Presenter Dr Colin Chartres Director General, International Water Management InstituteTopic “About CGIAR* Research Program #5: water, land and ecosystems”Date 12.30pm, Wednesday 25 January 2012Venue Conference Room, ACIAR House, Canberra.Acknowledgements Chartres CJ (2012) Water, land and ecosystems: improved natural resource management for food security and livelihoods, ACIAR Seminar Series presentation, 25 January 2012, Canberra, Australia.*CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
The Challenge – sustainable intensification• To learn how to intensify farming activities, expand agricultural areas and restore degraded lands, while using natural resources wisely and minimizing harmful impacts on supporting ecosystems.
Focus• Water scarcity• Land degradation and soil health• Ecosystem services
The Conceptual Framework CRP5 focuses on external and internal drivers of change in agriculture, how these affect water, landscapes and ecosystem services and how policy and management changes can be used to adapt production systems in a sustainable manner
Five Strategic Research Portfolios1. Irrigated Systems2. Rainfed Systems3. Resource Reuse and Recovery4. River Basins, and5. Information Systems
Two cross-cutting themes1) Ecosystem Services, and2) Institutions and Governance Gender and equity issues are also mainstreamed (CPWF)
Examples of problem sets for each Strategic Research PortfolioIrrigated Systems SRP• Finally unlocking Africa’s irrigation (Re, ICRAF) promise• Revitalizing public irrigation systems in Asia• Managing groundwater overexploitation in India through the energy–irrigation nexus• Revving up the ‘Ganges Water Machine’ through intensive groundwater use for livelihoods and environmental benefits• Managing salt–water balance in (IWMI) Indus and Central Asian irrigation systems
Rainfed Systems SRP• Recapitalizing African soils and reducing land degradation• Revitalizing productivity on responsive soils• Using agro-biodiversity to sustain agricultural production• Reducing risk by ensuring water access for pastoralists• Reducing risk by providing farmers with supplemental irrigation
Resource Recovery and Reuse SRP• Creating wealth from waste• A grey revolution in wastewater management
Basins SRP(Bioversity) (IWMI) • Payment for Environmental Services (PES) as a water management tool: Andes group of basins • Water storage to reduce regional drought risk: Volta–Niger • Integrating environmental water allocations and climate change impacts with water resources development: Ganges–Indus • Harmonizing the water–energy–environment nexus in the Mekong Basin • Managing water resources to reduce poverty and improve wetland management in the upstream Nile • Solutions for transboundary water management hotspots in transition economies: Aral Sea basins
Information Systems SRP• Monitoring longer- Elevation term spatial and temporal change in Vegetation agroecosystems• Harnessing water Hydrology and land Topographical properties information to Climate improve Cost surfaces, etc. management Legacy data ?
Problem definition: an example from the Nile basin Issues motivating CRP5 research • Poor live in rural areas (except in Egypt) and most make their living in agriculture. • Egypt and Ethiopia have large populations and high growth rates. Ethiopia’s plans to develop hydropower and irrigation are resisted by Egypt. • Unsustainable agricultural practices have inflicted upon Ethiopia some of the most severe land degradation problems in the world. • Accelerated soil erosion from agricultural land poses a threat to the health of Lake Victoria. • There is substantial poverty in Sudan, despite notable agricultural potential, particularly in the Gezira region. Little information on the current state of land resources to guide development in South Sudan. (IWMI)
CRP5 Research Activities in the Nile Basin • Examine opportunities for improving agricultural productivity in irrigated areas of the Nile Valley and Delta, given the likelihood of increasing pressure on water supplies in the region. • Develop recommendations for investing in new irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and Sudan, while cognizant of international discourse regarding new water development in the Nile Basin. • Develop strong technical capacity in the Nile countries in surface and groundwater resources assessment and management. • Develop options for recovering water and nutrients from marginal quality water and other waste resources for agriculture and aquaculture. • Establish a basin-wide land health surveillance system to provide a baseline on ecosystem services, a basis for prioritizing interventions, and mechanism for monitoring impacts. Ground sampling through sentinel sites will be a high priority in Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan. Potential impacts Basin population: 200 million Rural population: 128 million Agricultural population: 102 million(IWMI) We expect to improve the livelihoods of 60% of the agricultural population.
