QUESTION 1You are sitting by a lake, you drop a leaf on thelake and notice that it floats on the top of thewater, which of...
QUESTION 2The formation of large, repetitive organic  molecules from small monomers is a __________  reaction.A) dehydrati...
QUESTION 3Carbon is such an important molecule for life because:A)it can form chemical bonds with a maximum of        four...
QUESTION 4Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy  storage by:A)moneraB)fungiC)plantsD)animals
QUESTION 5Which of the following solutions has the greatestconcentration of hydrogen ions (H+)?A) gastric juice at pH 2B) ...
Proteins and Nucleic AcidsKEY WORDS:ProteinPolypeptideAmino AcidEssential Amino AcidDenature1°, 2°, 3°, 4° StructureNuclei...
Types of Proteins               See Table 5.1                  Structural    Storage                      EnzymesTransport...
Proteins           Subunit = amino acid  Amino acids have three parts:1. Amino group      2. R group    3. Carboxyl group
Figure 5.15 The 20 amino acids of proteins: nonpolar
Figure 5.15 The 20 amino acids of proteins: polar and electrically charged
Linking Amino AcidsDehydration synthesis: forms a covalent bond –A Peptide BondCreates a polypeptide
Figure 5.16 Making a polypeptide chain
How are proteins able to do so        many things?20 different kinds amino acids - different R-groups Non-polar           ...
Scrabble AnalogyCarbohydrates: Glucose   Proteins: 20 amino acids                                           E1   G1   G1  ...
Proteins Fold into Active Shape      Protein function depends on shapeFour Levels of Structure:Primary          1°Secondar...
Primary (1°) StructureSequence of amino acids in polypeptide
Figure 5.18 The primary structure of a protein
Secondary (2°) StructureFolds in part of amino acid chain: Hydrogen bondsβ- pleated sheet                       α-helix
Tertiary (3°) Structure3D Packing of Polypeptides: More hydrogen bonds
Figure 5.22 Examples of interactions contributing to the tertiary structure of a protein
Quaternary (4°) Structure Interactions between 2+ polypeptides
Figure 5.23 The quaternary structure of proteins
Figure 5.24 Review: the four levels of protein structure
Figure 5.17 Conformation of a protein, the enzyme lysozyme
Figure 5.26 A chaperonin in action
Denatured Proteins•Proteins can be unfolded = denatured•Can affect the behavior of the protein
What can cause proteins to              denature?                      ChemicalspHHeat
Shape is critical for protein         interactionsEXAMPLE:Hemoglobin•4 Polypeptides•Binds Iron•Oxygen transport
Protein Folding and DiseaseMany diseases caused by incorrect protein foldingMad Cow DiseaseAlzheimersCystic FibrosisParkin...
Figure 5.19 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease
Figure 5.19x Sickled cells
Diet: Essential Amino Acids• 20 different amino acids• All living things have protein• 8 Essential Amino Acids can not be ...
Essential Amino Acids
Dietary Protein Consumption  Recommended Daily Allowances  Adult Man     (0.9g/kg)  Adult Woman   (0.8g/kg)  pounds/2.2 = ...
QUESTIONWhich of the following is contains all 8essential amino acids?1. Wheat2. Soy beans3. Brown rice4. Corn5. None of t...
Lipoproteins & GlycoproteinsLIPOPROTEINS-Lipid + Protein-Used for transport of fats throughout the body   -Example: HDL an...
QUESTIONThe myoglobin protein, which carries oxygen  in muscle cells, only has the first three  levels of protein structur...
NUCLEIC ACIDS• Nucleic acids include RNA and  DNA• Polymers made up of repeating  monomers called nucleotides.
Figure 5.x3 James Watson and Francis Crick
Figure 5.x4 Rosalind Franklin
Figure 5.27 X-ray crystallography
NUCLEOTIDES            3 Main Components:• 5-Carbon Sugar  (Pentose):  RNA ribose,  DNA deoxyribose• Phosphate Group• Nitr...
Nucleotides: Important Energy     Storage Molecules• Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): acts like  cell’s battery, providing en...
RNA and DNASIMILARITIES:• 5-carbon sugar• Phosphate groupDIFFERENCES:• Nucleotides   – DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Th...
