Landcare food security and value chains in East Africa


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Landcare food security and value chains in East Africa

  1. 1. Landcare, Food Security and Value Chains in East Africa Presentation to ALI AGM 16 November 2012 Bernie Wonder AIFSC Project 2012-13
  2. 2. Apologies for the acronyms!!• BW – ABARE, DPIE, DAFF, PC• NSCP, FWRAAP, NLP, NHT, NAP, MDBC, WSSD• AIFSC (
  3. 3. Food Security is the issue of our time. Hilary Clinton 2011• AIFSC announced October 2011• $A 33m over 4 years• Initial focus-sub Saharan Africa• Canberra, Nairobi offices• First Centre Director-Mellissa Wood
  4. 4. AIFSC Themes• Sustainable & Productive Farming Systems (R)• Markets, Value Chains & Social Systems (R)• Food Nutrition & Safety (R)• Communications & Knowledge management (CB)• Education, Training & Capacity Building (CB)
  5. 5. Food Security-Context & Conditions• Availability - Sustainable production, NRM, Enabling Policies• Access - Income, Cash crops & Livestock Products, Purchasing Capacity, Market Access• Utilisation - Nutrition, Diet, Reduced waste, Adding value
  6. 6. The Big Picture• World Population grows from 7B (2012) to 9B (2050)• Accounted for entirely and approximately equally by Africa and Asia (1B each)• Sub Saharan Africa fed 80% by smallholders• Declining farm size & yields + urbanisation
  7. 7. Where to Focus Food Security Effort• Increased food Production• Increased Income• Improved Nutrition & Diet Diversity• Improved Access to Knowledge• Increased Institutional & Individual Capacity
  8. 8. Agri-Food Value Chain (1)• Much of what needs to be done captured by Value Adding chain• Production, Storage, Processing, Distribution, Trading, Consumption• Value Chains for Transforming Smallholder Agriculture Conference• Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  9. 9. Agri-Food Value Chain (2)• Not new-used by Agribusiness for long time• A tool for describing segments, linkages, points of co-operation, risks and opportunities from input to market decisions• Aid organisations now using to help smallholders & guide interventions• Can involve public as well as private sectors
  10. 10. Agri-Food Value Chain (3)• Demand driven by customers• Can work for Subsistence as well as Commercial smallholders• Both have potential partners, decision points, knowledge requirements, capacity needs• Helps with linked journey of Subsistence, Small surplus, Commercialisation• Eg. Cereals 1 to 2t/ha gives +100Mt
  11. 11. Farmer & Landcare Groups (1)• The importance of Scale• Landcare Groups have Landscape focus• Business Groups have joint enterprise focus• Common interest farmer groups
  12. 12. Farmer & Landcare groups (2)• Farmer Groups throughout East Africa• Landcare one common purpose• Kenya Landcare Network origins in farmer groups• Kalama & Kola (Machakos) groups focussing on Landcare & Business Opportunities
  13. 13. Farmer & Landcare Groups (3)
  14. 14. Farmer & Landcare Groups (4)
  15. 15. Farmer & Landcare Groups (5)
  16. 16. Farmer & Landcare Groups (6)
  17. 17. Farmer & Landcare Groups (7)
  18. 18. Evergreen Agriculture Trees (for holes)
  19. 19. Group 1-Nursery• Landcare Group-nursery focus for erosion protection. Formal constitution. Local markets• Also mangoes, oranges, potatoes grown for household consumption & cash crop• Water scarcity & tree security challenges
  20. 20. Group 2 – Evergreen Agriculture• IFAD sponsored, ICRAF advice• Fertiliser trees (Caliandra & others) & conservation agriculture focus with intercropping of maize, beans & pigeon peas. Bees for honey as well• Low tree survival-water stress & predator attack
  21. 21. Observations on Groups (1)• Highly enthusiastic & committed, Group 2 established in 1989• Average age of farmers in Kenya-60, Youth leaving. Overwhelmingly, women members• Poor planning, budgeting, marketing skills. Very limited capital, agricultural skills and partnerships but KENDAT & AusAid providing valuable support
  22. 22. Observations on Groups (2)• Groups social capital can be broadly applied beyond NRM• Enable market power for procurement and marketing relevant to Landcare & enterprise projects• Capacity building needs concern business skills, budgets, risk management, input usage, marketing decisions and technology
  23. 23. Some Tentative Inferences (1)• Remoteness and infrastructure limitations often mean non-perishable focus but not always (eg. Carribbean smallholders supplying supermarkets)• Groups give scale for engaging value adding chain• Marketing channel choices include local village, supplying a large farm, contract farming, co- operatives, farmer collective, supermarkets
  24. 24. Some Tentative Inferences (2)• Group capacity to make decisions critical – business, technology, financial as well as what they do in the chain – produce, store, process – and who they choose to value add (pack, transport, market)• Partnerships central to progress. NGOs play key role but potential to link with researchers, LG, Agriculture agencies as well as private players (seed, fertiliser, chemical companies)
  25. 25. Some Tentative Inferences (3)• Innovation Platforms having broad focus look useful. Kapchowra, Uganda example?• Innovation triangle embracing farmers, service providers (seed, fertiliser, chemicals, credit) & Enablers (Government policy, research, science) also useful• Good governance needed-eg. market power, contract terms and law
  26. 26. Success story-Honey-Ethiopia (1)• Located Adama, 135km SE Addis Ababa• Established 2003• 2000 smallholder outgrowers (mostly women)• Honey production-36t (2003) to 196t (2012)• Wax & pollen sales• Demonstration sites• Pre & post harvest handling training (SNV)• EU accredited, Fairtrade certified
  27. 27. Success story-Honey-Ethiopia (2)• HACCP, ISO 20000• NGO training (SNV) embedded• Germany, Belgium, UK, US sales• Market channels include co-op & traders• Whole of Chain stakeholder meetings• Price varies based on quality specifications• Mobile phone communication (eg container requirements)
  28. 28. Success story-Honey-Ethiopia (3)• Investment in trust and commitment• Competition central-growers have several sales outlets• Processor/marketer sources of smallholder finance• Improved incomes, food security, livelihoods, standard of living
  29. 29. A Landcare Based Approach to food Security in East Africa-Scoping Study (1)• Contribution made now to food security through Landcare• Whether Landcare approach can be more broadly applied along agri-food marketing chain• What partnerships might assist this broader focus
  30. 30. A Landcare Based Approach to food Security in East Africa-Scoping Study (2)• Undertake a pilot study of how the Landcare approach might work in a broader, through- chain food security context• Propose ideas on areas worthy for further research
  31. 31. Next Steps for Project• Analyse Group Capability• Better understand Food Security status• Identify smallholder development needs• Assess Innovation Platform requirements• Kenya through chain pilot study