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Ayyappan S (2012) Feeding over a billion forever: challenges and priorities for ICAR in the next decade, ACIAR Seminar Series presentation, 18 January 2012, Canberra, Australia.

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Seminar icar challenges ayyappan_180112

  1. 1. Presenter Dr Subbanna Ayyappan Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Secretary of the Department of Agricultural Research and Education ACIAR Policy Advisory Council memberTopic “Challenges and priorities for ICAR in the next decade”Date 11am, Wednesday 18 January 2012Venue CSIRO Plant Industry Lecture TheatreAcknowledgements Ayyappan S (2012) Feeding over a billion forever: challenges and priorities for ICAR in the next decade, ACIAR Seminar Series presentation, 18 January 2012, Canberra, Australia.
  2. 2. Feeding over a Billion Forever…(Challenges and Priorities for ICAR in the next decade) 18 January, 2012
  3. 3. 2500 Food production (mt) 2000 India World World India 1500 Cereals 2237.6 242.00 1000 Rice 455.6 95.32 500 Wheat 652.6 85.93 0 Coarse 1121.3 42.22 Grains Maize 889.2 21.23 Oilseed 464.7 31.1 Near East na Developed North Latin Countries, 19 Africa, 37 America and the Sugar 165.7 26.0Asia and thePacific, 578 Caribbean, 5 3 Meat 290.6 6.8 Sub-Saharan Africa, 239 Milk 710 112.0 Undernourishment in Fish 149.0 7.8 2010, by region (million)
  4. 4. India in World Food Basket Projected Required Present Annual Rank in the Present Annual Annual Growth Rate, % Commodity Production, mt World Growth Rate, % (2020 – 21, on 7.3% GDP Growth)Food grain 233.90 III 0.91 1.93Sugar & Gur 23.80 II 1.36 1.91Vegetables 125.80 II 4.68 2.11Fresh Fruits 63.50 II 3.65 3.24Milk 108.90 I 3.94 3.00Meat 6.10 V 3.43 3.72Eggs (billion no.) 53.50 III 5.07 3.85Fish 7.13 III 2.68 4.25
  5. 5. India Today… > 17% of the world‟s human & 11% livestock population and counting 4.2% of the world‟s water 2.4% of the world‟s area 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated 137% cropping intensity 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture 15.7% contribution in GDP 10.23% earning of total exports (~ ` 86,000 crores)
  6. 6. Context and ParadigmsMore From Less For MoreEnhancing productivity and efficiencyPrimary Agriculture to SecondaryAgricultureAgriculture-Food-Nutrition-Health-Environment-EmploymentSkill and Youth in AgricultureScience-led Agriculture
  7. 7. Undernourishment in 2010, by region (million) Developed Near East na Countries, 19 North Africa, 37 Latin America and theAsia and the Caribbean, 53Pacific, 578 Sub-Saharan Africa, 239 Source : FAO
  8. 8. Prevalence of undernourishment and progress towards the World Food Summit (WFS) and the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets in developing countries WORLD Total Number of people Proportion of Progress in Progress inRegion/sub-region/ Population undernourished undernourished in prevalence number WFS MDG country (under- total population towards 2005-07 towards trend trend nourishment 1995-97 2005-07 MDG (millions) WFS category) 1995-97 2005-07 Target = 0.5East Asia 1402.1 149.8 139.5 0.6  12 10 0.6 Southeast Asia 555.5 85.7 76.1 0.7  18 14 0.6 South Asia 1520.1 252.8 331.1 1.3  20 22 1.0 Central Asia 58.7 4.9 6.0 1.4  9 10 1.2 Western Asia 16.0 4.3 1.1 0.2  27 7 0.2 The Caribbean 34.4 8.8 8.1 1.1  28 24 0.9 South America 375.9 34.1 29.2 0.8  10 8 0.6 Near East 280.4 24.1 26.3 1.8  11 9 1.3 North Africa 158.8 5.4 6.1 1.2  - - na naCentral Africa 98.4 37.2 51.8 2.5  49 53 1.6 East Africa 252.8 84.7 86.9 1.1  44 34 0.8 Southern Africa 103.4 33.3 33.9 1.1  41 33 0.8 West Africa 275.0 32.0 28.5 0.8  15 10 0.5 Africa 888.4 192.6 207.2 1.2  28 23 0.8 
  9. 9. Food and Nutrition Security Already Under Stress Proportion of undernourished in No. of people undernourished in total population in developing developing countries (millions) countries (%) 20 900 835.2 20 826.6 768.1Proportion undernourished 800 18 People undernourished 17 16 700 16 14 600 12 500 10 400 8 300 6 4 200 2 100 0 0 1990-92 1995-97 2005-07 1990-92 1995-97 2005-07 Year Year
  10. 10. Enhanced Access to FoodFoodPrices:FromCrisisto Stability
  11. 11. Global Production Trend: Cereals Growth Rates in Area, Production and Yield/Ha. Since 19703.50 3.333.00 2.782.50 2.15 1.872.00 1970s1.50 1980s 1.15 1.06 0.84 1990s 0.811.00 0.64 2000s0.50 0.030.00 Area Yield/ha Production-0.50 -0.42-1.00 -0.89
