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HarvestPlus: Progress To Date and Future Challenges


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Howarth Bouis presented HarvestPlus: Progress To Date and Future Challenges at ACIAR 8 June 2012

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HarvestPlus: Progress To Date and Future Challenges

  1. 1. HarvestPlus: Progress To Date and Future Challenges Howarth BouisHarvestPlus c/o IFPRI2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006-1002 USATel: 202-862-5600 • Fax: •
  2. 2. Hidden Hunger2 billion+ affected Photo: C. Hotz
  3. 3. % Changes in Cereal & Pulse Production & in Population Between 1965 & 1999 Cereals Pulses Population250200150100 50 0 Developing Developing Developing Bangladesh Bangladesh India India World Pakistan Pakistan
  4. 4. Share of Energy Source & Food Budget in Rural Bangladesh Fish and Meat Non-Staple plants Energy Source Food Budget Staple foods
  5. 5. 50% Increase in All Food Prices Share of Total Expenditures Before After StaplesAnimal Staples Non-Food Non-Food
  6. 6. Biofortification-breeding foodcrops that are more nutritious Photo: D. Marchand
  7. 7. Photo: ICRISATCost-effective: central one time investment
  8. 8. Copenhagen Consensus TOP FIVE SOLUTIONS CHALLENGE1 Micronutrient supplements for Malnutrition children (vitamin A and zinc)2 The Doha development agenda Trade3 Micronutrient fortification Malnutrition (iron and salt iodization)4 Expanded immunization Diseases coverage for children5 Biofortification Malnutrition
  9. 9. 75% of the poor 25%
  10. 10. Supplementation Commercial FortificationDietaryDiversity Biofortification
  11. 11. #1 Breeding must increase nutrient to levels that improve nutritionPhoto: Wolfgang Pfeiffer
  12. 12. Progress in Breeding I • Genetic variation sufficient for conventional breeding • No tradeoff between yield and mineral/vitamin content of seed • Low-cost, high throughput methods to quickly screen promising lines have beenPhoto: CIMMYT discovered -- XRF Photo: R.A. Stevens Photo: CIMMYT
  13. 13. Progress in Breeding II •Genes identified/ MAS implemented • Invested to strengthen NARS capacity • Biofortified lines have been submitted to Varietal Release CommitteesPhoto :IRRI
  14. 14. #2 Will extra nutrients be bioavailable atsufficient levels to improve micronutrientstatus?
  15. 15. Retinol Equivalency of provitamin A richfoods: human studies 12:1 assumed in defining Target Levels Cassava
  16. 16. Photos: Neil Palmer (CIAT)#3 Farmers must adopt crops and consumers must buy & eat these.
  17. 17. One Crop Released... 24,000 Households reached2007-092 Up to 68% of project HHs adopted OSP. Up to 47% increase in share of OSP in total sweet potato area.Orange SweetPotato (OSP) Up to a 100% increase in vitamin A intakes for infants, children andVitamin A women.MozambiqueUganda
  18. 18. Impact on vitamin A intakes
  19. 19. Crops for Africa & Release Dates 20112 2012 2012Cassava Beans MaizeVitamin A Iron (Zinc) Vitamin ANigeria Rwanda ZambiaDR Congo DR CongoCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  20. 20. Crops for Asia & Release Dates 20122 20132 20132Pearl Millet Rice WheatIron (Zinc) Zinc ZincIndia Bangladesh India India PakistanCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  21. 21. Agriculture Minister presents vitamin Agari and bread to Nigerians
  22. 22. Delivery: New roles for HarvestPlus staff
  23. 23. Harvest of Orange Maize for Nutrition Efficacy Trial
  24. 24. Past History• Visits to nine Centers in 1993• Inception meeting, 1994• CGIAR Micronutrients Project (1995- 2002) – DANIDA funding • IRRI conference 1999 • ADB project for rice (2000-2002)• Fast-tracked Challenge Program 2002
