Cells Chapter 7
The size range of cells
Why are cells so small? Small cells have a high surface area to volume ratio which allows more stuff to move in and out of...
CELL THEORY <ul><li>Living organisms are composed of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest unit of li...
ALL CELLS HAVE <ul><li>Plasma membrane  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm  </li></ul><ul>...
TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
Prokaryotic Cells <ul><li>DNA in nucleoid region </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>No nucle...
Plasma Membrane aka:  The Gate-keeper
Overview of an Animal Cell
Overview of a Plant Cell
Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes Digests macromolecules Breaks down dead organelles pH ~ 5
Formation & Function of Lysosomes
Formation & Function of Lysosomes
Formation & Function of Lysosomes
The Endomembrane System
Mitochondria Site of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
Chloroplast Site of Photosynthesis Converts energy from sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar
Central Vacuole:  Plant Cells Stores Water Waste Nutrients Makes plant cell turgid
Peroxisomes Produce and break down H 2 O 2 Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Network of fibers throughout cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Gives cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Holds org...
 
Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton Changing shape Cilia movement Flagella movement Organelles move along microtubule or microf...
Centrosomes & Centrioles <ul><li>Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centriole:  9x3 ring of microtub...
Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella 9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules Covered in plasma membrane Basal Body Anchors cilia/ ...
Wave Back and forth
Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Powered by ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Dynein arms grip adjacent microtubule <...
Microfilaments (actin filaments) <ul><li>Pulling force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Extracellular Matrix
Plant Cell Walls <ul><li>Protects cell </li></ul><ul><li>Gives cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents excessive uptake of H...
Cell Junctions in Animal Cells Fuses membranes Strong sheets Pass ions and small molecules
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Ch.7 cell

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Ch.7 cell

  1. 1. Cells Chapter 7
  2. 2. The size range of cells
  3. 3. Why are cells so small? Small cells have a high surface area to volume ratio which allows more stuff to move in and out of the cell
  4. 4. CELL THEORY <ul><li>Living organisms are composed of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the smallest unit of life </li></ul><ul><li>Cells come from other cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. ALL CELLS HAVE <ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watery stuff inside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic material </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
  7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells <ul><li>DNA in nucleoid region </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul>
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane aka: The Gate-keeper
  9. 9. Overview of an Animal Cell
  10. 10. Overview of a Plant Cell
  11. 11. Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
  12. 12. Ribosomes
  13. 13. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  14. 14. Golgi Apparatus
  15. 15. Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes Digests macromolecules Breaks down dead organelles pH ~ 5
  16. 16. Formation & Function of Lysosomes
  17. 17. Formation & Function of Lysosomes
  18. 18. Formation & Function of Lysosomes
  19. 19. The Endomembrane System
  20. 20. Mitochondria Site of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
  21. 21. Chloroplast Site of Photosynthesis Converts energy from sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar
  22. 22. Central Vacuole: Plant Cells Stores Water Waste Nutrients Makes plant cell turgid
  23. 23. Peroxisomes Produce and break down H 2 O 2 Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
  24. 24. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Network of fibers throughout cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Gives cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Holds organelles in place </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in movement & changing shape </li></ul>
  25. 26. Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton Changing shape Cilia movement Flagella movement Organelles move along microtubule or microfilament Ex: Vesicle transport
  26. 27. Centrosomes & Centrioles <ul><li>Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centriole: 9x3 ring of microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microtubules grow out of centrosome </li></ul><ul><li>Most plant cells lack centrioles </li></ul>
  27. 28. Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella 9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules Covered in plasma membrane Basal Body Anchors cilia/ flagella to cell 9x3 ring of microtubules
  28. 29. Wave Back and forth
  29. 30. Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Powered by ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Dynein arms grip adjacent microtubule </li></ul><ul><li>Grip, pull, release – repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Results in bending of microtubules </li></ul>
  30. 31. Microfilaments (actin filaments) <ul><li>Pulling force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasmic streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudopodia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part of Extracellular Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside of cell membrane </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Extracellular Matrix
  32. 33. Plant Cell Walls <ul><li>Protects cell </li></ul><ul><li>Gives cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents excessive uptake of H20 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary, secondary walls </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmodesmata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell to cell communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm continuous from one cell to other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle lamella cements cells together </li></ul>
  33. 34. Cell Junctions in Animal Cells Fuses membranes Strong sheets Pass ions and small molecules

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