carriers currently using CDMA face minimal equipment upgrades to convert directly to IT-2000, but are being cautious in their con- versions to avoid making promises they cannot keep. They are rolling out the increased digital bandwidth in steps starting with today’s 19.2 kbps to 64 k, then 128 k, 256 k, 384 k and finally 2.0 Mbps, all for stationary perform- ance. Rates for stations in motion are less. No technical changes are required for each of these steps, but the providers have an opportunity to learn about service delivery and system bottlenecks. Operation of 3G networks would not be on the same frequencies as today’s service, which can be continued until fully replaced by 3G.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
  17. 17. à 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! ÃGSM and TDMA digital cell phone providers have to make some very ex-pensive equipment upgrades to move to IT-2000, and will not do it in onestep. Their strategy is called EDGE and has been labeled a “2.5G” strategy, ndsince the current technology is 2 generation, and they are not yet at 3G.Edge allows concurrent use of the same frequencies as GSM and TDMAwithout interfering with it. This allows the providers to continue to servicecurrent customers and use the same radio transceivers as present, but withthe new switching equipment. A second step would install new transceiversand obsolete older service.RPPHUFLDO 0LJUDWLRQWhy do we care about 3G in the industrial setting? Consider the volume ofthe 3G marketplace and the silicon that will support it. This is the effect ofCOTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology and the low prices that goalong with a dominating technology. Industrial equipment will be devel-oped around 3G silicon and will use this digital voice channelfor many mobile applications not needing the high band- $5 H[SHFWV WKDW * WHFKQRORJ ZLOOwidth of wireless LAN that will always be more expensive. QRW EH WRWDOO XQGHU FRQWURO RI WKH ZLUHOHVV WHOHSKRQH VHUYLFH SURYLGHUVFirst, we expect that 3G technology will not be totally under * ZLOO EHFRPH WKH EDVLV IRU WKH RIILFH FDPSXV DQG FRPPHUFLDO EXLOGLQJcontrol of the wireless telephone service providers. 3G will WHOHSKRQH QHWZRUN QRZ NQRZQ DV WKHbecome the basis for the office, campus, and commercial 3%; 3ULYDWH %UDQFK H;FKDQJH
  18. 18. building telephone network now known as the PBX (PrivateBranch eXchange). After all, the telephone network is opti-mized for the efficient and demanding service of voice transmission, whereasa LAN is optimized for high speed data transmission. They do not mix verywell! When the LAN is based on wire, then there is an incentive to fold te-lephony into that same wire to save on the cost of a parallel set of wires forthe telephone. Remove the LAN wire and substitute wireless LAN, and theincentive is removed to share LAN and telephony applications. Thus is bornthe market for the Wireless PBX based not on wireless LAN, but on a localinstallation of 3G transceivers. When you find a comfortable 3G telephonehandset, with its Bluetooth headset, you will carry it with you wherever youwonder, and you will never be out of touch – find the OFF switch!,QGXVWULDO $SSOLFDWLRQVThere have been industrial applications of radio technology for many yearsfor both mobile and remote access. As radio technology, available frequen-cies, and bandwidth demand have changed over the years, the choice of the 8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒÃ‡Ã6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã
  19. 19. 6S8ÃT‡…h‡rtvr†Ã‡ÃHh’Ã! à radio has changed. These new wireless standards are certain to affect the choice of radio technology as well. For example, as 3G wireless moves out from the major metropolitan areas to include more rural zones, many oil and gas wells and pumping/gathering stations will be covered. Instead of using narrowband radio or expensive telephone lines, SCADA remote stations will convert to 3G wireless transmission. The immediate beneficiaries of 3G wire- less for SCADA, will be in water and waste treatment applications, which are, by definition, in major metropolitan areas already well covered by cellu- lar radio systems. Only a few years ago, handheld barcode readers were wired to local PCs for data acquisition in internal supply chain applications. When narrowband radio became affordable, the bothersome wire was replaced with the tech- nology known as RFDC. In the past year, RFDC has been replaced by wireless LAN technology based on IEEE 802.11. We feel that the low data rates and the low cost of 3G will again convert this market to the use of 3G wireless connection. Automated guided vehicles (AGV) have not been as widely used in North American factories as they have in Asia. One of the problems in use of AGVs is that once they are assigned a destination, they will follow a predetermined path to that destination and are essentially out of communications with the materials flow control system. Use of wireless LAN is not a good solution to communications with AGVs, since they are by definition, roaming stations, and the roaming problem is very difficult to correct on wireless LANs. 3G wireless protocol is designed for handoff between cells and maintains con- nections while roaming. This makes it a superior technology for use in data acquisition and control of AGVs. With a sustained 3G connection, AGVs can now be fully tracked and even redirected in mid-course if necessary. It is highly likely that 3G wireless will become the backup for ,W LV KLJKO OLNHO WKDW * ZLUHOHVV ZLOO the wireless LAN for high bandwidth applications inside the EHFRPH WKH EDFNXS IRU WKH ZLUHOHVV corporate walls or factory. It will also become the logical ex- /$1 IRU KLJK EDQGZLGWK DSSOLFDWLRQV LQVLGH WKH FRUSRUDWH ZDOOV RU IDFWRU tension to the corporate LAN operating outside the factory ,W ZLOO DOVR EHFRPH WKH ORJLFDO walls, much as today the telephone modem links the business H[WHQVLRQ WR WKH FRUSRUDWH /$1 LAN to the roving worker. We expect that the handoff from RSHUDWLQJ RXWVLGH WKH IDFWRU ZDOOV the wireless LAN to the 3G network and returning will become seamless and transparent to the user as they move around the factory, occasionally moving out and into the range of wireless LAN access points, but never out of touch with one or more PBX cells.ÇÃ6S8rip‚€Ã‡Ã8‚ƒ’…vtu‡Ã‹Ã6S8Ã6q‰v†‚…’ÃB…‚ˆƒ
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