How CRP5 will improve natural resource management and the environment (IWMI)• Involving, from the outset, key stakeholders via participation in research and development• Achieving critical mass among the CGIAR and its partners to solve key problems• Integrating biophysical solutions and socioeconomic drivers to develop a holistic view of possible beneficial changes• Taking an evidence-based approach based on a logical pathway via hypotheses and methodologies to develop solutions and catalyze change at policy level
How CRP5 will improve natural resource management and the environment• Adopting an integrated landscape/basin approach, as opposed to focusing on single issues• Viewing agriculture as part of the solution not the cause of the problem• Harnessing the private sector and NGOs to help deliver solutions• Using information systems and technology to ensure the message gets to farmers and land and water managers• Being clear about the development outcomes we wish to achieve and using adaptive management approaches to achieve them• Developing appropriate partnerships at science, policy and implementation levels, and clearly defining responsibilities and accountabilities
Gender and EquityCRP5’s gender and poverty strategy will ensure that its outcomestarget not only to the poor in general, but also women farmers.The specific objectives are to:• ensure that all research and associated work undertaken in CRP5 is pro-poor and benefits both men and women• ensure that, where appropriate, all data are sex-disaggregated and analyzed from the perspective of gender and equity issues• examine the extent to which male and female farmers have different adoption rates and identify gender-specific barriers that may work against adoption• identify gender bias in agricultural policy and in extension systems• improve women’s access to and involvement in the management of major resources, including land, water, infrastructure and other public services• develop gender-sensitive policies for land and water management. (Bioversity)A conference on gender will be held in the inceptionensure that projects will incorporate keylocal and regional gender issues.
Governance and Management Consortium BoardGovernance Steering Committee Lead Centre Partner Board and Director Representatives and General Independent MembersProgram Management Program Director Executive Assistant Management Committee Program Manager, M&E Specialist, Gender Specialist Program support/SRP Portfolio Managers Strategic Planning and Management Team (SPMT) [SRP Leaders and Working Group Leaders]Project Delivery SRP Resource SRP Irrigation SRP Rainfed SRP Information SRP Basins Recovery and Systems Systems Systems Reuse Governance and Ecosystems working group Institutions working group
Budget Global Other Regions 4% 0% South East Information, Asia 31,244 7% Latin America 15% CWANA Rainfed, South Asia 10% River Basin, 93,525 19% 58,711 Sub Saharan Resource Africa Recover & Irrigation, 45% Reuse, 5,432 44,023Annual budget2011 $76m (46% restricted funding, 54% requested from CG)2012 $83m2013 $87m
M&E• The starting point for CRP5 support strategies, including ME&L, are the theories of change developed at different levels in CRP5.
PartnershipPartnership objective Type of partners Area of collaboration Examples of partnersCore ResearchHypothesis testing ARIs Remote sensing analytical solutions, University departments;Methodology development National universities improving hydrological CSIRO Australia; Private companies measurement and modeling, ITC Delft; IRD and CIRAD; Water economic modeling, etc. WatchOn-ground research NARES Studies of nature and extent of ICAR (India) Regional research organizations, nutrient decline and land and water NAFRI (Laos) e.g. CONDESAN, ASARECA, degradation, field trials CSIR (Ghana) APAARIImplementationChanging on-ground management NARES; private sector; FAO Jain Irrigation; Nestle; R. Tatapractices Foundation; WWFChanging policy at government level Ministries of Water, Natural Resources, Developing policy options All major countries in which we and Agriculture are operatingChanging river basin policy and River basin organizations Water accounting, allocation, Mekong River Commissionmanagement biodiversity and environmental flow Volta Basin Authority assessment, water economics Nile Basin Authority SIC (Uzbekistan)Up-scaling management practices NARES; NGOs; FAO; private sector; Roll-out of new technology and ISRIC; FAO; World Bank; innovation IDE International; Care Asian Development Bank; African Development Bank; Islamic BankInfluence and Outreach International treaties and International conventions International public goods RAMSAR; UNCBD; UNCCD; FAO; conventions FAO relating to wetland and habitat UNESCO; IMAWESA Global and regional networks Transboundary water agreements protection Regional synthesis and map