Nucleic Acid Synthesis• Nucleotides joined by  dehydration synthesis• Covalent bond forms  between PHOSPHATE  GROUP and SU...
Structure of DNA
Figure 5.29 The components of nucleic acids
Figure 5.30 The DNA double helix and its replication
Figure 5.28 DNA   RNA   protein: a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a                                     cell
Table 5.2 Polypeptide Sequence as Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships
Nucleotides are to ____ as ____are to proteins.• Nucleic acids; amino acids• Amino acids; polypeptides• Glycosidic linkage...
The structural level of a protein leastaffected by a disruption inhydrogen bonding is• Primary• Secondary• Tertiary• Quate...
Which of the following is not aprotein?• Hemoglobin• cholesterol• An antibody• An enzyme• insulin
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Ch.5 proteins and nucleic acids

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  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • pH = sour milk Heat = sweaters Chemicals = perms
  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • Hard to overstate the importance of proteins. Carbos, lipids, nucleic acids mostly for storage of structural support
  • Ch.5 proteins and nucleic acids

    1. 1. QUESTION 1You are sitting by a lake, you drop a leaf on thelake and notice that it floats on the top of thewater, which of the following properties of watercould help explain what you observe?A) It is more dense when liquid than when frozen.B) It can dissolve large quantities of solutes.C) It has a high specific heat.D) It has a strong surface tension.E) None of these can explain what you observe.
    2. 2. QUESTION 2The formation of large, repetitive organic molecules from small monomers is a __________ reaction.A) dehydration synthesisB) reductionC) dehydrogenationD) hydrolysis
    3. 3. QUESTION 3Carbon is such an important molecule for life because:A)it can form chemical bonds with a maximum of four other atoms.B) it is part of the water molecule.C) it can hydrogen bond to so many molecules.D) it can be bonded ionically.E) it can form isomers.
    4. 4. QUESTION 4Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by:A)moneraB)fungiC)plantsD)animals
    5. 5. QUESTION 5Which of the following solutions has the greatestconcentration of hydrogen ions (H+)?A) gastric juice at pH 2B) black coffee at pH 5C) vinegar at pH 3D) tomato juice at pH 4E) household bleach at pH 12
    6. 6. Proteins and Nucleic AcidsKEY WORDS:ProteinPolypeptideAmino AcidEssential Amino AcidDenature1°, 2°, 3°, 4° StructureNucleic AcidNucleotideDNARNA
    7. 7. Types of Proteins See Table 5.1 Structural Storage EnzymesTransport Hormones Receptor Antibodies Contractile
    8. 8. Proteins Subunit = amino acid Amino acids have three parts:1. Amino group 2. R group 3. Carboxyl group
    9. 9. Figure 5.15 The 20 amino acids of proteins: nonpolar
    10. 10. Figure 5.15 The 20 amino acids of proteins: polar and electrically charged
    11. 11. Linking Amino AcidsDehydration synthesis: forms a covalent bond –A Peptide BondCreates a polypeptide
    12. 12. Figure 5.16 Making a polypeptide chain
    13. 13. How are proteins able to do so many things?20 different kinds amino acids - different R-groups Non-polar Polar Charged -O
    14. 14. Scrabble AnalogyCarbohydrates: Glucose Proteins: 20 amino acids E1 G1 G1 G1 • Glutamine • Isoleucine I1 G1 G1 G1 • Asparagine N1 • Serine S1Hard to make more than • Threonine T1 one word • Lysine K5 • Arginine R1
    15. 15. Proteins Fold into Active Shape Protein function depends on shapeFour Levels of Structure:Primary 1°Secondary 2°Tertiary 3°Quaternary 4°
    16. 16. Primary (1°) StructureSequence of amino acids in polypeptide
    17. 17. Figure 5.18 The primary structure of a protein
    18. 18. Secondary (2°) StructureFolds in part of amino acid chain: Hydrogen bondsβ- pleated sheet α-helix
    19. 19. Tertiary (3°) Structure3D Packing of Polypeptides: More hydrogen bonds
    20. 20. Figure 5.22 Examples of interactions contributing to the tertiary structure of a protein
