Developing multi-scale strategies for farming communities to adapt to climate change in Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh and India

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Christian Roth, Thavone Inthavong, Seng Vang and ACCA team

Rice-based Systems Research: Regional Technical Workshop
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)

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Developing multi-scale strategies for farming communities to adapt to climate change in Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh and India

  1. 1. Developing multi-scale strategies for farmingcommunities to adapt to climate change inCambodia, Laos, Bangladesh and IndiaACIAR Technical Workshop in Vientiane, 13-15 June 2012Christian Roth, Thavone Inthavong, Seng Vang and ACCA team
  2. 2. ACCA TeamACCA project started in mid 2010; 4.5 year project in four countriesCSIRO: Peter Brown, Steve Crimp, Neal Dalgliesh, Don Gaydon, Zvi Hochman, Heidi Horan,Tanya Jakimow, Phil Kokic, Alison Laing, Uday Nidumolu, Perry Poulton, Christian Roth,Monica Van Wensveen, Liana Williams and othersLaos: Thavone Inthavong, Khanmany Khounphonh, Guillaume Lacombe, VanthongPhengvichith, Silinthone Sacklokham, Pheng Sengxua, Sipaseuth, Khammone Thiravong,Xaysathid and othersCambodia: Philip Charlesworth, EL Sotheary, LONH Le Non, MAK Soeun, MAO Minea, SAYTom, SENG Vang, TOUCH Veasna and othersIndia: Suresh Kosaraju, Ravindra, Raji Reddy, Ratna Reddy, KK Singh, G Sreenivas,Chiranjeevi Tallapragada and othersBangladesh: Zainul Abedin, Hazrat Ali, Sharmin Afroz, Iqbal Khan, Mahbubur Khan,Pranesh Kumar, Tao Li, Mamunur, Abdul Muttaleb, Harunur Rashid, Sanjida Ritu, M Sarker,Barkat Ullah and othersConsultants: Clemens Grünbühel, John Schiller
  3. 3. The Project in a Nutshell Outcomes CLIMATE CHANGE Stakeholder Evidence based climate change engagement adaptation strategies at local and provincial scales implemented Development of adaptation Principles/priorities for action at design principles local and provincial scale applied Matching policy Farmers with enhanced adaptive recommendations to typology capacity and improved livelihoods based adaptation strategies Limits to adaptation recognised Upscaling Spatial transferability andClimate analysis future climate adaptability ofCharacterisation of adaptation options climate variability Location specific CC projections Scenario analysis CLIMATE VARIABILITY Understanding climate sensitivity of farming systems On-farm research Seasonal climate Testing of options Matching adaptation options to forecasting Confidence building farming system typologiesPiloting of advisories More effective climate risk (India, Laos) management Model improvement Social research Capacity building Validation in new Understanding Training in PAR environments adaptive capacity Communication aids Testing new routines Household typologies
  4. 4. Social researchCompleted adaptive capacity assessments and household typologysurveys. – Brown, PR, IA Khan, VR Reddy, CM Grunbuhel, CH Roth, S Afroz and T Chiranjeevi (2012). Self-assessment of adaptive capacity to climate change by small-scale farmers in Asia – A pilot evaluation. Submitted to Global Environmental Change Khan, IA and CM Grunbuhel (2011). Climate change and farming communities in Deltas: Coping with climate variability while adapting to Change. Technical Background Report - United Nations Development Programme: Bangkok Jakimow, T (in press, accepted 23 Nov 2011). Using serious games to anticipate livelihood trajectories. Journal of Development Studies
  5. 5. Social researchDeveloped templates to map adaptation strategies and practicesagainst household typesExample from Cambodia: Household Type D – KoulCharacteristics ConstraintsCanal supplementary irrigated rice No irrigationLarge land size Small plotsPond or community (lake) fishing System highly dependent on wage labourCommercial vegetablesAdaptation strategies & (practices)Specialisation (aromatic rice)Intensification of rice (double crop, mechanisation, varieties, nutrition, crop husbandry)Diversification of farming system (vegetables/drip irrigation; forages + livestock? aquaculture in ponds)Land consolidation
  6. 6. Modelling APSIM-ORYZA tested and validated on high quality IRRI datasets – Gaydon, DS, ME Probert, RJ Buresh, H Meinke, A Suriadi, A Doberman, B Bouman and J Timsina, 2012: Rice in cropping systems – modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments. Europ. J. Agronomy, 39:9-24. – Gaydon DS, ME Probert, RJ Buresh, H Meinke and J Timsina, 2012: Modelling the role of algae in rice crop nutrition and soil organic carbon maintenance. Europ. J. Agronomy, 39:35-43. APSIM-ORYZA validated on new datasets generated in Cambodia and BangladeshSufficient confidence to use APSIM-ORYZA for scenario analysis inmany rice based systems, but still need to address issues in someenvironments (e.g inundation, salinity)
