Building SynergiesGermplasm for Cambodia    Melissa Fitzgerald       IRRI & UQ                         1
Partners           2
BackgroundCambodia                          Australia• In the 1990s, 34 lines were     • 10 years of drought placed  relea...
OpportunitiesCambodia                          Australia• Yield reducers in the rainfed   • Exploring a new set of  season...
Objectives             5
The growing list of traits…..•   Drought tolerance•   Flood tolerance•   Brown plant hopper resistance•   Short duration• ...
Obj 1. Ask the stakeholdersFarmers      Millers        Traders       Consumers Quality       Appearance    Appearance     ...
Objective 2 Cambodian germplasmDry Season• Short duration for dry season• Biotic stress tolerance (weeds, BPH)• QualityWet...
Screening for drought tolerance    Selections made on yield in drought and       quality when grown in the upland   2010  ...
Pressures of selection• Best performing line in  2010 drought trial.• However, it tastes like  rancid socks and its  textu...
PhD project- synergistic spin-off• Population between Apo and  IR64 in 2002 resurrected in  2010, purified and multiplied....
Population development for droughtPRD/CAR3      CAR3/PRD SYNERGY                           • Pops developed in a Gen.     ...
Early duration• Farmers want dry season varieties with early  duration so that they can fit in a rainfed crop  as well.• T...
Duration variation                     14
Screening for duration                   • Selected     2011            on yield64 IRRI lines        and88 INGER lines    ...
Early duration basmati style• Basmati quality includes     BC   AC  aroma and elongation  after cooking (AC) to  double th...
Objective 3: Quality of Cambodian rice• Based on the survey results,  IRRI varieties released last  century were not accep...
Measuring Quality• Aroma, appearance, softness were the important traits.• CARDI now equipped for aroma gene, amylose and ...
Identifying quality PRD/TK        • In August 2012 F5 seed shipped to IRRI                 and UQ.               • IRRI wi...
Spin-off project• In previous project,  found special  compounds in  KDML105 that are  probably in PRD, but  are not in al...
In Australia                                        Pandan wangi:                                       Australia: 7.2 t/h...
Opportunities for connections- quality• Most SE Asian countries like  Cambodian style rice so any  QTLs we find for qualit...
Opportunities for connections-duration       Important in Cambodia, Laos, and Bangladesh                                  ...
Opportunities for connections- drought• The rice-growing regions  of Asia all grow rainfed                                ...
We must remember the consumers!        Bangladesh                      Cambodia                      Lao PDR        Parboi...
Acknowledgements• Project partners: CARDI,  GDA, NSWDPI• ACIAR• CAVAC (Craig Meisner)• IRRI Grain Quality lab.• Supporters...
Climate ready rice – water issues                                   From the makers of• This new film describes         An...
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Building synergies. Germplasm for Cambodia

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Rice-based Systems Research: Regional Technical Workshop June 2012
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
Melissa Fitzgerald IRRI & UQ

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Building synergies. Germplasm for Cambodia