  12. 12. Poor people spend much of their income on foodNote: Percentage of household budget spent on food by the lowest expenditure quintile ofthe population. Source of raw data: FAO Rural Income Generating Activities project
  13. 13. Difference in resilience to food price shocks across countriesNote: The size of bubbles is proportional to the number of undernourished in 2008. African countriesare shown in red, Asian countries in blue and Latin American countries in green. Price used areinflation-adjusted retail prices of major staple foods in main markets, weighted by the population ofeach market and the share in energy intake of each staple food. Source of raw data: FAO
  14. 14. Distinct Transitions: Agricultural Era Technology Convergence (21st century) Biotechnology Era (2000s) Green Revolution (1970s) Y = 4 t/ha?, * KBS Mechanization Y = >1.5 t/ha, (1960s)Traditional HRD/ TechnologicalFarming Y = >1 t/ha, Break Through(Early 1900s) Co-operatives Y = >0.5 t/ha, Land Reforms Y = < 0.5 t/ha, Feudalism * Knowledge based Society
  15. 15. Productivity Gains Productivity Commodity 1950 2009 TimesFood Grains, kg/ha 522 1898 3.6Fruits, kg/ha 8600 13700 1.6Vegetables, kg/ha 7500 15600 2.1Fish, kg/ha 400 2700 6.8(Aquaculture)Milk litre/lactation 583 1080 1.8Eggs, No./bird 50 238 4.8
  16. 16. Major ConcernsNatural Resources degradationIncreasing Biotic and Abiotic PressuresInput use Efficiency(Water, Nutrients, Energy)Farm MechanizationHarvest & Post Harvest LossesProfitability in farmingQuality Human ResourceFarm Extension
  17. 17. Biodiversity for Pressures on NaturalPosterity Resource Base (million ha) DeforestationWorld Land degradation 107.43 Estimated Species 10 Water erosion 57.15 million Degraded forests 24.90 Documented species Wind erosion 10.46 1.72 million Salt-affected 6.32 India: Among the 12 Acid-affected 12.00 Soil erosion Mega bio-diversity Others 8.60 Centres India: 3 of the 34 Hot Per capita agricultural Spots of Biodiversity land availability 0.34 ha (1950-51) 12% of world‟s flora 7% of world‟s fauna Desertification National Bureaus of 0.17 ha (1999-2000) Plant, Animal, Fish, Microbes and Insects 0.12 ha (2010-2011)
  18. 18. Climatic risks are increasing Great weather catastrophes 1950 – 2008 Number of events with trend Source: Munich Re 2009
  19. 19. Impact of climate change on rainfed wheat production, 2050
  20. 20. Projected ImpactsIncrease in CO2 to 550 ppm increases yields ofrice, wheat, legumes and oilseeds by 10-20%A 1oC increase in temperature may reduce yields ofwheat, soyabean, mustard, Groundnut and potato by 3-7%.Much higher losses at higher temperaturesProductivity of most crops to decrease marginally by 2020but by 10-40% by 2100. Increase in droughts and floods arelikely to increase production variability even in short-termPossibly some improvement in yields of chickpea, rabimaize, sorghum and millets; and coconut in west coastLess loss in potato, mustard and vegetables in north-westernIndia due to reduced frost damage
  21. 21. Assessing vulnerability of Indian agriculture to climate change: Controlled environment facilities
  22. 22. Dryland FarmingDrought-resistant crop varietiesIntegrated Mission for SustainableDevelopment (IMSD)Participatory Land and Water ResourcesManagement : SujalaLand Treatments for In situ MoistureConservationWater Saving Technologies: Laserleveling, Raised bed planting Leaf Cell Water content Pigments structure Chlorophyll absorption Water absorption (nm) Visible Near-Infrared Shortwave Infrared
  23. 23. Improving Productivity in Drylands Integrated Mission for Sustainable Participatory Land and Water Resources Development (IMSD) Management : SujalaLand & Water resources development plans for Monitoring & Evaluation of Dev. Activity in 77 Sub- 84 Mha in 175 dists. in country watersheds in 5 Dists. of Karnataka Watershed prioritisation & Development using EO inputs Concurrent Monitoring & Mid-course correction of Implementation Ground Water Social & Environmental Impact Assessment Drainage Potential Improving the quality of life Land Resource IRS- 1D,PAN+LISS-3 FEB 2002 Development Plan Monitoring Land use Changes Imagery Fallow Soil IRS- 1D,PAN+LISS-3 MAR, 2005 MaizeWatershed Water Resource Land Use Cropping Intensity has Development Plan increased from 106 % to 128 %
  24. 24. Soil-Water Conservation Bio-engineering measures: Contour bunding/farming, Conservation furrows, bench terracing, Staggered trenching, Vegetative barriers/Check dams for rainfed lands 24 million ha-m storage of rainwater to provide supplementary and life-saving irrigations to crops and increased ground water recharge