    21. 21. Quaternary (4°) Structure Interactions between 2+ polypeptides
    22. 22. Figure 5.23 The quaternary structure of proteins
    23. 23. Figure 5.24 Review: the four levels of protein structure
    24. 24. Figure 5.17 Conformation of a protein, the enzyme lysozyme
    25. 25. Figure 5.26 A chaperonin in action
    26. 26. Denatured Proteins•Proteins can be unfolded = denatured•Can affect the behavior of the protein
    27. 27. What can cause proteins to denature? ChemicalspHHeat
    28. 28. Shape is critical for protein interactionsEXAMPLE:Hemoglobin•4 Polypeptides•Binds Iron•Oxygen transport
    29. 29. Protein Folding and DiseaseMany diseases caused by incorrect protein foldingMad Cow DiseaseAlzheimersCystic FibrosisParkinson’s DiseaseSickle Cell AnemiaArthritisMarfan SyndromeALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)CancerDiabetes Insipidus
    30. 30. Figure 5.19 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease
    31. 31. Figure 5.19x Sickled cells
    32. 32. Diet: Essential Amino Acids• 20 different amino acids• All living things have protein• 8 Essential Amino Acids can not be synthesized by our bodies - must be found in diet• All 8 essential amino acids are present in animal protein and soy beans
    33. 33. Essential Amino Acids
    34. 34. Dietary Protein Consumption Recommended Daily Allowances Adult Man (0.9g/kg) Adult Woman (0.8g/kg) pounds/2.2 = kg Typical American Diet Adult Man 92 g/ day Adult Woman 60 g/ day
    35. 35. QUESTIONWhich of the following is contains all 8essential amino acids?1. Wheat2. Soy beans3. Brown rice4. Corn5. None of these
    36. 36. Lipoproteins & GlycoproteinsLIPOPROTEINS-Lipid + Protein-Used for transport of fats throughout the body -Example: HDL and LDL CholesterolGLYCOPROTEINS-Carbohydrate + Protein-Receptors on the surface of cells
    37. 37. QUESTIONThe myoglobin protein, which carries oxygen in muscle cells, only has the first three levels of protein structure (it lacks a quaternary level). From this you can conclude that myglobin:a)Is made of nucleic acidsb)Is made of only one polypeptide chainc)Lacks hydrogen bondsd)Is not helical or pleatede)Is a fiber
    38. 38. NUCLEIC ACIDS• Nucleic acids include RNA and DNA• Polymers made up of repeating monomers called nucleotides.
    39. 39. Figure 5.x3 James Watson and Francis Crick
    40. 40. Figure 5.x4 Rosalind Franklin
    41. 41. Figure 5.27 X-ray crystallography
    42. 42. NUCLEOTIDES 3 Main Components:• 5-Carbon Sugar (Pentose): RNA ribose, DNA deoxyribose• Phosphate Group• Nitrogen-containing base
    43. 43. Nucleotides: Important Energy Storage Molecules• Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): acts like cell’s battery, providing energy for most activities.
    44. 44. RNA and DNASIMILARITIES:• 5-carbon sugar• Phosphate groupDIFFERENCES:• Nucleotides – DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine – RNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil• Sugar – DNA: Deoxyribose – RNA: Ribose
    45. 45. Nucleic Acid Synthesis• Nucleotides joined by dehydration synthesis• Covalent bond forms between PHOSPHATE GROUP and SUGAR
    46. 46. Structure of DNA
    47. 47. Figure 5.29 The components of nucleic acids
    48. 48. Figure 5.30 The DNA double helix and its replication
    49. 49. Figure 5.28 DNA RNA protein: a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell
    50. 50. Table 5.2 Polypeptide Sequence as Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships
    51. 51. Nucleotides are to ____ as ____are to proteins.• Nucleic acids; amino acids• Amino acids; polypeptides• Glycosidic linkages; polypeptide linkages• Genes; enzymes• Polymers; polypeptides
    52. 52. The structural level of a protein leastaffected by a disruption inhydrogen bonding is• Primary• Secondary• Tertiary• Quaternary• All equally affected
    53. 53. Which of the following is not aprotein?• Hemoglobin• cholesterol• An antibody• An enzyme• insulin

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