  25. 25. • Micronutrient Technical Assistance – Target: mostly plant breeders and nutritionists (+ their labs) • Developing protocols for harvesting crops and sample preparation for analysis – In-country workshops (training) • Identifying sources of contamination in labs and equipment – Troubleshooting problems • Identifying new ways to analyse for Fe, Zn and carotenoids – Rapid screening techniques to get the job done quickly and at minimal cost – XRF for Fe and Zn; ATR FT-IR for carotenoids • Providing nutrient analysis to a large host of HarvestPlus collaborators Biological Sciences Flinders University
  26. 26. • Capacity Building – Building up the capacity for labs to do their own analysis • Rolled out 12 XRF units around the world in the past 1.5 years • Providing on-going support (through visits, electronic correspondence, proficiency studies) • Setting up phytate analysis at ICDDR,B in Bangladesh• Molecular marker development in wheat • Association Mapping Panel • 330 genotypes; >90K SNP markers; grown in Mexico and India (target country) • Will use as a training panel for genomic selection • Also providing analytical and physiological support
  27. 27. Biofortified rice to prevent iron deficiency• Rice grain is usually milled to remove the oily outer layers that cause grain to go rancid – polished rice. Unfortunately, most iron and other key micronutrients are also removed. A problem for all of the major cereals.• By increasing uptake of iron from soil and the solubility of iron in plant tissues, we have generated GM rice lines that have 4-fold more iron in polished rice and meet our target concentration of 14 ppm iron. C The increased iron in polished rice (A) is positively correlated with nicotianamine content (B). Recent work at the Australian Synchrotron shows that the increased iron (C, in green) accumulates in the outer endosperm region of the grain.
  28. 28. Food Systems R&D Graham Lyons et al• Agronomic biofortification is feasible for Se (soil or foliar), Zn (foliar) & I (soil, for leafy vegs, pasture)• Biofortified Se in wheat is heat-resistant and highly bioavailable• Nutrition education, utilisation of local food crop diversity, village-level crop trials and introduction of improved genotypes improve micronutrient delivery in deficient populations• Current food system programs in Pacific, N Aust and Indonesia aimed at improving human health• African studies planned: SeZn+NPKS fertiliser in Malawi; nutritional supplement v HIV disease Slide 28
  29. 29. Popular Beauregard OSP introduced to Solomon Islands by ACIAR & HarvestPlus Slide 29
  30. 30. Solomon Islands women admiring ACIAR/HarvestPluslocal nutritious food posters at a clinic in Malaita Slide 30
  31. 31. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18)Scale up Delivery in Target Countries • 10-12 countries • Approx. $2 million per country-crop • New releases from breeding pipeline • Measure impact
  32. 32. Phase I Phase II Phase III 2018 >2004 - 2008 2009 - 2013 2014 - 2018 Discovery/Research Discovery/Research Crop Development Development Crop Delivery Establish new Institutionalize partnerships and & delivery modalities Integrate Mass-scale delivery Scientific proof of concept Advocacy+ fundraising
  33. 33. Challenges for Phase 3 (2014-18)Make Biofortification Sustainable • Core breeding activity at ag. research centers • Work with International NGOs • Approval from WHO, SUN etc • UN Agencies, e.g. World Food Program • Funding from Health donors • Spinoff institution – Fund, technical
  34. 34. Why have solutions to malnutrition been sought outside of agriculture?Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)
  35. 35. In Conclusion … “Such intimately related subjects as agriculture, food, nutrition and health have become split up into innumerable rigid and self-contained little units, each in the hands of some group of specialists. The experts, …soon find themselves…learning more and more about less and less…The remedy is to look at the whole field covered by crop production, animal husbandry, food, nutrition, and health as one related subject and…to realize…that the birthright of every crop, every animal, and every human being is health.”"
  36. 36. Sir Albert Howard, 1873-1947 “The Soil and Health,” 1945