  25. 25. Conservation Agriculture Country Million haUSA 25.30Brazil 23.60Argentina 18.27Canada 12.52Australia 9.00Rest of the South America 3.04Indo-Gangetic Plains 3.20/10.0Europe 0.45Africa 0.40China 1.00Others (rough estimate) 1.00Total 98.00
  26. 26. Nano-Technology for enhanced use of Phosphate Fertilizer Developed a method for production of phosphorus nano-particles from rock phosphate. Lab production of Nano particles Initial results showed high promise of nano-P applications on crops of arid region Control Nano-P Field Application of nano-P on pearlmillet
  27. 27. Integrated NutrientManagement Soil fertility maps for precise fertilizer use Integrated Conjunctive use of Farming Systems Chemical fertilizers, organic Location-specific manures and IFS models: Biofertilizers Cereals, Pulses, Ve New fertilizer policy – getables, Fruits, Li Sulphur along with vestock and Fish NPK and Productivity gains micronutrients 3-5 times (fortified/coated and customized fertilizers) Potential in Eastern India (12 m ha of Waterlogged lands)
  28. 28. Water Saving Technologies Laser land leveling - A Precursor technology Pipeline Networking Raised bed planting Increases irrigated area ~ 2% Increases crop yields ~ 20% Additional field area added ~ 3% Promotes: Intensification DiversificationRice-winter Maize+Potato/Rice Innovations: Shape future for Eastern IGP farmers
  29. 29. Net water productivity of rice-fish farming systems 7R R-F R-F-HC R-FDF 6 13.8 5 4 3 3.8 2.7 2 1.5 1 6 12 0 2 4 8 10 14 16 INR/m3 R-Rice, R-F- Rice- fish, R-FHC- Rice- fish –hort. crops, RFDF- Rice- fish diversified farming system
  30. 30. National Agricultural Drought Assessment & Monitoring System . Rainfall deviations 300 250 200 % deviation 150 June 100 50 0 -50 . -100 12/6 19/6 6/6 3/710/7 17/7 24/7 31/7 7/8 14/8 21/8 28/8 4/9 11/9 18/9 25/9 July Sowing progress No. of districts under drought August June 215 dist July 226 dist August 124 dist Integration with ground data July September September Sept. 115 dist Oct. 179 dist October-0.27 -0.26 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 >0.6 District/ Sub-District Level Drought Monitoring
  31. 31. Policy responses have consistently evolved with successive drought events Drought Events 9Major Policy Famine Green Employ Contingency Watershed Improved weather Codes Revolution ment Crop Approach forecasts and theirInterventions applications and FCI Generation Plan Programmes Scarcity Drought Drought Water Knowledge relief relief management management management Each round represent Each round represent around fifty million Source: ADPC/MOA death of one million people people affected
  32. 32. Food Production (m tonnes) 100 150 250 200 50 0 1972-73 1974-75 1979-80 1982-83 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 2000-01 2001-02Year Food Production (m tonnes) 2002-03 2003-04 Monsoon (% deviation from normal) 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 0 25 50 75 100 125 Drought Proofing Indian Agriculture Monsoon (% deviation from normal)
  33. 33. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA ) - ` 350 crores for XI Plan Identification of 15-20 heat/drought tolerant crops‟ cultivars Resilience to small and marginal farmers and reduce production losses at least by 25-30% Technology demonstration in 100 districts of 27 States 18 x Oregon IIHR 544 7 – 6 x KTP4 tolerant to high Capsicum (check) temperature (summer 2007) Comparison of pod size and pod filling
  34. 34. KVKsWest Tripura (Tripura) Faridkot (Punjab) Rajkot (Gujarat) Phulwama (J & K) Ropar (Punjab)Senapati (Manipur) Gondia (Maharashtra)
  35. 35. Quality Seed: Key to Good Agriculture 228 members from 78 countries ISF members cover 96% of international seed trade2010WW Seed market42 billion USDFarm Saved Seed:15 billion USDInternationally Traded:7.6 billion USD
  36. 36. Domestic Seed Market 2010 (USD million) (Conversion rate: 1€=1.3USD) TOTAL TOTAL TOTALUSA 12,000 UK 400 Finland 160China 6,000 Turkey 400 Austria 150France 2,400 South Africa 370 Egypt 140Brazil 2,000 Mexico 350 Morocco 140India 2,000 The Netherlands 317 Bulgaria 120Japan 1400 Czech Republic 300 Chile 120Germany 1261 Hungary 300 Nigeria 120Italy 780 Taiwan 300 Serbia 120Argentina 600 Poland 260 Switzerland 118Canada 550 Greece 240 Solvakia 110Russian Federation 500 Sweden 240 New Zealand 100Spain 450 Romania 220 Ireland 80Australia 400 Belgium 185 Paraguay 80Korea 400 Denmark 185 TOTAL 37,098