  1. 1. Building SynergiesGermplasm for Cambodia Melissa Fitzgerald IRRI & UQ 1
  2. 2. Partners 2
  3. 3. BackgroundCambodia Australia• In the 1990s, 34 lines were • 10 years of drought placed released in Cambodia in a toll on the Australian rice the CIAP project. industry.• These were not widely • Australia investigated re- adopted, and since then, a opening a rice industry in handful of pure line tropical Northern Australia selections from a traditional using material from Asia for variety have been released. tolerance to biotic stresses.• What was wrong with the • Testing of material in IRRI lines? Acceptability? tropical Australia. 3
  4. 4. OpportunitiesCambodia Australia• Yield reducers in the rainfed • Exploring a new set of season. environmental conditions.• Now a dry season full of • Australia looking for flood yield limiting pests and tolerance and resistance to diseases, and need for early yield reducers and limiters. generation and new • The Australian rice industry practices. is highly mechanised.• Opportunities for • Opportunity to test improving agronomic traits performance in a as well as market traits. mechanised situation. 4
  5. 5. Objectives 5
  6. 6. The growing list of traits…..• Drought tolerance• Flood tolerance• Brown plant hopper resistance• Short duration• Quality of rainfed rice• Quality and market information for DS rice.• New agronomic management strategies for DS and RF rice. – Direct seeding – Fertiliser use – Certified Seed – Pesticide application 6
  7. 7. Obj 1. Ask the stakeholdersFarmers Millers Traders Consumers Quality Appearance Appearance Appearance Duration Breakage Aroma Aroma Tolerance Softness Softness 7
  8. 8. Objective 2 Cambodian germplasmDry Season• Short duration for dry season• Biotic stress tolerance (weeds, BPH)• QualityWet season• Drought tolerance• Submergence tolerance• Quality 8
  9. 9. Screening for drought tolerance Selections made on yield in drought and quality when grown in the upland 2010 2011 2012 398 61 42 lines lines lines The 42 selected lines are now being grown in drought trials at 3 locations 9
  10. 10. Pressures of selection• Best performing line in 2010 drought trial.• However, it tastes like rancid socks and its texture is like wet cardboard.• Rejected on the basis of quality.• A great shame to see such a good plant type lost to the project. 10
  11. 11. PhD project- synergistic spin-off• Population between Apo and IR64 in 2002 resurrected in 2010, purified and multiplied.• Drought trial now harvested.• Interesting volatile compounds.• Genotyped at 4000 loci, sensory panel and Volatile compounds IR64 Apo metabolomic profiling underway.• Aim to identify tools to put IR64 grain on an Apo plant. 11
  12. 12. Population development for droughtPRD/CAR3 CAR3/PRD SYNERGY • Pops developed in a Gen. # Gen. # previous project. BC3F6 39 BC3F7 18 • Resurrected and BC4F2 23 BC4F8 1 multiplied for this BC5F2 53 project. • Now growing in a replicated drought trial at CARDI with harvest in June. • 8 new crosses made. 12
  13. 13. Early duration• Farmers want dry season varieties with early duration so that they can fit in a rainfed crop as well.• The early duration varieties are all exported to markets on the Arabian Peninsula, but don’t go through the normal export channels.• Vietnam exports this harvest.• The Arab states primarily consume basmati rice. 13
  14. 14. Duration variation 14
  15. 15. Screening for duration • Selected 2011 on yield64 IRRI lines and88 INGER lines duration 2012 • 8 outyielded 38 at 2 locations check, but 398 lines tested 10d longer 30 incl 2 on farm duration. 2012 8 at 3 locations • Multiple 197 lines tested locations. 12 INGER 66 BPH 15
  16. 16. Early duration basmati style• Basmati quality includes BC AC aroma and elongation after cooking (AC) to double that of BC.• 4 out of 17 aromatic lines elongated with right ratio.• These 4 are being tested in replicated trials. 16
  17. 17. Objective 3: Quality of Cambodian rice• Based on the survey results, IRRI varieties released last century were not accepted by SE Asian jas Basmatis Cambodian consumers.• Most of IRRI’s fragrant germplasm probably had a basmati parent, and not be acceptable to jasmine consumers.• New research tools enable fragrance of jasmine and basmati to be identified. 17
  18. 18. Measuring Quality• Aroma, appearance, softness were the important traits.• CARDI now equipped for aroma gene, amylose and appearance measurement.Training on IRRI’sinstruments.IRRI GQ stafftraining CARDIstaff. 18
  19. 19. Identifying quality PRD/TK • In August 2012 F5 seed shipped to IRRI and UQ. • IRRI will extract DNA and send pop for genotyping (3-4000 loci), and do many measures of quality and rheology. • Seeds shipped to UQ for metabolomic profiling of compounds for taste and flavour. • Sensory profiling will be done at IRRI or UQ.470 progenynow at F4 • Aim to find QTLs for Cambodian quality. 19
  20. 20. Spin-off project• In previous project, found special compounds in KDML105 that are probably in PRD, but are not in all fragrant rices.• Aim to find genes for these other aromatic compounds unique to jasmine rice. 20
  21. 21. In Australia Pandan wangi: Australia: 7.2 t/ha• Testing Australian and project Indonesia: 3-4 t/ha varieties in Northern Australia.• Finding good yield, low pressure from biotic stresses in the dry season.• Genetic and environmental differences in yield and duration under aerobic conditions.• Need to work out a way to get quality evaluation done outside the quarantine area – me at UQ? 21
  22. 22. Opportunities for connections- quality• Most SE Asian countries like Cambodian style rice so any QTLs we find for quality will be useful elsewhere.• Rice along the Mekong is soft textured and we are on the cusp of identifying the gene that makes them so soft.• This will have immediate application in SE Asian breeding programs. 22
  23. 23. Opportunities for connections-duration Important in Cambodia, Laos, and Bangladesh 23
  24. 24. Opportunities for connections- drought• The rice-growing regions of Asia all grow rainfed RF one season rice. =25000 ha• If this and the related projects find drought resistant germplasm and tools to create market- appropriate versions, the RF double season application could be =25000 ha huge. 24
  25. 25. We must remember the consumers! Bangladesh Cambodia Lao PDR Parboiled rice Glass-like rice Waxy riceFirm-texture and very springy Aromatic and soft cooking Aromatic and soft and sticky Boiled in excess water Cooked by absorbing Steamed above boiling particular amount of water water 25
  26. 26. Acknowledgements• Project partners: CARDI, GDA, NSWDPI• ACIAR• CAVAC (Craig Meisner)• IRRI Grain Quality lab.• Supporters of spin-off projects – Monsanto Beachell Borlaug – GRiSS – UQ – UWageningen 26
  27. 27. Climate ready rice – water issues From the makers of• This new film describes An Inconvenient Truth with frightening clarity, the fragility of our future http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =fLE3i92LkQk water supply.• Our duty to our children’s children is to ensure that popular rice varieties use a lot less water than they do at the moment. 27

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