  7. 7. On-farm research - overviewWet & dry season testing of a range of adaptation practices on-farmto give farmers greater flexibility in responding to climate variability: – India: changed sowing rules for cotton and maize; critical irrigation of cotton doubles yields; SRI in rice. – Bangladesh: shorter duration and salinity tolerant rice varieties; cowpea and mungbeans as alternatives to dry season rice. – Laos: improved varieties, eg. inundation tolerant rice varieties (TDK sub1); improved fertiliser practices; dry seeding of rice vs. transplanting. – Cambodia: drum seeding; double cropping of two short duration rice crops vs. one traditional medium duration rice; fertiliser deep placement.
  8. 8. Developing rice cropping strategies - Cambodia 1. Average or wet rainy season Rainfall RICE Medium Dry season 1 Short 1 Short 2 CASH - CROPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month
  9. 9. Developing rice cropping strategies - Cambodia 2. Dry rainy season Rainfall 2 RICE Medium Dry season Short 1 Short 2 CASH - CROPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Month
  10. 10. On-farm research – example Cambodia Second short duration rice growing on • Using a drum seeder allows earlier second half wet season rainfall planting of rice compared to traditional transplanting, with labour reductions of 24 man days for transplanting to 2 man days using the drum seeder • This allows farmers to grow 2 short duration rice crops instead of one traditional medium duration crop, increasing overall annual rice production from ~2.5 t/ha to 4-6 t/ha • Technology in early stages of testing; still needs some work to refine weed and residue Traditional medium rice still maturing management
  11. 11. Calibration of model on CARDI dataset• Phenology of Cambodian rice varieties• Nitrogen fertiliser transformation in paddy systems• Daily time step met data (model input data) Modelled biomass Observed Modelled yield Modelled pond depth
  12. 12. Scenario analysis – optimising planting dates 29 years of met data
  13. 13. Generating policy impacts• Developed and implemented stakeholder engagement plans in each country; reviewed every 6 months• At the policy level, targeted key policy makers for regular briefings or workshops; production of policy briefs India: AP Dept. of Rural Development & Dept. of Agriculture – linking CCA to watershed development; Indian Meteorology Dept. – improving delivery and content of agroadvisories Bangladesh: Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Program – using ACCA typology methodology to better target adaptation strategies Cambodia: Climate Change Dept. – ACCA to inform future CCA funding priorities under UNDP PPCR project; Svay Rieng Provincial Dept. of Agriculture – mainstream adaptation strategies into Commune Investment Planning
  14. 14. Generating community impacts• Leverage off NGOs and their other development initiatives: India: WASSAN – roll out climate risk management through the Integrated Watershed Management Program; mainstream CCA into WSD Cambodia: IDE – use Farmer Business Advisor program to disseminate adaptation practices (one FBA services 100-120 farmers; CIDA and EU funding FBA program to train >1000 FBAs)• Train extension services in Laos and Cambodia to disseminate key project techniques
  15. 15. Key linkages to date (ACIAR projects)• Initial exchange between research teams in the ACCA project and the ACIAR rice establishment project (CSE-2009-037) and the ACIAR irrigation water management project (LWR-2009-046), particularly on direct seeding machinery and modelling capacity• Regular interaction with the ACIAR policy project (ASEM-2009- 023, Agricultural policies for the Mekong Region) and the socio- economic sub-project in the South Laos Project (CSE-2009-004), particularly in relation to household typologies• Coordination of on-farm activities with the agronomic sub-project of the South Laos Project (CSE-2009-004)• The SAARC project (LWR-2010-033, Capacity building in systems modelling) shares CSIRO personnel and is creating a critical mass of modelling expertise in Bangladesh
  16. 16. Where to from here?• Use location specific climate projections to test impact of climate change on current cropping systems• Conduct scenario analyses and future-proof current rice farming practices and new adaptation practices using APSIM-ORYZA parameterised for local environments and crop varieties• Use the household typologies and generalised modelling to scale- up from case study sites• Derive design principles and policy recommendations in collaboration with key stakeholders and policy makers• Prepare for midterm review in Oct 2012

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