  37. 37. Improved Pusa Basmati 1 Rice Export worth ` 12,193 crore annually Rice Genome Total sequence: 15 Mb No. of genes: 2500 Chromosome 11 has 218 disease resistance- like genes (> 20 % of the whole genome)Genomes of Tomato and Wheat Rice Knowledge Management Portal
  38. 38. Mapping QTL for grain length and ER in Sonasal x Pusa 1121 cross
  39. 39. Molecular Plant Breeding Disease Resistant Basmati Rice Gene pyramided Basmati variety (Improved Pusa Basmati 1) for bacterial blight resistance Two genes conferring tolerance to Bacterial Leaf Blight pyramided together by MAS Commercial release - 2007
  40. 40. Genetically Improved Rice
  41. 41. Empowered to fight blight – Shri Chander Singh Lamba of Urlana Khurd, Panipat, Haryana Improved Pusa Basmati 1 (Pusa 1460) - high yielding, bacterial blight resistant variety developed MAS by pyramiding genes xa13 and Xa21 in the background of Pusa Basmati 1. Excellent grain and cooking quality traits with less than 10% chalky grainsDuration : 135 daysAverage yield : 60 q/haPaddy price : ` 2,400/qGross return : ` 140,000/haCultivation cost : ` 20,000/haNet Return : ` 120,000/haCrop rotationPaddy - Berseem/Potato
  42. 42. Bioengineered high iron/zinc rice Sst I Bam HI Hind IIInos ferritin GluB-1 35S bar g7 Sst I Bam HI Kpn I nos ferritin Glo-P Sst I Bam HI Kpn I nos ferritin Pro-P Vasconcelos et al ., Plant Sci., 2003 Tan et al., Int J Food Sci Tech., 2004 Khalekuzzaman et al., Int J Biotech., 2006 Ozturk et al ., 2006 (iron and zinc in wheat)
  43. 43. Silencing of Lipoxygenase GenePost-harvest storage losses Developed countries: up to 10% India: 15% - 50% RNAi
  44. 44. Rice Knowledge Management Portal http://www.rkmp.co.in
  45. 45. C4 Rice/Potato: a possibility National Agricultural Bioinformatics Grid National Agricultural Innovation Project National Fund for Basic, Strategic and Frontier Applications Research in Agriculture
  46. 46. Yield Potential (Q/ha)0 10 20 40 50 70 30 60 33.7 36 45.5 46 46.8 44 45.1 45.7 45.8 45.4 35.3 42.5 47.1 Variety (Year of Release) 51.3 61.5 48.9 63 62.9 61.5 61 Landmark wheat releases in India 64.1
  47. 47. Maize Revolution 45 42 Food Feed 40 Industrial Total 35 35 Utilization (mt) GR set for Agriculture: 4% 30 28 25 22.5 22 Required GR: 4.7% 20.5 20 16.5 15 12.5 Current GR: 6.4 % 10 7 8 6.5 9 10.5 6 4.5 5 3.5 Current GR > target 0 2011-12 2015-16 2020-21 2025-26 Current production 20.23 mt Year Area, Production Yield
  48. 48. Impact of Single Cross Hybrid Maize in India 35 3 Hybrid Project Launched - 1989 30 2.5 SCH Production (m t) Area (m ha) Productivity (t/ha) Productivity (t/ha)Area, Production 25 2 Comp/DC 20 Comp 1.5 Land 15 races 1 10 5 0.5 0 0 1950-51 1970-71 1990-91 99-2000 2003-04 2006-07 2008-09 Year A - ~3 times; Prod. - >12 times; Y - ~5 times
  49. 49. Food Productivity (Yield – Kg/ha)3000 Foodgrains Rice2500 Wheat200015001000 500 0
  50. 50. Pulses Production : 18.2 mt Requirement : 21.00 mt Area : 23.0 m ha Yield : 637 kg/ha Import : 2.5-3 mt Export : 0.16 mt Demand Projection for 2022 : 26.43 mt India needs to invest more in R & D to meet the requirements as world supply would not be adequate to meet India‟s need
  51. 51. Taking Pulses Forward… Meha, Samrat, HUM 1, CO6,Mungbean Pusa 9531, Pusa Vishal, Ganga 8, OUM 11-5, HUM 2, HUM 6 Uttara, WBG 26, TU 94-2, KU 301,Urdbean KU 96-3, Pant Urd 31, Pant Urd 40, WBU 109 Adarsh, Vikas, Prakash, Swati,Fieldpea HUDP 15, DDR 23, Ambika, DDR 27 DPL 62, JL 3, IPL 81, KLS 218,Lentil HUL 57, VL 507, VL 126, IPL 406, WBL 77Rajmash IPR 96-4 (Amber), IPR 98-5 (Utkarsh) NDA 2, Vipula, TT 401, BRG 1,Pigeonpea CO7 (CORG9701), MAL I 3, Pusa 991
  52. 52. Decoding of the Arhar Genome: Paving the Way for Green Revolution in Pulses The whole plant and different parts of the pigeonpea cultivar Asha (ICPL 87119). a. whole plant at fruiting stage; b. a defoliated branch with pods; c. a branch with heavy flowering; d. mature seeds; e. dehusked split seeds or Dal; f. 22 chromosomesin a root tip cellNumber of chromosomes 11 pairsGenome size (Physical) 858 Mb (million base pairs)Genome size (Genetic) 1057 cM (centi Morgan)
  53. 53. Potato Cv. Kufri Bahar Marker Assisted Selection Gene pyramiding Genomic approaches TransgenicsBt-Brinjal (Event 142)First Transgenic Sorghum for drought tolerance under field trial
  54. 54. OilseedsProduction 29.75 mt (8.9 mt oil)Area 26.69 m haYield 1,115 kg/haPer capita consumption 14 kg/yearRequirement of country 16.1 mt (oil)Import 7.2 mt (oil) 2015 55.5 mt (oilseeds)Demand Projection for 2020 66.0 mt (oilseeds)
