Differences between media for interpersonal communication             and media choice.              Camiel Beukeboom     ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                        VU University Amsterdam  Today   Medi...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                 VU University Amsterdam  Medi...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                            VU University Amsterdam  Scenario:...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                         VU University Amsterdam  Scenario: Wh...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                             VU University Amsterdam  Today: T...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                          VU University Amster...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                      VU University Amsterdam ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                   VU University Amsterdam  Me...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                                             V...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                           VU University Amste...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                              VU University Amsterdam  Reduced...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                        VU University Amsterda...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                                              ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                      VU University Amsterdam ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                              VU University Am...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                                VU University ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                                VU University ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                   VU University Amsterdam  Me...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                          VU University Amster...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                  VU University Amsterdam  Med...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                 VU University Amsterdam  Medi...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                      VU University Amsterdam ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                               VU University Amsterdam  Media ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                           VU University Amste...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                                     VU University Amsterdam  ...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                        VU University Amsterdam  What is the r...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                   VU University Amsterdam  What i h i h  Wh i...
Department of Communication ScienceSession 7                                           VU University Amsterdam  It‘s all a...
Thank you !     Camiel BeukeboomDept. of Communication Science  p      VU University Amsterdam
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Differences between media for interpersonal communication beukeboom

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Over technologische verschillen tussen media en effecten daarvan voor media keus en verloop interactie

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Differences between media for interpersonal communication beukeboom