  55. 55. OILSEEDS JL 24, TMV2, TAG24, SBXI, AK12-24, GG20, TG26,Kadini6, Narayani, Greeshma, Kadiri7,Groundnut Kadiri 8, Vijetha, Girnar 3. Kadiri Haritandhra, HNG 69Soybean JS 335, JS93-05, NRC 37, JS 97-52, JS 95-60, DS98-14, PS 1347, RKS 18, SL 668, JS97-52 Pusa bold, Pusa Jai Kisan, Varuna, RH-30, NRCDR-2, Rohini (mustard), M-27(Toria), YSB-Rapeseed- 9 (yellow sarson), NRCDR-2, DMH-1, NRCHB 506, NRCHB101, NRCDR 601, Pusa mustardMustard 25,Pusa mustard 26, Pusa mustard 27, yellow sarson : Pitambri, NRCYS05-02, YSH-401 KBSH-41, KBSH-44, NDSH-1, RSFH-1, DRSF-108, SS-56, Co-4, Morden, KBSH53, PSFH 569,Sunflower CO2 A-1, Bhima, NARI 6 (non spiny), PBNS-12 (Parbhani Kusum), NARI-NH-1, NARIH 15,Safflower SSF 658 Jyothi, Kranthi, Haritha, GCH4, GCH 5, DCH 32, DCH 177, RHC 1, DCH 519, Sagarshakti,Castor YRCH1, DCS 107, Chandra prabha
  56. 56. Remunerative Intercropping SystemsSunflower + groundnut (1:5) Groundnut + pigeonpea (5:2) Sunflower + pigeonpea (2:1) Soybean + sunflower (2:1) Castor + groundnut (1:3/5) Castor + mungbean (1:2) Castor + clusterbean (1:2) Castor + pigeonpea (1:1) Chickpea + Mustard (3:1)
  57. 57. IPM Agri-Intelligence Surveillance Forecasting PseudleptomastixAcerophagus papayae mexicana Anagyrus loecki
  58. 58. Abiotic stress tolerant crops through biotechnology Crop Abiotic Stress typeRice Drought, SalinityWheat High temp., Drought, SalinitySorghum DroughtMaize Water logging, droughtChickpea Drought, Cold tolerancePigeonpea Salinity, DroughtGroundnut DroughtSugarcane Drought, Water loggingPotato Drought, High temperature, SalinityMustard Drought, SalinityTomato Drought, SalinityCotton Drought, Salinity
  59. 59. Cropping Patterns 1990-91 2010-11 Cereals 32% Cereals 37% Others Others 17% 14% Pulses 4% Horticulture OilseedsHorticulture Pulses 30% 9% 23% 6% Oilseeds Cotton 9% 3% Cotton Sugarcane Sugarcane 5% 5% 6% 6% area contribute 23.4% Value 9% area contribute 30.4% value at constant prices and 30.7% at current prices
  60. 60. India – a leader in Horticulture Horticulture Produce 234.4 mt40 India Global353025201510 5 0 Banana Grapes Papaya Tapioca Lemons & Cabbage & Limes Other Brassicas Yield, t/ha
  61. 61. Fruits: India in the world (t/ha)Fruits India World HighestBanana 36 18.65 36 (India)Grapes 26 8.83 26 (India)Mango 6 7.23 17 (Brazil)Papaya 33 23.99 81 (Indonesia)Pineapple 15 19.77 44 (Kenya)All fruits 11 10.56 21 (USA, Brazil)
  62. 62. New propagation Early diagnostics for techniques reducing crop lossesMicro rhizomesMini/ techno tuberproductionSomatic embryogenesisand plumule cultureAeroponics BBTV virus particles Diagnostics developed for banana, potato, grapes and citrus
  63. 63. Technology formass productionof Bananathrough tissueculture
  64. 64. Important Production TechnologiesHigh-densityplanting inbanana
  65. 65. PapayaArka Prabhat
  66. 66. Technology Impact: Potato PotatoA temperate crop made 2.5tropical through 100% 2indigenously developed 1.5cultivars - 25 1Self sufficiency in seed 0.5production lead to saving 0up to ` 2,000 crores a year 1991-92 1995-96 2000-01 2008-09 Year Area Productivity Production Processing varieties almost cover 10 per cent area of total potato area High Export of potato The short day potato varieties have changed the scenario of potato industry Kufri Pukhraj
  67. 67. Technology Impact: Grapes Grape 3 Area Yield Production 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1991-92 1996-97 2001-02 2007-08Root stock technology alone revolutionized grape cultivation with 10% yield and quality advantage fetched additional revenue of ` 790 crores
  68. 68. Organic Farming - Variants BiodynamicNature „Vedic farmingfarming krishi‟ Organic farming Eco- Traditional organic Homa farming farmingfarming
  69. 69. Organic farming of Lavender in Himachal, India
  70. 70. Organic HealthProducts
  71. 71. OrganicEssential Oils
  72. 72. Major gains in animal production 263.00 India – leader in250.00 Milk production (MT) 176.00 milk production200.00 Per capita availability (g/day) for a decade 124.00150.00 112.00 112100.00 Area-based 53.90 50.00 21.20 Mineral mixture 17.00 as a major 0.00 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2009-10 2006-07 intervention 60 50.00 Egg production (billion nos) 51.00 40.00 Per capita availability (nos/h/yr) 25.00 30.00 21.10 20.00 10.00 5.00 5.30 10.00 1.83 0.00 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2006-07 2009-10
  73. 73. Dairy for Livelihood in Rural Areas
  74. 74. Improved germplasm - Enhanced milk productivity 7 6.36 6.52 6.44 6 5.65 5 4.30 4.13 3.83 4 3.57 3 1.83 1.90 1.97 2 1.66 1 0 1993-94 1997-98 2002-03 2005-06 Av. Yield /per day/animal(kg)-ND Av. Yield /per day/animal(kg)-CB Av. Yield /per day/animal(kg)-Buffalo Increase in average daily milk yield of non-descript cows by 310 g, Crossbred - 790 g, buffaloes - 730 g since 1993-94
  75. 75. Animal Production Trends - Impact of Research 2.9 3 2.62.5 1.9 2.1 2.30 Meat 2 production1.5 increased by 1 21% during last0.5 8 years 0 1998-99 2002-03 Meat Production (MT) 2008-09 2006-07 2007-0860.00 45.20 44.00 41.00 41.2040.00 27.50 29.80 Wool increased20.00 by 60% compared 0.00 to 1950-51 1950-51 1968-69 1990-91 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Wool Production (million Kg)
  76. 76. Small Ruminants -Potential Goat Breeds
  77. 77. Small Ruminants - Potential Sheep Breeds
  78. 78. Fodder Cultivation -Key for Dairyimprovement
  79. 79. Major leads in animal reproduction Garima After One Year First Cloned Buffalo through Hand- guided technique World‟s First AI calf of MithunBuffalo genomics at an advanced stage Ten Calves produced in a year through ETT 17 piglets from „Ghungroo‟ pig
  80. 80. Poultry strains - Both commercial and backyard20 1980 - 1990 1990 - 2000 2000 - 2010 15 Breeds with Over 300 eggs/year 10 5 0 Broiler Layer Rural
  81. 81. Detection ofImmunobiologicals and diagnostic kits Adulteration in Milk India Free from:  Rinderpest  African Horse Sickness  Bovine Pleuropneumonia OIE - Approved Referral Lab FMD Facility For SAARC Huge Impact on Exports Vaccine against sheep foot rot ELISA kit for GBNV Biosensors for milk adulteration Sandwich Elisa Kit for Prediction system for downy mildew of cucurbits FMD virus Dot-ELISA kit for Brucella
  82. 82. Fish Marineproduction Inland 40% 60%trends Inland Marine 45% 55% Inland 29% 8 7.8 Marine 71% 7 6 4.95 5 4 3 2 1 0.75 0 1950-51 1995-96 2009-10
  83. 83. Changes in monsoon rainfall (%) and annual mean surface airtemperature( C) for the period 2071-2100 wrt the baseline (1961-1990)A2-CTL B2-CTLMonsoon MonsoonPrecip PrecipA2-CTL B2-CTLAnnual AnnualTemp Temp Source: IITM, K Kumar
  84. 84. Potential Fishing Zone Estimated Users: 37000 No. of Nodes : > 370 Mode of Dissemination SMS, Radio, TV, Web, Chlorophyll Distribution Kiosks, Telephone, Fax, Email PFZ0.1 mg/m3 1.0 3.0 5.0 Map
  85. 85. Carbon Footprint by Marine Fishing Boats Fossil fuel consumption by marine fishing boats is around 1,380 million liters per year CO2 emission by marine fishing sector is around 3.6 million tonnes per year CO2 emission: CO2 emission: Catch ratio Catch ratio Trawlers 1:0.561980 1:1.3 Gill netters 1:0.71 Dol netters 1:0.691998 1:0.9 Other Mech 1:0.70 Total Mech. 1:0.602007 1:0.8 Motorised craft 1:2.08
  86. 86. Mariculture Marine finfish breeding & culture – Seabass, Cobia Mussel & Oyster farming Seaweed culture Ornamental Fish
  87. 87. Aquaculture Blue revolution through Carp Culture Improved Rohu thru‟ selection Diversified farming Shrimp as a Dollar earner
  88. 88. AQUA TOURISM
  89. 89. Fish Harvest & Post-harvest Improved fishing crafts and gears Industrial products Collagen chitosan film Absorbable surgical sutures High gel strength agar from sea weeds Squalene from shark liver oil Food products Curry in pouches “Fishcurre” A variety of ready-to-cook and ready-to-eat products
  90. 90. Farm Mechanization Machines demonstrated and found wide adoption in different regions Power Tiller Rice-wheat mechanisationPaddy transplanter Paddy drum seeder Groundnut sheller Plastic mulching Zero till drill Manual weeder
  91. 91. Efficient farm implements for timely operations 9-row planter Groundnut stripper Rotary weeder 4 - row bullock drawn planter
  92. 92. Ergonomic/Gender-friendly tools and equipment High Women workforce in agriculture – both production and processing Reducing drudgery and mainstreaming
  93. 93. US President visits ICAR Exhibits 6th November, 2010 Termed ICAR Tools as„Appropriate Technologies‟
  94. 94. Protected Cultivation
  95. 95. ENERGY Multi-fuel Open Core Down Draft Gasifier Gasifier system installed at M/s Suman Food Products, Udaipur Capacity - 60 kg/h biomassUnder regular use for the last one year
  96. 96. „Primary Agriculture toSecondary Agriculture‟
  97. 97. Post HarvestManagementAgro-processing centre ineach village generatingemployment for 2-10 personscosting ` 10-15 lakhsDeveloped andcommercialized 60 processingmachineries and technologiesfor post harvest loss reductionand value additionModernization of rice millshas led to advantage of about` 15,000 crores / annum byway of higher rice & rice branoil recovery, better quality.