  1. 1. Differences between media for interpersonal communication and media choice. Camiel Beukeboom Dept. of Communication Science p VU University Amsterdam
  2. 2. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Today Media for interpersonal communication p Abundance of media to choose from Why do people choose certain media? What exactly are the differences between What media? What Wh are the consequences of these h f h differences?Media and the Individual 2012 2
  3. 3. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media choice and performance in interpersonal comm. Before Use During Use After Use Selecting Medium Outcome capabilitiesMedia and the Individual 2012 3
  4. 4. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Scenario: Which medium do you choose? S h h d d h ? You want to end the romantic relationship You with your partner. Your friends think you should have done this a long time ago. You didn’t yet, because you find it difficult to find wo ds e p a w y t s t going we . words to explain why it isn’t go g well.Media and the Individual 2012 4
  5. 5. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Scenario: Which medium do you choose? S h h d d h ? You plan to book a wintersports holiday with You three friends. You alsways go to the same spot in France. This year a fifth person is joining. You know him it hi quite well, b t th others d ’t and you ll but the th don’t, d have never been on a holiday with him before. One of your friends suggests that France may have good snow and pistes but that Austria has much better apres-ski bars.Media and the Individual 2012 5
  6. 6. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Today: Technological determinism How technological capabilities of media determine g p media choice and performance. Important models / theories Important Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christy, 1976) Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) Reduced Social Cues approach (Sproull & Kiesler 1986) 986) Media synchronicity and media choice (Dennis, Fuller & Valacich, 2009)Media and the Individual 2012
  7. 7. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie, 1976) Social presence ≈ awareness of the other person p p Degree of social presence in a medium is determined by the extent in which physical, visual, auditory contact is possible More possible  more potential for “presence” Low social presence High social presence text audio FtF Low potential to exercise High potential to exercise social influence social influenceMedia and the Individual 2012
  8. 8. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986)  Bandwidth: The capacity of a medium to transmit signals. Media differ in the extent that they allow: Interactivity (capacity for immediate feedback) The transmission of different types of cues The use of natural language A personal focus (social emotional cues) A  Fit between complexity of the message and medium richness Complexity of the message: uncertainty: The absence of information equivocality: The ambiguity of information Degree of routine: the (shared) experience with the task / messageMedia and the Individual 2012
  9. 9. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media Richness Theory: Fit Media richne > essMedia and the Individual 2012
  10. 10. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media Richness Theory: Fit Over chness edia ric s complication fit Me Over simplification low middle high Complexity of communication task Daft & Lengel, Trevino 1987Media and the Individual 2012
  11. 11. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Reduced Social Cues approach (Sproull & Kiesler, 1986)  A lack of capacity to transmit different types of cues has a variety of (both d i bl and undesirable) i t f (b th desirable nd nd i bl ) consequences Static cues: Clothes/ location/ physical properties Dynamic cues: Body language/ f i l expression/ tone of voice B d l / facial i / f i Consequences of (a lack of) these cues: Less information about the type of person you’re dealing with yp p y g Blurring of hierarchical / expertise differences Creating uncertainty Lower persuasive power anonimity and de-individuationMedia and the Individual 2012
  12. 12. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Reduced Social Cues approach (Sproull & Kiesler, 1986)Media and the Individual 2012
  13. 13. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Up until now: Media constrain the types of information that can be yp transmitted (i.e., bandwidth) Larger bandwidth (i.e., richer medium): More social presence (cf, Short, Williams & Christie, 1976) More complex task (cf, Daft & Lenger, 1986) (cf Lenger More attention for the individual (cf, Sproull & Kiesler, 1986) Fit between task and medium is essential However, not convincingly shown in research (Dennis et al). Better look at “communication processes” than “task”.Media and the Individual 2012
  14. 14. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Different communication processes (Dennis et al., 2009*) Conveyance: The transmission of new Conveyance: information from person A to person B Convergence: A C Agree on th meaning of the the i f th information; Reach a shared understanding. Integration of two perspectives I i f i Higher level of interaction neccessary Back and f h B k d forth * Dennis, A. R., Fuller, R. M. & Valacich, J. S. (2009): Media synchronicity and media choice: Choosing media for performance (Chapt.), In T. Hartmann (Ed.), Media Choice: A theoretical and empirical overview (pp. 247-273). New York: Routledge.Media and the Individual 2012 14
  15. 15. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Different communication processes (Dennis et al., 2009) Media synchronicity: The extent to which the y y capabilities of a communication medium enable individuals to work together at the same time with a shared pattern of coordinated behavior. Ability to receive immediate feedback Quickly assess and modify messages (even during Quickly transmission) For conveyance processes low synchronicity medium is beneficial > better performance For convergence processes high synchronicity medium is beneficial > better performanceMedia and the Individual 2012 15
  16. 16. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l The technological capabilities g p (affordances) of a medium determines its capacity to support synchronicity synchronicity. Basic aspect: Copresence (aka co- location): are person A and B in same physical environment? FtF ( ) vs mediated conversations ( ) (yes) di t d ti (no) Facebook, stay in touch with old friends TwitterMedia and the Individual 2012 16
  17. 17. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam @astro_andre d ‘I went to space and all I got was this lousy T-shirt’Media and the Individual 2012 17
  18. 18. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 1. Transmission velocity (speed / interactivity) Subtopics (Clark & Brennan, 1991): Cotemporality: person B receives at the same time as person A produces d Telephone (yes) vs voicemail, letter (no) Simultaneity: A and B can send and receive y simultaneously (a sender perceives reaction to his utternance while it is produced) FtF ( ) vs chat (no) F F (yes) h ( )Media and the Individual 2012 18
  19. 19. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 2. Parallelism: the number of simultaneous transmissions possible (more than 1 person addressed). ) 1 on 1 vs 1-to-more (e.g., ftf group, what’sapp group), 1-to-many (e.g. twitter, mass emails, blog, lecture) Recipients feel less addressed, not responsible to answer High parallelism reduces interaction coherence, and shared focus: lower synchronicityMedia and the Individual 2012 19
  20. 20. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 3. Symbol sets (multiplicity of cues): Possibility for (different types) of nonverbal messages (cf. Static cues and dynamic cues, RSC) Visibility: A and B are visible to each other FTF, skype vs. telephone Body language gestures clothes location physical language, gestures, clothes, location, properties, facial expression Audibility: A and B communicate by speaking y y p g Voice mail vs. SMS tone of voice Cf. Social presence, media richnessMedia and the Individual 2012 20
  21. 21. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 4. Rehearsability (aka editability, revisability): sender can rehearse or fine tune a message during encoding, before sending. Ftf (no) vs email, twitter (yes) carefully construct message, think about the best y g way to formulate itMedia and the Individual 2012 21
  22. 22. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 5. Reprocessability (aka reviewability): recipients can re-examine / process messages again, during decoding or later.  Speech in Ftf (no) vs recorded speech (voicemail), email, email chat history, twitter, letters (yes) history twitter Advantages and disadvantagesMedia and the Individual 2012 22
  23. 23. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l 5. Reprocessability (aka reviewability): Rotte vis en andere e-mails uit de Haagse PVV "We hebben vandaag nog een aantal klachten over het Verkeerscirculatieplan nodig", zo luidt de tekst van een van de e mails. Ieder e-mails. "Ieder een aantal klachtjes typen. 10 minuten werk. werk."  European Union: stricter laws on internet privacy The right to privacy. forget (‘recht op vergetelheid’)  Film: Ipod, Iphone, Iam (12.00-15.26min) p p ( )Media and the Individual 2012 23
  24. 24. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009)Media and the Individual 2012 24
  25. 25. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam Media capabilities (Dennis et al., 2009) d bl ( l Synchronicity is high in media with: high y y g g transmission velocity, more symbol sets Negative effect of: parallelism (distraction), no rehearsability and no reprocessability (delay) h bl d b l (d l ) Conveyance process better in media with low synchronicity, synchronicity and with rehearsability, rehearsability reprocessability Convergence p g process better in media that enable high g synchronicity Negative effect of: parallelism, rehearsability and no reprocessability when th cause d l bilit h they delaysMedia and the Individual 2012 25
  26. 26. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam It‘s all about …  Technological capabilities of media determine: g p how conversations develop (performance / effectiveness) media choice: People are expected to choose a medium that fits the task/ type of conversation at hand Knowledge about these issues allow you to analyze whether a used medium is the best medium for a given interaction.Media and the Individual 2012 26
  27. 27. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam What is the right medium to end a relationship? h h h d d l h ?Media and the Individual 2012 27
  28. 28. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam What i h i h Wh is the right medium for a lecture? di f l ?Media and the Individual 2012 28
  29. 29. Department of Communication ScienceSession 7 VU University Amsterdam It‘s all about … However, is media choice only determined by y y capabilities and expected effectiveness of the medium? For tomorrow: what other factors (aside from medium capabilities) determine your choice of media (for IPC)? And what other factors determine the course and outcome of mediated conversations?Media and the Individual 2012 29
  30. 30. Thank you ! Camiel BeukeboomDept. of Communication Science p VU University Amsterdam

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