  98. 98. Novel Value Addition & Processing Technologies Development of foam mat drying, ohmic heating, pulse electric field, high hydrostatic pressure systems for food processing. Development of techniques for micro- encapsulation/ nano-encapsulation of antioxidants, vitamins and probiotics for Microencapsulator fortification of foods.Peanut Milk & Products Multigrain Biscuits Aonla Toffee Foam mat dried tomato
  99. 99. Millet Monitors DiabeticFive health foods developed and nutritional and medical claims have been included in the labels Nutritional Information: One serving of mix (80 g) provides 16 g of dietary fiber, 248 k cal of energy, 11.4 g of protein, 71 mg of calcium, 3 mg of iron and 60 μ of carotene Nutritional Information: 50 g of mix provides 188 kcals of energy, 7g of protein, 141 mg of calcium and 2.5 mg of iron.
  100. 100. Bioethanol Production From Sweet SorghumWork contract for Bullock CartOwners reduced time lagbetween harvesting andtransportation of stalk to DCUon same day enhancing juicerecovery by 3%.Juice from stalk extracted bymechanical expellers (yield: 269litres of juice/t of stalk) andconcentrated in to syrup(extending its storage life to oneyear; 100 litres of juice yielded 18kg of syrup). 103
  101. 101. Primary ProcessingMobile Seed Processing Unit for Seed Spices Tamarind processing in Bastar
  102. 102. PotatoK. chipsona-2 possessed minimum conc. of acralamide content (161 µg/kg) followed by Kufri Chandramukhi (106 µg/kg )Specialty potatoes were marketed in retail outlets, super markets etc. in National Capital Region (Meerut, Ghaziabad etc.)
  103. 103. Non conventional sources of winePomegrenate Sorghum
  104. 104. Value added Animal products Herbal GheeMango Lassi withExtended Shelf life
  105. 105. Smart Packaging including Minimal Processing Collaborative Researchable Issues Development of protocols for shelf life enhancement of high value crops through modified and controlled atmosphere packaging Development of technologies for minimal processing of high value crops for tertiaryHeadspace Gas Analyser processing. Development of smart packaging for fruits & vegetables.Gas permeability tester Minimal Processing and Modified Atmosphere Packaging
  106. 106. Banana fibre as fabric Cotton Village level ring frame Micro processor based ring frame for yarn making in rural areas Axial flow cotton pre-cleaner Axial flow pre-cleaner for seed cotton for use in the production catchment
  107. 107. Eco-holi and textile colours from vegetable sources 1,264 shades of Natural Dyes for Textiles from 10 sourcesSurface Painting of idols Low cost & safe eco-holi powders
  108. 108. Attracting and Retaining Youth in Agriculture Students x1000Universities 2% 12% Years 1% Ph.D., 5% 2000 3% 7% 50% Masters, 8000 UG, 20% 25000 in Govt. Departments in Private Sector as Teachers in Research in Banks in NGOs Self Employed in Others Placement
  109. 109. Niche Areas of Excellence Experiential Learning 30 established 220 Units establishedRCTs Inland saline soils for Agro-processing Vermi-compostingMedicinal and aquaculture Bakery andaromatic plants Functional Bio-fertilizer confectionary productsArsenic toxicity fermented dairy Mushroom Value addition inTemperate fruits products with Aonla, Mango, Tomato ApiaryFish production synbiotics and „Kagzi‟ lime Biofuels Poultry
  110. 110. e-Courses in Agriculture B.Sc. B.Tech.B.Sc. B.V.Sc. B.Sc. B.F.Sc. Home DairyAgri. & AH Hort. Science Tech.
  111. 111. Farm Science Centres - Reaching the unreachedKnowledge Innovative Repository in Agriculture for North-East (KIRAN) 607 KVKs across the country
  112. 112. AgropediaKM for tagging content/peopleContains over 7000 pages contentDeployed both off-line/onlineProvision for social networking platformTremendous international curiosity: over230,000 visitors from 196 countries20 workshops held, 756 trainedThe second phase under consideration
  113. 113. Information, Communication and PublicityOpen access policy for research journals -TheIndian Journal of Agricultural Sciences and TheIndian Journal of Animal Sciences made on - lineunder E-PKSAR Project having 6,600 registeredusers in 166 different countriesICAR website averaged more than 150,000 visitorsper monthMonthly newsletter ICAR Mail in English and ICARChitthi in HindiLaunched Agribiotech, a quarterly news, in 13languages to create awareness about biotechnologyNKN: Connectivity to AUs and InstitutesAGROWEB-Digital Dissemination SystemsDIPA – Directorate of Knowledge Management inAgriculture and ARIS as Agricultural KnowledgeManagement Cells
  114. 114. IPR and Technology CommercializationPatents (2008-09)Applications filed 55Cumulative 385Granted Patents 55Foreign Patent Applications 3 PCT + A few National PhasePlant VarietiesApplications Filed 635 (577 extant and 58 new)Published Applications 301Registered / protected Varieties 63Trademarks“PUSA” by IARI, New Delhi“ARKA” by IIHR, Bengaluru“IISR” by IISR (Spices), Calicut“KNOCK WP” and “TRIVIR 1%” by DOR, Hyderabad“CIFAX”, “CIFABROOD” “Jayanti Rohu” by CIFA, Bhubaneswar“Vanaraja” and “Gramapriya” by PD Poultry, HyderabadCopyrightsRegistered copyrights on Softwares CIAE, Bhopal DSR (Soybean), Indore NBFGR, Lucknow NBPGR, New Delhi
  115. 115. The Union Cabinet approved the ICAR Company proposal of setting up a new Seeds company on 11 August 2011 Farm Implements &AGRINNOVATEINDIA Machinery Diagnostics & Vaccines Value Added Products Professional Services & Turnkey Projects Overseas Operations
  116. 116. BISAEstablishment of Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA) withcentres at Ludhiana in Punjab, Pusa in Bihar and Jabalpur inMadhya PradeshThe Union Cabinet today approved the proposal of Ministry ofAgriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and Educationto accept the proposal of International Maize and WheatImprovement Centre (CIMMYT) to establish an internationalinstitute, namely, Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA) in India The Union Cabinetwith centres at Ludhiana in Punjab, Pusa in Bihar and Jabalpur inMadhya Pradesh. approved the proposalCIMMYT is authorised to establish BISA at three centres-one eachat Punjab, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. BISA will be conferred an DARE to accept theinternational status as contemplated in clause 3 of United Nations(Privileges and Immunities) Act, 1947. The Department of proposal of InternationalAgricultural Research and Education (DARE) on behalf ofGovernment of India will be authorised in all matters regarding Maize and Wheatestablishment of the institute. DARE will be authorised toconclude the agreement/MOU between the Government of India Improvement Centrein the DARE and CIMMYT. (CIMMYT) to establishThe establishment of BISA in India will enable India to harnessthe best of international science, in meeting food security an internationalchallenges. India would be able to rapidly and effectively absorbthe research output of BISA thus benefiting farmers of the institute, namely, Borlaugcountry. A major International R&D institution will make Indiaeven a bigger centre for agricultural research in the world andthis, in turn, may attract further research & development Institute for South Asiainvestment in the country.*** (BISA) in India, onRCJ/SK/SM(Release ID :76358) September, 2011
  117. 117. IAP: India-Australia Partnership Since 1983; Over 80 Projects Strategic Framework 2011-2016: - Water management in rainfed agriculture - Zero-tillage cropping system - Crop breeding, including wheat - Agriculture policy Regional focus and Eastern India
  118. 118. IAP: India-Australia Partnership Crop Improvement - Molecular marker technologies for faster wheat breeding in India (IAP-MAWB) - Wheat improvement for waterlogging, salinity and element toxicities in Australia and India (IAP-MAWB) - Root system traits to improve grain yield and drought resistance of wheat in Australia and India (IAP-MAWB) - Molecular markers for broadening the genetic base of stem rust resistance genes effective against strain Ug99 - Improving post-rainy sorghum varieties to meet the growing grain and fodder demand in India - Improving the quality of pearl millet residues for livestock
  119. 119. IAP: India-Australia Partnership Land and Water Program - Impacts of meso-scale watershed development in Andhra Pradesh (India) and comparative catchments in Australia - Enhancing institutional performance in watershed management in Andhra Pradesh, India - Developing multi-scale climate change adaptation strategies for farming communities in Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh and India - Impact of climate change and watershed development on whole-of- basin agricultural water security in the Krishna Basin, India - Water harvesting and better cropping systems for the benefit of small farmers in watersheds of the East India plateau Regional and Africa programs
  120. 120. Contribution of Agricultural ResearchRate of returns to investments in 33.2agricultural research : PercentDirect contribution of research to output growth:Percent* Wheat 23.6* Paddy 13.6* Maize 13.1* Bajra 20.6* Cotton 26.4
  121. 121. Food Demands (mt) Base year Projection Commodity 2004-05 2020-21Cereals 192.8 262.0Pulses 14.2 22.2Food grains 207.0 284.2Milk and milk products 91.0 151.9Egg (number billion) 44.1 87.6Meat 2.60 4.1Fish 5.9 11.9Oilseeds 35.5 68.6Vegetables 90.6 159.7Fresh fruits 52.9 96.5Sugarcane 262.3 435.6
  122. 122. ApproachHigh Value AgricultureSecondary Agriculture (Food Technology)Speciality AgricultureNational Agricultural Science FoundationNational Agricultural InnovationFoundationFarmer FIRSTStudent READYR&D Policy for Agriculture
  123. 123. We foresee…Climate Resilient AgricultureProfit-Prestige-Partnerships in AgricultureAgriculture as a sought after subject and a careerEvergreen and Rainbow Revolution and Assureddiversification in food basketFood-self-Reliant and Healthy India
  124. 124. THANK YOU

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